Mikko's Phylogeny Archive

PanicMain Groups of Organisms

  Main Groups of Chordates  

 

These are the major classes or groups of Chordates. Some groups are in stricly sense paraphyletic.

CHORDATA (selkäjänteiset; chordates)

    ?†Calcichordata [Mitrata] [problematic, possibly echinodermates]
    Urochordata (vaippaeläimet; seasquids)
        Sorberacea
        Larvacea (pyrstökkäät)
        Thaliacea (salpat)
            Pyrosomida (tulitelat)
            Cyclomyaria (meritynnyrit)
            Desmomyaria (salpat)
        Ascidiacea (meritupet)
            Aplousbranchiata (runkokuntameritupet)
            Phelobobranchiata (meritupet)
            Stolidobranchiata ()?
    Cephalochordata (kallottomat selkäjänteiset)
        Acrania (suikulaiset)
            Amphioxiformes (suikulaiset)
    Craniata (kallolliset; craniates)
        Myxini [Hyperotreti] (limanahkiaiset; hagfishes)
            Myxiniformes (hagfishes; limanahkiaiskalat)
        Vertebrata (selkärankaiset; vertebrates)
            Hyperoartia (nahkiaiskalat)
                PetromyzontiformesConodonta (konodontit; conodonts)
                †ParaconodontiCaviodontiProtoconodontidaConodonti Pander, 1856
                    †ProtopanderodontidaPrioniodontida Dzik, 1976 [paraphyletic]
                    †Ozarkodinida Dzik, 1976
            †Pteraspidomorphi [Diplorhina] ("kaksisieraimiset")
                †AnatolepidaArandaspida Ritchie & Gilbert-Tomlinson, 1977
                †Heterostracimorphi Lankester, 1868
                    †Astraspida Berg, 1940
                    †Eriptychiida Tarlo, 1962
                    †Heterostraci Lankester, 1868
                        †TraquairaspidiformesTolypelepidida Denison, 1964
                        †CynthaspidiformesPteraspidiformes Berg, 1940
            †Anaspida (anaspids)
                †Jaymotiiformes Tarlo, 1967
                †Birkeniida Berg, 1937
            †Galeaspida (galeaspids)
                †EugaleaspidiformesPolybranchiaspididaPolybranchiaspidiformesHuananaspidiformesOsteostraci (osteostracans)
                    †TannuaspididaCornuata Janvier, 1985b
                        †Zenaspidida (Stensiö, 1958) Janvier, 1985b?
                        †Benneviaspidida Halstead Tarlo, 1967 sensu Janvier, 1985b
                        †ThyestiidaKiaeraspididaThelodonti (telodontit; thelodonts)
                †Katoporida Gross, 1967 [=? Phlebolepidiformes Berg, 1937]
                †Thelodontida Kiaer, 1932 non Stensiö, 1958 [Thelodontiformes; Coelolepidiformes Berg, 1937]
            Gnathostomata (leualliset selkärankaiset; jawed vertebrates)
                †Placodermi (panssarikalat)
                Chondrichthyes (sharks & rays; rustokalat)
                Teleostomi ()
                    †Acanthodii (piikkieväkalat)
                    Osteichthyes (bonefishes, luukalat)
                        Actinopterygii (viuhkaeväiset luukalat; ray-finned fishes)
                        Sarcopterygii (lihaseväiset luukalat; flesh-finned fishes)
                            Tetrapoda (terrestrial vertebrates, maaselkärankaiset)

Reference(s):

Carroll, R. L., 1988: Vertebrate paleontology and evolution.
–W. H. Freeman and company, New York, 1988, 698

Carroll, R. L., 1988: Appendix. 594-648
in Carroll, R. L., 1988: Vertebrate paleontology and evolution.
–W. H. Freeman and company, New York, 1988, 698

Conway Morris, S., 1993: The fossil record and early evolution of the Metazoa.
–Nature, vol. 361, 21 January, pp. 219-225

Janvier , P., 1997: Craniata - Animals with skulls
–iNet: The Tree of Life Project: http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Craniata&contgroup=Chordata

Janvier , P., 1997: Vertebrata - Animals with backbones.
–iNet : The Tree of Life Project; http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Vertebrata&contgroup=Craniata

Lundberg, J. G., 1995-1997: Chordata
–iNet: The Tree of Life Project: http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Chordata&contgroup=Deuterostomia

Long, J. A., 1995: The Rise of Fishes: 500 million years of evolution.
–Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London, pp. 1-223

Nelson, J. S., 1994: Fishes of the world.
–John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1994, xx-600

 

© Mikko Haaramo,

/ Last updated 2003-08-22 / http://www.helsinki.fi/~mhaaramo