VIExpert opetusohjelma 2022-2023
VIExpert-asiantuntijaopintojen monitieteisessä opetusohjelmassa kootaan yhteen verkoston yliopistojen opetustarjonta kattavaksi kokonaisuudeksi, josta VIExpert-opiskelijat valitsevat oman asiantuntemuksensa kehittämisen kannalta mielekkäät opinnot.

VIExpert-opiskelijoilla on vapaa pääsy kaikille verkoston tarjoamille kursseille. Kursseille on ilmoittauduttava ennakkoon. Muistathan aina rekisteröidä kurssisi HY:n Sisussa. Ohjeet kurssi-ilmoittautumiselle ja Sisun käytölle löytyvät täältä.

Ilmoittaudu muiden kuin oman yliopistosi ja HY:n kursseille elomakkeella. Syksyn 2022 ilmoittautumispäivät ovat 26.8. / 30.9. / 8.11. ja kevään 2023 21.12.2022 / 15.2. / 15.3. /17.4.

Syksy 2022 - etäopetus/hybridikurssit / Fall 2022 - online/hybrid courses

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place Online course 14.9.-21.10.2022
Wed 12:15-13:45 and Fri 10:15-11:45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content    
Learning goals
Upon completion of the course, students will be able to:
• explain the concepts of ‘conspiracy theory’ and ‘conspiratorial thinking’
• analyse selected conspiracy theories
• examine functions of conspiracy theories, particularly in the V4 countries
• compare the use of conspiracy theories across the V4 countries
• argue the significance of conspiracy theories for the ‘illiberal’ turn in CEE
• design, carry out and present a small-scale research project that demonstrates critical literacy skills

Course outline
This course deals with conspiracy theories as a prominent element of the political and cultural life in contemporary information-rich societies. Using the Visegrád Four (V4) countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) as case studies, we explore the connection between conspiracy theories and the ‘illiberal’, populist turn – one of the key recent developments in the CEE region – to gain an insight into ‘conspiratorial thinking’ as a distinct mode of understanding on which illiberalism hinges.

The course comprises twelve sessions:
1. Introduction: What are conspiracy theories? (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
2. Reading seminar: Theoretical perspectives on, and analytical approaches to, conspiracy theories (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
3. Examples of conspiracy theories in global politics and culture (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
4. Strategies for counteracting conspiracy theories (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
5. Introduction to the Visegrád Four (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
6. Case study I: Conspiracy theories in Hungary (Annastiina Kallius)
7. Case study II: Conspiracy theories in the Czech Republic (Ilana Hartikainen)
8. Case study III: Conspiracy theories in Slovakia (Ilana Hartikainen)
9. Case study IV: Conspiracy theories in Poland) (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
10. Concluding session: The role of conspiracy theories in the V4 countries (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
11. Groupwork I: Poster development (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)
12. Groupwork II: Poster presentations (Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius)

Lectures, reading, individual essay (60 %) + group project (40%)

Moodle course area including a link to an online meeting room will become available for students on the starting day of the course.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 24.10.-9.12.2022

Mon 24.10. 9-12 and 13-16 Virta 327 seminarhall 15
Mon 31.10. 9-12 and 13-16 Virta 327 seminarhall 15
Mon 7.11. 9-12 and 13-16 Virta 327 seminarhall 15
Mon 21.11. 9-12 Virta 327 seminarhall 15 and 13-16 Virta 338
Mon 28.11. 9-12 and 13-16 Virta 327 seminarhall 15
Mon 5.12. 9-11 Virta 327 seminarhall 15

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Zsuzsanna Millei, Nelli Piattoeva

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content    

This cross-disciplinary course is designed for bachelor, masters and doctoral students of education, social sciences and the humanities. The course offers understandings of the wider socio-political matrices of power and everyday life in the post-socialist societies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union through the lens of childhood politics and experiences. Childhood and children’s lives, as the politics, policies and experiences of any other marginalised groups, such as migrants, ethnic or religious groups and so on, provide fertile ground to study and learn about contemporary society or from a historical perspective. By using various forms of learning - such as seminars, lectures given by international speakers, collective theorizing, childhood memory workshops, and art engagements - the course focuses on the political history of the region, child institutions and policies, complex power hierarchies, and the everyday life within which children lead their lives. The course highlights the multiple histories and geopolitical diversity of the region, the variety of socialist and postsocialist conditions, political life and its transformations. The course connects closely with the Memories of Everyday Childhoods: Decolonial and De-Cold War dialogues on childhood and schooling

This course offers knowledge, memory workshop and art engagement to

  • understand the complex, diverse and often contradictory relations between political history of the region, complex power hierarchies, child institutions and policies, and the everyday life of ordinary people, particularly of children
  • recognise the multiple histories and geopolitical diversity of the region, and the variety of socialist and post-socialist conditions, political life, and its transformations after the end of Cold War
  • examine similarities and differences in the actual realities of children’s lives and everyday experiences during the Cold War and its aftermath on both sides of the Iron Curtain
  • engage with one’s own memories of childhood and through an art process with the study of (post)socialist countries and people’s lives therein

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 12.09.2022-17.10.2022

12.09.2022 14.15 - 15.45
19.09.2022 14.15 - 15.45
26.09.2022 14.15 - 15.45
03.10.2022 14.15 - 15.45
10.10.2022 14.15 - 15.45
17.10.2022 14.15 - 15.45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Mariya Riekkinen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content    
Lectures will be held via Zoom as live video streaming. Lectures include interactive assignments in chat boxes. A compulsory part of the course is supervised essay writing (5-8 pages). Self study (reading/seeking information). Take-home examination via Moodle

Lecture 1. International law in Russian legal order: constitutional
settings and practices
Lecture 2. Russia and ECHR: landmarks since 1996
Lecture 3. The law (?) of the CIS. Interstate relationships
Lecture 4. Elections and Public Administration against the background
of the ICCPR and ECHR
Lecture 5. Non-Discrimination. Rights of the Child: against the
background of the CRC and the ECHR

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 7.9.–7.12.2022

Verkkokurssi ke 7.9.2022–ke 7.12.2022

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Sari Autio-Sarasmo

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content -    
Lisätietoa / More information Kanditasoinen kurssi; Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 5.9.–21.11.2022
Mon 10:15-12:00
Online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Julia Gerlach

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Central and Eastern Europe as well as the former Soviet Union have been ‘on the move’ for several decades. Regional migration trends after 1989/1991 have been strongly influenced by multiple coexisting and intersecting public cultures including shared statehood histories (legacies), the emergence of newly independent republics (nation-building and nationalization) and states entering both the regional and global arena, and regional and international markets in-the-making (regionalisation, globalization and denationalisation).

The course aims to provide a sound overview of the phenomena of migration in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union with a focus on region-specific migration patterns (labor, conflict, return and repatriation, and movements to cities and growth poles) as well as on the impact on both individual and collective levels.

Learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students will:
- be familiar with approaches to and phenomena of migration;
- be familiar with the most important migration regimes and migration trends from/ to/ within Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union;
- be able to analyze migration patterns;
- be familiar with the most relevant political, social, and economic contexts of migration in and for the region;
- be able to analyze the relevant challenges;
- understand the impact of migration on different levels.

Moodle course area including a link to an online meeting room will become available for students on the starting day of the course.

Please note that there will be six live online lectures (see schedule below). For four lectures you will have lecture materials to be studied independently.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 12.9.-24.10.2022
Ma 14:15-15:45 Metsätalo sali 18

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Vesa Oittinen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Luento 1.  Esihistoriaa: Narodnikkilaisuus – Tshernyshevski – Herzen – narodnikkilaisuuden vaiheet – Marxin omat arviot Venäjän kehityksestä – N. K. Mihailovski – Lopatin, Danielson ym. Marxin venäläiset ystävät – marxilaisuuden tulo Venäjälle – Plehanovin Nashi raznoglasija teoreettisena tilintekona narodnikkilaisuuteen;

Luento 2. Ns. legaalinen marxismi – VSDTP perustetaan; pian jako kahteen (bolshevikit vs. menshevikit) – kummankin suuntauksen luonnehdintaa – Lenin – Leninin taistelu Bogdanovia ja tämän ”empiriomonismia” vastaan: Materialismi ja empiriokritisismi (1909) – Leninin Hegel-reseptio (Filosofian vihot 1914—1915) – muita bolshevismin varhaisia teoreetikkoja (Buharin)

Luento 3. Varhaisen Neuvostoliiton filosofit – marxismi hegemoniseen asemaan – 1920-luvun tilanne: ”mekanistit” vs. ”dialektikot” (Deborinin koulukunta) – Pod Znamenem Marksizma-lehti ja sen merkitys – 20-luvun väittelyiden kuvausta; kysymys dialektiikasta ja materialismista – Spinoza-juhlavuosi 1927

Luento 4. Käänne 1930 – kampanja ”menshevisoivaa idealismia” vastaan, Stalinin kannustama filosofian ”bolshevisointi” – sen seuraus: diamatin kanonisointi – ”Suuri terrori” 1937 – Buharinin oikeudenkäynti – Buharinin ”vankilavihot”: Filosofisia arabeskeja (1937) – Filosofian kuolleet vuodet 1940-luvulla – vuoden 1948 filosofinen väittely ja Andrei Zhdanovin kannsutama käänen ”neuvostopatriotismiin” myös filosofiassa – Mihail Lifshitsin toiminta

Luento 5. Filosofisen ajattelun elpyminen 1950-luvulla – neuvostoliittolainen ”Marx-renessanssi” (Marxin Pääoman lähiluku): Iljenkov, Zinovjev ym. – diamatin enemmän tai vähemmän varovainen kritiikki alkaa – uusia koulukuntia alkaa muotoutua – neuvostopsykologian kulttuurihistoriallinen koulukunta(Vygotski, Leontjev ym.) ja sen filosofinen tausta

Luento 6. Neuvostofilosofian parhaat vuodet 60-luvulla – Iljenkov ja dialektinen logiikka – Iljenkovin ”ideaalisen” käsite – ”toimintateoreettinen” suuntaus (dejatel’nostnyi podhod) neuvostofilosofiassa ja sen saavutukset – B.M. Kedrov ja tieteenfilosofia – Vadim Mezhujev ja kulttuurin filosofia – Genrih Batishtshevin Iljenkov-kritiikki – T. I. Oizermanin filosofianhistoriallinen projekti

Luento 7. Stagnaation kausi Brezhnevin aikana – marxilaisuuden arvostus vähenee, filosofinen ajattelu alkaa olla de facto jo marxismista riippumatonta – ”60-lukulaiset” (shestidesjatniki) modifioituvat ”neuvostoliberaaleiksi” – Aleksandr Zinovjev – perestroika 1985 alkaen; perestroikan ajan kritiikki aiempaa filosofista ajattelua kohtaan – NL:n romahdus 1991 ja neuvostofilosofian äkillinen loppu – retrospektiivinen yleiskatsaus, neuvostofilosofia omana historiallisesti ainutlaatuisena ”filosofisena kulttuurina”

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 31.10.–14.12.2022
Online course
Mon and Wed 10:15-11:45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marina Vulovic

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals
Students will be able to

  • Summarize the main converging and diverging points between transformations in different Balkan countries.
  • Interpret the main trends in literature on post-Yugoslav transformation: democratization theory, populism and nationalism theory, media freedom, transitional justice, conflict and legacies of war etc.
  • Demonstrate this understanding in classroom activities.
  • Formulate own topic of interest and produce final assignment that combines concepts from the course with independent research.

Course outline
This course deals with the politics of transition and transformation in the Balkans after the dissolution of Yugoslavia. It will address theories of such transformations, namely nationalism, populism, democratization, state-building, media freedom, transitional justice, conflict and legacies of war etc. It will also look at the individual post-Yu countries from a case-study angle, showing the different transformation trajectories of the region's countries. The students will have an opportunity to formulate their own topic of interest and follow that focus throughout the course by choosing some of their readings and deepening these insights in the final essay. The course involves independent study, but offers group activities as well, such as group discussions in class and forum reflections.

Structure of the course:

L 1 - Introduction
L 2 - Nationalism
L 3 - Conflict and peace-building
L 4 - Legacies of War: Self-determination and divided spaces
L 5 - State-building
L 6 - Democratization and EU Integration
L 7 - Transitional Justice
L 8 - Populism and media freedom
L 9 - Conclusion and essay guidance

Online lectures including group discussions, reading, short assignments, peer-to-peer feedback, essay

Online lectures with group discussions at the end. Students will have assigned readings, but also some that they can choose depending on their interest. Students are also expected to produce short reflections in forums and give peer-to-peer feedback, to foster communication skills and reflection on their own topic of interest. The final assignment will be an essay on a topic of the students' choosing related to the course.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 5.10.–14.12.2022

Wed 12.15–13.45 Kielikeskus, sh.207, Fabianinkatu 26

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s)

Margarita Zavadskaya
Elena Gorbacheva
Mirzokhid Karshiev
Eugenia Pesci
Kristiina Silvan

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The course “Political Behavior in Post-Communist Space: A Comparative Perspective”aims at introducing students to ‘the demand side’ of politics focusing on citizens’ perspectives, preferences, opinion, actions, and values in a diverse region of Central and Eastern Europe and former USSR, sharing a common communist legacy. ‘The demand side’ of politics means 1) a primary focus on citizens, their values, political attitudes instead of intra-elite interactions, 2) combining substantive topics with the most illustrative case studies, and 3) bringing insights and original materials from our own research projects. Thus, instead of focusing on intra-elite and international tensions (‘the supply side’ of politics), we seek to make citizens’ perspective more visible and to look at it through systematic comparison. We define political behavior as citizens’ engagement with politics considering the specificity and nature of political regimes and accounting for limited opportunities to affect politics in closed authoritarian set-ups. We emphasize, problematize and challenge the impact of post-communist and authoritarian legacy drawing on evidence-based empirical research. 

The course brings together area studies perspectives (Central-European, Russian and Eurasian studies) with comparative politics and political sociology and economics. The course seeks to familiarize the students with the overall context and specifics of political behavior in the designated region given the authoritarian past/present and communist legacy. Political behavior encompasses a wide array of political phenomena - electoral behavior, values, protest, civic engagement, political activism - which will be covered within the course. Special attention is paid to the analytical tools, theories, and conceptual frameworks that will allow the students to provide meaningful comparisons and carry out independent political analysis.

A pernicious decision of Russian leadership to invade Ukraine brings the authoritarian and post-Soviet legacies to fore and begs for re-thinking and re-conceptualization of political processes and citizens’ behavior and attitudes. The course does not aim at studying the current war and its repercussions, although students are encouraged to discuss, apply and challenge the existing concepts. However, this must be done admitting and accepting the limitations and sensitivity of the topic.

The course consists of 24 contact hours, i.e. 12 meetings covering various aspects of political behavior combining introduction of specific topics and concepts with empirical materials. The course is taught in English and is delivered by Margarita Zavadskaya (Ph.D.), Elena Gorbacheva, Eugenia Pesci and Mirzokhid Karshiev (doctoral researchers at the Aleksanteri Institute). In-class meetings will take forms of lectures combined with discussions, group work and small creative tasks.Prior to each lecture or seminar, a list of readings or other relevant materials (video, journal articles, audio recordings, visual materials) are via Moodle. The in-class meetings consist of lecturing parts and interactive formats in order to facilitate knowledge construction, where assignments include problem solving, practical tasks, mini-essays, and group

Intended learning outcomes:
After completing the course, the students will be able to:
1) define the main concepts such as ‘historical legacies’, types of political behavior’;
2) discuss the main concepts and terms related to political behavior and apply them to specific cases;
3) identify the central discussions / lines of debates on political behavior in the defined region;
4) draw comparisons and contrast cases;
5) articulate and justify own opinion on a specific matter within the course.

Course Programme:

1. Political behavior and participation: is post-communism still relevant?
2. Exploring values and participation in post-communist states (Margarita Zavadskaya)
3. Democratization vs. Autocratization from below. Cases of Poland and Hungary (Margarita Zavadskaya)
4. Electoral behavior - preferences, voting, and abstention (Margarita Zavadskaya)
5. Protesting elections: Belarus (Kristiina Silvan)
6. New Social Movements (Elena Gorbacheva)
7. Local activism and environment: Estonia and Russia (Elena Gorbacheva)
8. ‘The post-soviet ‘labour dilemma’ in Russia and Central Asia (Eugenia Pesci)
9. Everyday forms of passive resistance (Central Asia, Russia) (Mirzokhid Karshiev, Eugenia Pesci)
10. State-organized mobilization Uzbekistan and Belarus (Mirzokhid Karshiev)
11. Perspectives on political participation in the region Margarita Zavadskaya
12. Students’ group presentations

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 06.10.-24.11.2022

Hybrid teaching
Thu 14:15-15:45 Arken Voltaire (M127)

  • Thu 06.10.2022 14:15-15:45
  • Thu 13.10.2022 14:15-15:45 
  • Thu 20.10.2022 14:15-15:45
  • Thu 27.10.2022 14:15-15:45 
  • Thu 03.11.2022 14:15-15:45 
  • Thu 10.11.2022 14:15-15:45 
  • Thu 17.11.2022 14:15-15:45 
  • Thu 24.11.2022 14:15-15:45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Gustaf Olsson

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

This course combines history, cultural studies, and cultural history and look at Soviet and post-Soviet history and cultural politics through the lens of film. The idea that unites all lectures is that the current political climate is reflected in the films that were made during that era. A more liberal political and cultural climate leads to more experimental filmmaking and films covering a broader range of topics, whereas more repressive eras have produced films that deliver a political message and that are less artistically daring.

•    Battleship Potemkin
•    Aelita
•    Chapaev
•    Ivanovo detstvo (Ivan’s Childhood)
•    Ivan Vasilyevich menyayet professiyu (Ivan Vasilievich Changes Profession)
•    Sobach´e serdtse (The Heart of a Dog)
•    Brat (Brother)
•    Monanieba/Pokayanie (Repentance)
Literature: Salys, R. (2013). The Russian cinema reader: Volume one, 1908 to the Stalin era. Academic Studies Press. Salys, R. (2013). The Russian cinema reader: Volume two, The thaw to the present. Academic Studies Press. Extra material and handouts by the lecturer.

Learning outcomes/objectives
After the course, the student should:
•    be familiar with the general history and development of cultural politics in the Soviet Union, in post-Soviet Russia, and in neighbouring states like Ukraine, Belarus, and Georgia.
•    be familiar with the meaning of some key moments and key terms in Soviet history and cultural history.
•    be familiar with some propaganda tools that can be seen in Soviet (but of course not only in Soviet) films, and reflect on whether and how explicit or implicit propaganda tools are used in certain films during the course.

General/transferable skills
•    Theoretical knowledge gained from the studies
•    Analytical and systematic thinking skills
•    Communication in English
•    Critical and ethical thinking
•    Information retrieval skills
•    Self-direction/initiative

Info on assessment:
8 Lectures, reading, 3 final essays, each 1000 words long.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 2.11.–7.12.2022

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marco Siddi

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content                                                             
The course focuses on relations between the EU, Russia and their shared neighbourhood before and after the war in Ukraine in 2022. It combines theoretical approaches with an empirical and policy focus. Particular attention is devoted to security issues, regional integration projects and case studies in selected policy areas, notably energy and memory politics.

The course reviews the different theoretical angles that scholars apply to analyse the EU’s and Russia’s policies, as well as their interaction in the shared neighbourhood. This includes Realpolitik approaches, constructivist explanations based on the Self/Other dichotomy and the influence of Orientalist, imperialist and postcolonial thinking on current politics.

The case studies focus on the most salient policy areas for relations between Russia, the EU and the shared neighbourhood. Energy relations have long been the most lucrative, and arguaby the most strategic area of cooperation, despite frequent and mutual accusations of ‘weaponising’ this trade. Security issues have marred relations in a crescendo since 2014, culminating in the 2022 war. The course analyses the escalation of 2014 and the 2022 war as fundamental watersheds in EU-Russia relations and regional politics. It also explores how the security agenda has expanded to the Mediterranean theatre following the Western intervention in Libya, Russia’s military campaign in Syria and both sides’ influence in other regional conflicts.

Different interpretations and uses of history are also analysed, as they have been central to the discursive contestation between the EU, Russia and neighbouring countries since 2014. Events and concepts borrowed from the Second World War are ubiquitous in political and public debates. The course concludes with a simulation game concerning EU-Russia relations, i.e. a European Council summit where EU member states attempt to agree on a common position vis-a-vis Russia in a crisis context.


1. Introduction:  the EU, Russia and the shared neighbourhood in the run-up to the 2022 war
2. Theoretical and conceptual approaches: realism, liberalism, social constructivism, postcolonialism
3. The EU’s and Russia’s regional integration policies and the perspectives of neighbouring countries
4. The security dimension: from the post-Soviet frozen conflicts to the war in Ukraine
5. Russia and the EU in the Southern neighbourhood from the Arab Spring to the Syrian war
6. Energy relations in the EU-Russia-shared neighbourhood ‘triangle’
7. The ‘memory battleground’: case studies of current memory politics in Russia, Ukraine and the EU
8. Simulation game / How to write the final essay

Learning outcomes                                       
Students are expected to gain an understanding of the pre- and post-Ukraine war political dynamics in relations between the EU, Russia and the shared neighbourhood. They will also learn to apply International Relations theory and concepts to elucidate the events under analysis. Moreover, students are expected to gain deeper knowledge of the policy fields selected for closer investigation: security, energy relations, regional integration and the politics of memory.

Completion 8 Lectures, reading, final essay

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 2.11.–14.12.2022
ke 2.11.2022    14.15–15.45 Päärakennus, U4062
ke 9.11.2022    14.15–15.45 Päärakennus, U4062
ke 16.11.2022    14.15–15.45 Päärakennus, U4062
pe 18.11.2022    14.15–15.45 Metsätalo, sali 12, Unioninkatu 40
ke 23.11.2022    14.15–15.45 Päärakennus, U4062
pe 25.11.2022    14.15–15.45 Metsätalo, sali 12, Unioninkatu 40
ke 30.11.2022    14.15–15.45 Päärakennus, U4062
ke 7.12.2022    14.15–15.45 Päärakennus, U4062
ke 14.12.2022    14.15–15.45 Päärakennus, U4062, Päärakennus

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Pekka Kauppala

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Luentojen päätarkoitus on osanottajien perehdyttäminen Kaakkois-Euroopan valtioiden historian ja historiapolitiikan peruskirjallisuuteen eri tulkintatavat huomioiden sekä itsenäisen kyvyn hankkiminen monipuolisten uusien aineistojen löytämiseen sekä omaan poliittiseen analyysiin. Maitten ulkopoliittisten ja niihin nivoutuvien identiteettikonfliktien ja niiden ratkaisuyritysten perusrakenteitten luonne ja nivoutuminen kansainväliseen politiikkaan tulee hahmottua selkeiksi.

Kaakkois-Euroopan valtioita Ukrainaa, Valko-Venäjää, Moldovaa (ml.Transnistrian tasavalta) ja Romaniaa on harvoin käsitelty yhtenäkokonaisuutena, vaikka jo maantieteellisesti siitä muodostuu selkeä suuralue. Nelikkömme suuremmat osapuolet, Ukraina ja Romania ovat etnisen sekoittumisen pohjalta jo keskiajalta läheisessä kulttuuri-, uskonto- ja talousyhteydessä toisiinsa, mutta pitkä peruskuuluvuus kilpaileviin Venäjän ja Turkin imperiumeihin on ohjannut ne poliittisesti etäälle. Vuosien 1930–1955 sekavat mutta kaikkiallaa lueellamme homogenisoituvaan kommunistiseen kehitykseen vieneet veriset ja sotaisat tapahtumavyöryt olivat aika, jolloin maantieteellinen yhteys johti myös poliittista kohti. Tämä sitten katkesi perusteellisesti Neuvostoliiton hajotessa luoden monia historian ryydittämiä konfliktipohjia, mutta myös pyrkimyksiä  yhteistyöhön.

Luentokurssin opetussisältönä on luoda käsitys Ukrainan, Moldovan ja Romanian kolmikon kohtalonyhteydestä vuosina 1930-1955 sekä siihen Valko-Venäjän tapauksessa näennäisesti samankaltaisista ja maantieteellisesti läheisistä oloista kumpuavasta lähes diametriaalisesta eroavuudesta. Tällä historiallisella yhteysvyyhdellä on modernit vastineensa ja niiden ympärille on kehittynyt ja kehitetty suuri määrä yhteneväisiä tai vastakkaisia historiallisia narratiiveja, jotka joko generoivat yhteistyötä tai konflikteja sekä valtioiden sisällä että niiden keskinäisissä suhteissa.

Lisätietoa / More information Huom! tarkista kurssin tiedot kurssisivuilta.
Kanditasoinen kurssi; linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 14.9.–21.10.2022
Online course
Wed 14:15-15:45 and Fri 12:15-13:45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Arseniy Svynarenko

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals
Students will learn the key aspects in development of Ukrainian culture, national identity and statehood. The course will introduce to students a wide range of literature about Ukrainian culture and society, including both classic works and most actual studies to date. Students will learn theories of identity, ethnicity, nation and nationalism and will apply them to Ukrainian context. Students will also learn the central aspects of political and social developments in contemporary Ukraine.

Lecture topics
1. Ukraine: an overview of geography, population, economy.
2. Theoretical approaches to national identity. Theories of nationalism.
3. The Cossack and Ukrainian identity.
4. From Renaissance of 1920s to Holodomor and Stalin’s Terror in Ukraine.
5. Nationalist movement in Western Ukraine in 1930-40s
6. Theories of revolution. The revolution of Granite. Ukrainian independence.
7. Religion in Ukraine. Main church organizations and their role in society and politics. Establishment of the national church of Ukraine.
8. Orange Revolution. Civil society in Ukraine.
9. Euromaidan - Revolution of Dignity
10. The war in Eastern Ukraine: from hybrid war towards a new frozen conflict in Europe?
11. Review of Ukraine’s foreign policy. The Ukraine-Russia-EU triangle
12. Political system, political parties and leaders in present day Ukraine.

12 lectures, reading, learning diary and group assignment

Every lecture starts with 10-15 minutes discussion about current events in Ukraine (politics, culture, etc.) and/or about previous lecture topics and reading. The aim is keep students interested in a range of topics related to Ukraine, to practice critical thinking, systematic analysis and work with various sources of information. Also during the course students work on their group assignments.

Lisätietoa / More information Bachelor level course; Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place

Online course
Mon 14.15–15.45 and Wed 12.15–13.45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Nataliya Teramae

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Students will learn about Ukraine in the 20th century through the images and history of cinema classics. As art is the reflection of society and historical changes, cinema might be used as the best example of such a 'mirror'. Ukrainian avant-garde (1920-30) pictured key processes of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic. Poetic cinema, on the contrary (1960-70) dealt with traditional national images.

Course outline
The course consists of 12 lectures of which two are introductions (about avant-garde and poetic cinema) and 10 are screenings combined with discussions and in class presentations. Students can see well-known world silent film classics (‘Man with a Movie Camera’, ‘Earth’) as well as unknown forgotten avant-garde masterpieces (‘In Spring’, ‘Bread’). The collection of poetic cinema is presented by the films of prominent Ukrainian filmmakers Ivan Mykolaychuk and Yurii Illienko.

Online lectures including film screenings, discussion, and presentations; reading and final essay

Moodle course area including a link to an online meeting room will become available for students on the starting day of the course.

Lisätietoa / More information Bachelor level course; link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 30.9.-22.12.2022, Moodle

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Andrei Kalinitchev

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Aleksanteri II:n uudistukset olivat tärkeä askel maan demokraattisessa kehityksessä, kuitenkin sisäpoliittinen tilanne muuttui epävakaaksi. Tsaariin vallan ja yläluokkaan kohdistunut kritiikki vahvistui, oikeuksien vaatimus alemmille säädyille nosti esille terrorin ja poliittisen liikehdinnän. Suurlakko edisti demokraattista kehitystä; vallanpitäjät ja vaikutusvaltainen eliitti tulivat vakuuttuneeksi sen välttämättömyydestä. Sananvapautta ja lehdistönvapautta lisättiin. Ulkopoliittiset ja sisäpoliittiset jännitteet kasaantuivat. Kommunismin aate juurtui keisarikuntaan ja vaikutti yhteiskunnassa, mikä johti lopuksi bolševikkien valtaantuloon.

Kurssilla perehdytään Venäjän poliittiseen elämään, Duuman toimintaan ja Stolypinin kauteen. Ensimmäinen maailmansota muutti poliittiset asetelmat, tsaarinvalta kaatui helmikuun vallankumouksen seurauksena. Väliaikainen hallitus ja neuvostot jakoivat valtaa, keskusvallan heikkous avasi tien bolševikkien valtaannousulle. Alkoi neuvostokausi, yhden yhteiskuntaluokan "demokratia".

Kyseinen ajanjakso on ratkaiseva Venäjän poliittisen kehityksen kannalta ja tavoitteena on perehdyttää opiskelijat sekä tämän kauden tapahtumiin että demokratian kehitykseen vaikuttaneiden tekijöihin ja liberaalisiin suuntiin. Kurssi on vertaileva ja se hyödyntää monitieteistä lähestymistapaa.


Kurssin tarkoituksena on kehittää opiskelijoiden välistä vuorovaikutusta. Kurssiin liittyy erilaisia tehtäviä, itsenäistä opiskelua, opetusmateriaalien lukemista ja ideointia. Opiskelijat tekevät yhteiset tehtävät ja kirjoittavat vapaavalinnaiset esseet kurssin aihepiiristä, muita tenttejä kurssilla ei ole. Kurssi suoritetaan itsenäisesti Moodlessa, tehtävien aikataulu on joustava tehtävien palautuspäivään asti. Kurssin arviointi perustuu opiskelijan aktiivisuuteen keskustelufoorumilla, toisten opiskelijoiden tehtävien kommentointiin sekä esseisiin.

Lisätietoa / More information Ilmoittaudu kurssin sivujen kautta ja valitse joko Aleksanteri-instituutti tai VIExpert-maisterikoulu

Syksy 2022 - lähiopetuskurssit / Fall 2022 - on-site lecture courses

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 6.10.-1.12.2022
Thu 14:00-16:00 N104 Joensuu campus

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Paul Fryer

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

This course will provide students with a deeper understanding of Russian society, looking beyond official discourses at individual groups and movements and the ways that they engage with, adapt to, or challenge their state structures. By the end of the course, students will be able to better contextualise Russian official and foreign media representations of the country. This will, thus, improve students’ understanding of the Russian state and society in contemporary Europe.

Even before the war in Ukraine, the image of Russia portrayed by the Western media usually has been that of a gigantic monolith that for the past 20 years has been dominated by the current president, Vladimir Putin, his circle of oligarchs and political and military supporters. However, Russian society remains diverse and multi-layered due to its vast size and, as a result of the efforts of many ordinary citizens and organisations, it has developed rapidly despite ongoing repressions. While some of these individuals or activists are opposed to the current regime in Moscow, many others are simply attempting to cope or make a positive impact on their lives and local environment. To see beyond the headlines and stereotypes, this course asks: what is the ‘alternative’ to the media images of Russia? Thus, the course examines Russia and Russian society through activists, civic groups, and local non-governmental organisations and networks, including online media, ethnic associations, small entrepreneurs, local environmentalists, gender and sexual minority activists, and other ‘alternative’ actors.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 31.10.-9.12.2022

Mon 31.10.2022 12.15–13.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
Fri 4.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Language Center sh.105, Fabianinkatu 26
Mon 7.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
Fri 11.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Language Center sh.105, Fabianinkatu 26
Mon 14.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
Fri 18.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Language Center sh.105, Fabianinkatu 26
Mon 21.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
Fri 25.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Language Center sh.105, Fabianinkatu 26
Mon 28.11.2022 12.15–13.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
Fri 2.12.2022 12.15–13.45 Language Center sh.105, Fabianinkatu 26
Mon 5.12.2022 12.15–13.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
Fri 9.12.2022 12.15–13.45 Language Center sh.105, Fabianinkatu 26

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Kaarina Aitamurto, Anna Tarasenko, Katalin Miklóssy

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning outcomes
Student recognizes the major approaches on the topic and the origins of the chosen policies in the context of Russia. Student is able to define the key concepts and illustrate how those are typically applied in the resilience discussion. Student is able to demonstrate the application of some global ideas in the Russian context. Student understands multi-/interdisciplinary approach in practice and is able to recognize different disciplinary approaches in the analysis of the topic.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 31.10.–16.11.2022
Language Center sh.204, Kielikeskus, Fabianinkatu 26

Mon 31.10.2022 10.15–11.45
Wed 2.11.2022 10.15–11.45
Mon 7.11.2022 10.15–11.45
Wed 9.11.2022 10.15–11.45
Mon 14.11.2022 10.15–11.45
Wed 16.11.2022 10.15–11.45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Anna-Liisa Heusala, Katalin Miklossy, Sherzod Eraliev

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning outcomes
Student identifies global transnational flows that defines Russia in global context. Russia’s pivotal role in some of the natural resource flows, such as oil and gas, is globally contextualized but also the role of Russia as an ecological space affecting global biodiversity and climate. Student recognizes the major theories/approaches and their origins on social mobilization, social movements and civil societies. Student is able to define the key concepts and illustrate how those are typically applied in the civil society/movement literature. Student identifies the issues that tend to mobilize people globally and transnationally and give examples of the ideas/ideologies that travel globally. Student is able to demonstrate the application of some global ideas in the Russian context.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 8.9.–20.10.2022
Thu 8.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
to 15.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
ma 19.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U4080
to 22.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
to 29.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
ma 3.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U4080
to 6.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
to 13.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40
to 20.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Brendan Humphreys

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The students will gain a fresh perspective into politics and society, though the prism of incarceration culture. Historically, the course will further the students’ understanding the experiences of Communism in Eastern Europe in the 20th century, and of its contemporary legacies.

Course outline
This multi-disciplinary course offers students a concise instruction to the Soviet and East/Central European experience of imprisonment. Penology offers multiple insights into society, touching on topics like the rule of law, policing, and human rights. At an individual level, prison experiences impact upon such issues as identity, memory, and life narratives.
The course draws on two high profile projects, funded by ERC and the Finnish Academy. The scholars bring a range of disciplines – geography, anthropology, politics science, memory studies, and history – and offer multiple perspectives on prison culture.
The core examples are from the ex-Soviet regions and the Balkans, combining the theoretical with empirically-grounded ethnography.

1. Introduction: Gulag legacies – Judith Pallot
2. Prison research: Methods and techniques – Olga Zeveleva
3. The Western European Prison Reform – Olga Kantokoski
4. Defining “camp”: mass incarceration in modern European history – Brendan Humphreys
5. The Evolution of the Western Balkan Penal Culture – Olga Kantokoski
6. "Affirmative action' and terror behind barbed wire: ethnicity construction in the Soviet GULAG, 1930-1953 – Mikhail Nakonechnyi
7. The GULAG's Dead Souls: mortality of the released invalids in the camps – Mikhail  Nakonechnyi
8. Labour colonies in late socialism: An ethnography from Khoni, Georgia – Costanza Curro
9. Camps, memory, and the politics of victimhood in ex-Yugoslavia – Brendan Humphreys

Lectures, reading, essay

Moodle course area will become available for students on the starting day of the course.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 17.10.–28.10.2022

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marianna Muravyeva

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

This course introduces students to human rights protection in Russia from an interdisciplinary perspective. During the course, we will examine how human rights can still be protected when the Russian government is increasingly critical of international law. We will particularly focus on three main issues: 1. how human rights lawyers and activists give legal aid to victims while facing legal obstacles to their work; 2. how Russia has built national human rights institutions; 3. how Russia interacts with international human rights institutions such as the European Court of Human Rights and the Council of Europe.

The course will enable students to critically reflect upon a) the relation between political reform and human rights violations and b) the strategies of human rights defense in a semi-authoritarian political system. Students of law will learn to analyse key human rights issues through theories of social change, activism, public interest litigation, and social movement theory. The course will furthermore enhance students’ understanding of how lawyers make difficult choices: whom to represent when funding is scarce and how to deal with harassment and legal obstacles. Students will also learn how familiar legal strategies such as strategic litigation, international litigation, and legal mobilisation operate within the Russian context. Through class discussions students should develop a critical understanding of human rights practice versus human rights law. The final essay will enhance the students’ ability to write a critical essay about a current human rights issue.

The course consists of lectures. Each lecture focuses on one of the major human rights issues in Russia today. Students are expected to read a selection of journal articles in preparation of each lecture.

  1. Would we have human rights without the Soviet Union? How Soviet dissidents pushed human rights to the international stage;
  2. The Conflicts in Chechnya: Disappearances and the European Court of Human Rights;
  3. Building a National Human Rights Institution in Russia;
  4. Domestic Violence, Traditional Values, and Women’s Rights;
  5. Prisoners and Soldiers: Inhuman and Degrading treatment in the Army and in Prison;
  6. Discrimination: Roma, extradition of migrant workers, LGBTQI communities;
  7. Environmental protection in Russia;
  8. The Freedom of Information, Treason, Spies, and the Backlash against human rights NGOs.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 3.10.-24.11.2022

ma 03.10.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub2, Auditorio Pub2
to 06.10.2022 12:00-14:00 Pub1, Mauno Koivisto -sali
ma 10.10.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub2, Auditorio Pub2
to 13.10.2022 12:00-14:00 Pub1, Mauno Koivisto -sali
ma 17.10.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub2, Auditorio Pub2
ma 24.10.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub2, Auditorio Pub2
to 27.10.2022 12:00-14:00 Pub1, Mauno Koivisto -sali
ma 31.10.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub2, Auditorio Pub2
to 03.11.2022 12:00-14:00 Pub1, Mauno Koivisto -sali
ma 07.11.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub2, Auditorio Pub2
to 10.11.2022 12:00-14:00 Pub3, Auditorio Pub3
ma 14.11.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub1, Mauno Koivisto -sali
ma 21.11.2022 10:00-12:00 Pub2, Auditorio Pub2
to 24.11.2022 12:00-14:00 Pub1, Mauno Koivisto -sali

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Mika Suonpää

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Tavoitteena on oppia analysoimaan käynnissä olevaa konfliktia monesta eri näkökulmasta.

Lisätietoa / More information Kanditasoinen kurssi; Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place

Lectures on Fridays at 12-14 next days:

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Daniil Zhaivoronok

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The course will consist of 8 seminars. During Seminar 1 the students will be introduced to the general theories and methodological approaches from the field of feminist and queer pop culture studies; peculiarities and significance of the pop scene in Russia will be also discussed. Seminar 2 focuses on the pop scene of the late Soviet Union and its politics of gender and sexuality. Seminar 3 focuses on the figure of Alla Pugacheva who influenced the ways in which gender, sexuality, and politics were represented in Soviet and post-Soviet pop scenes. Seminar 4 considers Soviet/post-Soviet rock scene as a space of production and subversion of gendered and sexual norms. Seminar 5 discusses the representation of sexualized Russian national identity at the Eurovision international song contest. Seminar 6 devoted to the new wave of queer and camp aesthetic, developing in Russian pop scene despite the consurvative turn in official politics. Seminar 7 discusses the convergence between feminism and pop culture in Russia. Seminar 8 considers alternative scenes of punk and hip-hop.

The goals of the course are: to introduce students to Russian pop culture of the Soviet and post-Soviet period; to analyze the cultural and political impact of pop music on Russian society as a whole; and to consider pop music as an important factor in the production and transformation of modes of representation of gender and sexuality. Specific attention would be paid to the role of different media and communicative technologies in the historical transformations of the pop scene. During the course, students will be introduced to both original pop productions (songs, clips, films) and critical literature from the academic fields of pop culture studies, gender studies, queer and feminist cultural analysis.

After completing the course students 1) have a deeper understanding of Russian culture and society, 2) are able to apply feminist and queer methodologies to analyse pop culture 3) they have a knowledge of Soviet and post+Sovier regimes of gender and sexuality, 4)they acquire skills for independent critical reflection of pop culture production and its cultural and political effects and 5) will be able to compose a short essay or review of music video, song, etc.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 6.9.-15.12.2022
ti 10:15-11:45 Päärakennus U4062
to 10:15-11:45 Päärakennus U4079

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Lidia Gripenberg

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content -

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 6.9.–7.10.2022

Tue 14.15–15.45 Language Center sh.206, Fabianinkatu 26
Fri 14.15–15.45 Metsätalo, lecture hall 12, Unioninkatu 40

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Anna-Liisa Heusala

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning outcomes
Student identifies normative and ethical questions that are connected to global challenges. Student is able to relate different disciplinary based approaches to the topic. Student understands multi-/interdisciplinary approach in practice and is able to recognize different disciplinary approaches in the analysis norms and ethics in the context of Russia.

This course takes a normative and ethical perspective asking “why?” questions, i.e. why global challenges of resilience and sustainability are imperative for all nations, including Russia.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 19.9.–30.9.2022

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marianna Muravyeva

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The course examines development of the Russian legal system in the context of comparative law. The aim of this course in its most general sense is to encourage understanding of a foreign system of law, the Russian legal system, which developed under very complex historical and ideological influences but has a lot in common with other civil law systems. The focus is on the development of the legal system, and some specific branches of law, with consideration of various issues that have arisen in Russia's aspiration to change from an authoritarian regime to a rule-or-law state.

The course is divided up into topics for each class. Class reading is mainly from textbook chapters.

The course is designed to provide an in-depth discussion and critical thinking on a number of legal issues Russia is currently facing. Therefore, students are strongly encouraged to prepare for classes, to acknowledge themselves with recommended literature before the course starts and before each class.

  1. Russian legal system in the context of comparative law
  2. Russian legal histories: tradition and modernity
  3. The Russian Constitution: challenges of constitutionalism, hierarchy of legal norms and international law
  4. Federalism and regional government
  5. Municipal government
  6. Public administration and service
  7. Rule of law and Rechtstaat: conceptual developments in Russia

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place

Tue 6.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3039
Tue 13.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3039
Tue 20.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3039
Tue 27.9.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3039
Tue 4.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3039
Tue 11.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3039
Thu 13.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3029
Tue 18.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3039

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Katri Pynnöniemi

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Each major war in Europe over the past centuries has compelled analysts and theorists to reflect on technological, political and societal changes in nature of war and overall context of warfighting. In a recent edited volume Conduct of War in the 21st Century, authors argue that “in the context of the early 21st century, the grammar of war is kinetic, connected, and synthetic”. (Johnson, Sweijs and Kitzen 2021, 5) Russia’s war of aggression in Ukraine has brought to fore fragility and power inherent in kinetic activity, but also its complex nature (use of regulars, irregulars). This war has also demonstrated importance of connections – in the form of intelligence sharing to mundane practices of resistance and mobilization at local and global levels. The synthetic sphere of warfighting (use of robots and autonomous systems) is expected to grow in the future. The war in Ukraine has, however, highlighted importance of human efforts and (cognitive and political) errors and their impact for European security.

Learning goals
The inter-disciplinary lecture course will explore Russia’s war in Ukraine in the context of contemporary warfare theory and world politics. Students are asked to contemplate lessons learned from Russia’s war in Ukraine – in terms of Russia’s military strategy, and in the context of Ukraine’s military capabilities and societal resilience. The combination of lectures and list of readings seek to advance knowledge on Ukraine, in particular, use of information warfare during the war, role of volunteers during the war and overall reform of Ukrainian armed forces. The two last lectures will discuss political (mis)calculations and historical trajectories of Ukraine-Russia relations, and their impact on European security.

Lisätietoa / More information Bachelor level course; Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place Autumn 2022

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Dmitry Zimin and invited lecturers

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Lectures focus on Russian and Finnish regional economic geography and development, foreign trade, investments and most important enterprises operating in the border regions, programmes of cross-border co-operation, experiences of Finnish companies doing business in Russia, as well as tourism and migration between Finnish and Russian border regions.

Learning outcomes: The student should:

  • get knowledge of contemporary economic development of Russian and Finnish regions, which are situated along the Finnish-Russian border;
  • understand Finnish-Russian economic interaction from different theoretical and practical perspectives;
  • be able to analyze and evaluate regional economic development patterns and trends in cross-border relations.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 31.10.–5.12.2022
Mon 31.10.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 25, Unioninkatu 40
Mon 7.11.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 25, Unioninkatu 40
Mon 14.11.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 25, Unioninkatu 40
Mon 21.11.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 25, Unioninkatu 40
Mon 28.11.2022    14.15–17.45 Päärakennus, U3029
Mon 5.12.2022    16.15–17.45 Metsätalo, sali 25, Unioninkatu 40

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marco Siddi

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals
Students are expected to gain an understanding of the main narratives about historical memory in Central and Eastern Europe, how they are constructed and the role they play in domestic and foreign policy. They are expected to gain in-depth knowledge of the case studies selected for closer investigation: memory politics in Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Germany and in EU institutions. Students will analyse how the disciplines of History and Political Science intersect in the study of memory politics.

Course outline
The course will focus on cultures of remembrance in selected "regions of memory": Germany, East-Central Europe (Poland), Ukraine and Russia. The course will combine theory and concepts with a focus on empirical case studies.

1. Introduction. Concepts and theory: memory, history, the politics of memory; individual, collective, national, transnational and cosmopolitan memory; securitisation and weaponisation of memory; memory laws and the criminalisation of memory.

2. Regions of Memory in Europe today: foundational myths of European countries and different ways of remembering the Second World War and its aftermath.

3. Memory politics in Russia - The creation of a selective "imperial" memory for a Great Power today; the myth of the Great Patriotic War.

4. Memory Politics in East and Central Europe: the case of Poland under Law and Justice. The politics of the Second World War museum in Gdansk.

5. The (ab)use of memory in the Ukraine Crisis: Russian narratives of 'fascism'; revival of the Bandera myth in Ukraine; weaponisation of memory.

6. Germany remembers its "past East": from Günter Grass to the Foundation Flight, Expulsion, Reconciliation. The construction of the memory of ethnic Germans formerly living in Eastern Europe since the 1990s.

7. The "memory battle" in the European Union: the House of European History, European Parliament resolutions on 'totalitarianisms', the missing memory of colonialism in the EU and Russia.

Lectures with discussion, reading, visual materials, essay

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 6.9.–13.12.2022

Tiistaisin 12.15–13.45 Metsätalo, sali A112, Unioninkatu 40

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Magdolna Kovacs

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content -

Lisätietoa / More information Kanditasoinen kurssi; linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 31.10.–14.12.2022

ma 31.10.2022    14.15–15.45    Metsätalo, sali 8, Unioninkatu 40
ke 2.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Soc&Kom, sali 210
ma 7.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Metsätalo, sali 8, Unioninkatu 40
ke 9.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Soc&Kom, sali 210
ma 14.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Metsätalo, sali 8, Unioninkatu 40
ke 16.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Soc&Kom, sali 210
ma 21.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Metsätalo, sali 8, Unioninkatu 40
ke 23.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Soc&Kom, sali 210
ma 28.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Metsätalo, sali 8, Unioninkatu 40
ke 30.11.2022    14.15–15.45    Soc&Kom, sali 210
ma 5.12.2022    14.15–15.45   Metsätalo, sali 8, Unioninkatu 40
ke 7.12.2022    14.15–15.45    Soc&Kom, sali 210
ma 12.12.2022    14.15–15.45   Metsätalo, sali 8, Unioninkatu 40
ke 14.12.2022    14.15–15.45    Soc&Kom, sali 210

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Ira Jänis-Isokangas, Sari Autio-Sarasmo

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojakson suoritettuaan opiskelija tunnistaa Venäjän historiaan liittyviä keskeisiä kehityskulkuja ja niitä avaavia käsitteitä. Opiskelija hahmottaa historialliseen kehitykseen liittyviä syy-seuraussuhteita ja ymmärtää käsitteiden merkityksen menneisyyden tulkinnoissa ja analyysissä. Opintojakson painotus voi vaihdella riippuen kurssin näkökulmasta.

Lisätietoa / More information Kanditasoinen kurssi; linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 9.9.-26.10.2022
Joensuun kampus

Opetuskieli venäjä

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Larisa Leisiö

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojaksolla perehdytään venäjän kielen historialliseen kehitykseen pääpiirteissään ja selitetään kielenmuutoksia, jotka näkyvät nykykielessä kieliopillisina poikkeuksina. Tutustutaan kirjakielen kehityksen vaiheisiin, kielitilanteeseen sekä kirjoitetun ja puhutun kielen välisiin eroihin. Esitellään tunnetuimpia kielen muistomerkkejä kielen ja kulttuurihistorian näkökulmasta.

Opintojakson suoritettuaan opiskelija

  • tuntee venäjän kielen kehityksen pääpiirteissään
  • osaa selittää syitä nykykielessä ilmeneville poikkeuksille
  • osaa selostaa muinasitäslaavilaisen kauden diglossian ja venäjän kirjakielen vaiheet
  • ymmärtää kansan ja kielen alkuperää ja historiaa koskevien tulkintojen merkityksen nykyihmisille.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place Syksy 2022
Joensuun kampus

Opetuskieli venäjä ja suomi

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Larisa Leisiö

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojaksolla perehdytään nyky-Venäjän joukkotiedotusvälineiden (lehdistön, TV:n, radion ja Internetin) käyttämään kieleen ja sen kieliopillisiin, tyylillisiin ja sanastollisiin erityispiirteisiin. Tutustutaan tekstin- ja diskurssintutkimuksen peruskäsitteisiin, lähestymistapoihin ja keskeisiin suuntauksiin.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 6.9.–13.12.2022,
tiistaisin 14:15-15:45 Metsätalo sali 7

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojakso tarjoaa katsaukseen virolaiseseen yhteiskuntaan ja kulttuuriin laajassa merkityksessä.

Opintojakson teoreettisena ja käsitteellisenä kehyksenä toimii kuuluminen ja kuulumisen politiikka. Opintojakso jakautuu kolmeksi temaattiseksi kokonaisuudeksi: Viron asukkaat ja kuuluminen, kulttuuri ja kuuluminen sekä Viron alueellinen kuuluminen.

Lisätietoa / More information Kanditasoinen kurssi; linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 5.9.–12.12.2022,
maanantaisi 10:15-11:45 Päärakennus, U3041

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Magdolna Kovacs

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opiskelija tuntee ja osaa analysoida Unkarin nyky-yhteiskunnan keskeisimpiä ilmiöitä ja niiden historiallisia taustoja.


Nyky-Unkarin yhteiskunnan keskeisimpiä ilmiöitä (esim. yhteiskuntarakenne, opetus. tervydenhuolto, talous, vähemmistöt ym.) käsitellään lehdistö- ja nettikirjoitusten sekä alan ammattikirjallisuuden kautta.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Kevät 2023 - etäopetus/hybridikurssit / Spring 2023 - online/hybrid courses

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 14.3.-4.5.2023
Online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Dawid Bunikowski

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals

The course presents problems concerning abortion and homosexuality in Poland and chosen countries of East Central Europe and the Balkans (such as Czechia, Bulgaria or Romania and Serbia). This concerns abortion laws and debates as well as LGBT rights discourses and discussions about homosexuality and homosexuals or non-heterosexuals. Relevant laws, social attitudes and practices concerning abortion and homosexuality are analysed in both the communist and post-communist/democratic periods.

1. Introduction to problems of abortion and homosexuality in Poland and East Central Europe as well as the Balkans. Attitudes to abortion and homosexuality.
2. Abortion in the communist Poland.
3. Abortion in the communist and post-communist Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria.
4. Abortion in the post-communist and democratic Poland.
5. Current abortion debate in Poland. New restrictions.
6. Homosexuality in Romania. From penalisation to depenalisation in 2001.
7. LGBT rights debates in the democratic Poland.
8. Religion, abortion and homosexuality in Poland and East Central Europe as well as the Balkans.
9. European values and standards versus conservatism in Poland and East Central Europe/the Balkans.
10. Other chosen contemporary problems and developments related to abortion and homosexuality in Poland and East Central Europe as well as the Balkans (discussions on civil partnerships, same-sex marriages, liberalisation of abortion law, the role of religion, tradition and morals, secularisation, women's rights, sexual minority rights, etc.).


Lectures, reading, short written assignments after each lecture (in Moodle) and writing a 5-7-page essay on a topic agreed with the lecturer.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 19.1.–2.3.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Inna Häkkinen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The course is to introduce students to major theoretical approaches to the agenda of Chernobyl studies in Eastern European context and beyond in order to provide with the critical toolkit for assessing political/social/cultural aspects of the Chernobyl disaster, its aftermath and post-Chernobyl activities within the nuclear narratives of Eastern Europe. Such approach equips students with the basic knowledge of Chernobyl related issues and expands students’ understanding of the concepts and currents agenda of energy humanities, energy ethics, environmental humanities. The course covers the following issues:
- Chernobyl within the Nuclear Anthropocene: from “Atom for Peace” Initiative Towards Energy Humanities’ Agenda;
- the ‘Politizised’ Chernobyl: Truth-Myth- PostTruth;
- the Chernobyl Accident within the Environmental History of Eastern Europe;  
- Nuclear Disaster Humanitarianism: Chernobyl Trauma Management;  
- Chernobyl Memorial or More than Human Trauma;  
- Literary Dimensions of the Chernobyl Disaster;
- Intermediality of Communicating Chernobyl.

Learning outcomes:
After taking the course the students are able to:
1) identify the key issues of narrating the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and their implementation in the Eastern European political, social, and cultural contexts;
2) use their critical thinking skills of combining the theoretical bases of environmental humanities’ issues and energy humanities’ agenda in order to form their own understanding of the theoretical and practical background of nuclear awareness, nuclear identity and nuclear culture within post-traumatic societies;
3) explain how the Chernobyl accident generated an exceptional language of witnessing that facilitates discussion on more than human perspectives in environmental humanities;
4) critically assess the conceptual parameters of nuclear narratives of the post-Chernobyl discourse in Eastern European context.

Schedule (lectures):
1. Chernobyl within the Nuclear Anthropocene: from “Atom for Peace” Initiative Towards Energy Humanities’ Agenda. (Lecturer: Inna Häkkinen, PhD, University of Helsinki)

2.‘Politizised’ Chernobyl: Truth-Myth- PostTruth (Lecturer: Yuriy Matsiyevsky, PhD, Professor, Ostroh Academy National University, Ukraine)

3. The Chernobyl Disaster within the Environmental History of Eastern Europe (Lecturer: Tetiana Perga, PhD, Institute of World History of National Academy of Science of Ukraine)

4. Nuclear Disaster Humanitarianism: Chernobyl Trauma Management (Lecturer: Ekatherina Zhukova, PhD, Lund University, Sweden)

5. Chernobyl Memorial or More than Human Trauma (Lecturer: Anna Barz, PhD, the Polish Academy of Science, Poland)

6. Literary Dimensions of the Chernobyl Disaster (Lecturer: Irina Marchesini, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Bologna, Italy)

7. Intermediality of Communicating Chernobyl (Lecturer: Adrian Ivakhiv, Professor, the University of Vermont, US)

Info on assessment:
-participation in debating at online lectures (questions, discussion, opinions) (20%);
-reading (‘reflection paper ’ within 1000 words or more on any topics/book) ( 40%): students will have to write a ‘reflection paper’ (sharing your opinion with references to the obligatory/recommended readings); they have a choice: they can write a ‘reflection paper’ to any topic (one of our seven lectures) or they can review any of the four books (obligatory readings) :
1) Plokhii,S. (2018) Chernobyl: the History of a Nuclear Catastrophe.
2) Brown, K. (2019) Manual for Survival: A Chernobyl Guide to the Future.
3) Higginbotham, A. (2019). Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster. (non-fiction)
4) White, A. (2008) Radiant Girl (novel) (fiction)
 - final assignment: essay (‘idea paper’ within 1500-2500 words excluding bibliography) (40%): students are to submit  an ‘idea paper’, which is a brief project proposal/paper outline/research project draft, which can answer the question ‘What Chernobyl-related issue/topic/problem would I choose as a subject for research”; an analytical approach is essential to the writing. An essay usually consists of an introduction, a hypothesis, a discussion section and a conclusion. The introduction presents the problem and the writer’s view of the subject. The hypothesis suggests the idea. The discussion section analyses the problem in more details. This section may include sub-headings. The conclusion presents the possible key findings. Please mark sources to footnotes or within the text in parentheses. Also students are to make a bibliography where they list the possible resources they use.

Teaching methods: The course is expected to be of online mode of lecturing (video-recorded/pre-recorded lectures, slide presentations). All the course material - obligatory/recommended readings, slide presentations, video-recorded/pre-recorded lectures – can be found in Moodle course page.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 15.3.-3.5.2023

Online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Atina Nihtinen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content
The aim of the course is to provide the students with an understanding of the complex history of South-East Europe during three crucial historical periods: the Balkan states right after the Second World War, their history before the fall of communism and the transition period thereafter. By focusing on the South-European states of Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Yugoslavia before and after 1989, the course deals with the special features of each of these cases and some specific questions such as the vexed question of Macedonia. Somewhat similarly to their development during the Cold War, countries’ different paths thereafter can be explored separately and in relation to one another.

Course outline:  
The course consists of seven lectures and a final exam. The first lecture deals primarily with the communist takeover in the former Yugoslavia and Tito’s ideas of communism. The second lecture discusses the dissolvement of Yugoslavia and the new states. The next two lectures focus on Bulgaria during the communist regime and thereafter. The cases of Romania and Albania are the topics of the fifth and sixth lectures. The aim of the seventh lecture is to consider the political development of Greece during the period 1945-1989 and to summarize some of the aspects of shared history in the wider region. 

Course contents:
1. Yugoslavia’s communism, 2. The dissolvement of Yugoslavia, 3. Communism in
Bulgaria, 4, Bulgaria after 1989, 5. Romania before and after 1989, 6. Communism and democracy in Albania, 7. Greece since 1945 and course conclusion

Lectures 14 h, reading, weakly assignments (approximately two pages a week), exam
Participation in the course requires attending of the lectures and submitting of essays of two pages prior to the next lecture. The essays are discussed through feedback. There is also a final exam with five questions (students reply to 3). The course is carried out via Zoom and Moodle.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 13.1.-10.3.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Kaarina Aitamurto

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content
This course offers tools for critical reading of discussions about religion in Russia. In the classes, the students learn about different religious traditions, legislation and governance in Russia. However, the main emphasis on teaching the students to assess contemporary Russian discourses related to religion, to detect their underlying assumptions, ideological commitments and ways of understanding religion.

The course includes eight meetings, each of which contain a lecture but also discussions about the material that the students have read or watched beforehand. This material composes of both research articles but also blog texts and videos that are analyzed in the class.


1. Friday 13 January, lecture at the University of Tampere in hybrid format
Approaches to religion
The first lecture shortly introduces the students to different approaches in the study of religion and such topical discussions in the discipline as, for example, the study of lived religion vs. the analysis of doctrines and institutions, or the debates about the definition of religion. These approaches and discussions are also discussed in the context of religiosity in Russia and the study of religion in Russia. The aim of this introductory lecture is to offer some basic tools for religious literacy for the students.

2. Friday 20 January, Zoom
Some myths about religion in Russian history
This class introduces the students to the multiethnic and multiconfessional history of Russia. In the class, students discuss and compare the interpretations and narratives about the history of different religions and their role in the history of Russia.

3. Friday 27 January: lecture at the University of Tampere in hybrid format
How religious Russians are?
Students analyze different studies and surveys on religiosity in the Soviet Union and Russia. They learn about the development of religiosity in Russian and of different confession, but also acquire skills to critically assess statistics concerning religiosity.

4. Friday 3 February, Zoom
Governance of religion
The class introduces different forms of the governance of religion. The lecture addresses such topics as legislation, but also discursive governance of religion as well self and co-governance. The students discuss these aspects and the ways in which different actors exercise governance of religiosity in Russia.

5. Friday 10 February: lecture at the University of Tampere in hybrid format
”Traditional religions” in Russia
The term “traditional religions” has established itself in Russian discussions about religion. The class discusses the origin of the term, critically reflects it definition and analyses how it is used in the governance of religiosity.

6. Friday 17 February, Zoom
Minority religions and “totalitarian sects”
The lecture discusses contemporary and historical minority religions and sects in Russia. The students discuss such topics as terminology concerning new and minority religion, their position in contemporary Russia. In addition, the term “totalitarian sect” is analyzed as an example of the way in which religious phenomena configure and are constructed as social problems.

7. Friday 24 February, lecture at the University of Tampere in hybrid format
Anti-extremist legislation
In addition to the Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations the Law on Countering Extremist Activity has much impact on the activity of religious organizations in Russia. In the class, this law, its implementation and the way it shapes the activity of religious organizations are discussed.

8. Friday 10 March, Zoom
Defining “religion” in Russian public discourses
Applying the approaches and concepts that has been in previous lectures, the students analyze different ways in which religion is (implicitly or explicitly) defined in Russia; what is excluded and what kind of role is religion assumed to play in the society.

Learning outcomes:

  1. Students are introduced to different theoretical approaches in the study of religion
  2. Students are able to explain the central features of the religiosity in contemporary Russia
  3. Students learn to critically assess and analyse discussions about religion in Russia

The course, the extent of which is 5 ECTS, comprises 8 classes that are organized at the Tampere University and streamed in zoom. The course takes palace in period 3 and there are meetings once in a week.

After the course, the students will write a learning diary (ca. 2 000 words). In the learning diary, the students reflect both the discussions at the classes and their own learning process. The text should also include references and the list of used literature.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 14.3.–27.4.2023

Online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Barnabas Szabo & Jouni Järvinen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

This pilot course is organised jointly by the Aleksanteri Institute East Central European, Balkan and Baltic Studies (ECEBB) and the Arizona State University School of Politics and Global Studies & Melikian Center.

Students please note that there will be an info meeting for the accepted students on Thu 9 March at 13:45-14:15. The meeting will take place in Helsinki, but there will also be a possibility participate online.

Learning outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course:

  • students will be familiar with recent theoretical approaches to the research of democracy and the challenges facing democracy;
  • students will gain multi-layered knowledge on the causes behind challenges to democracy, as well as on the different manifestations of democratic erosion;
  • students will have an overview of the threats to democracy in different geographical and cultural contexts;
  • students will have gained important experience in cross-university collaboration and working with fellow students based in another country.

Course description

The course on Democratic Erosion in Eastern Europe has grown out of a cross-university collaboration that helps students and faculty evaluate threats to democracy both here and abroad through the lens of theory, history and social science.


  • March 14-16: Disinformation and fake news / Russia
  • March 21-23: Clientelism, corruption, and money in politics / the (Western?) Balkans
  • March 28-30: Socialism, neoliberalism, and economic inequality / Central Asia
  • April 4-6: Polarization / Hungary-Poland (Thu 6.4. UH Easter break)
  • April 11-13: Scapegoating, paranoia, and exclusion / Hungary-Poland (Tue 11.4. UH Easter break)
  • April 18-20: Civil society and social movements / the Baltics
  • April 25-27: Globalization, “globalism,” and democracy promotion abroad / Ukraine

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 16.3.–5.5.2023

Online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Justyna Pierzynska

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals

Students will get acquainted with both grand and critical geopolitical theories. They will be able to critically engage with CEE's place within the body of geopolitical knowledge in the light of those theories, taking into account the historical and geopolitical implications that have formed the particular position of the region "between East and West". Students will train their writing and analytical skills through a geopolitics-themed essay and taking part in facilitated discussions.

Course outline

The course acquaints students with the most important geopolitical theories (19-21st cent.) with the help of original readings from relevant authors. Both traditional geopolitical theories and critical approaches in discussing space-related problems in CEE are introduced. Both perspectives are necessary to engage with the geopolitical and geo-economical developments of the modern world.
The relevance of concepts such as power, space, sovereignty and borders and their various understandings is highlighted. Different conceptualizations of space and history in geopolitical theories are problematized. Countries presented as examples of the intricacies of CEE's geopolitical location Germany, Poland, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo, Georgia, Ukraine.


1. General introduction to geopolitical theories: imperial, critical and alternative geopolitics
2. CEE and its place in the world: 19-21st century historical outline, statehood narratives, sovereignty concepts
3. Imperial geopolitics: Mackinder and the pivot of history in CEE
4. Imperial geopolitics: Germany, Haushofer and CEE
5. Cold War geopolitics: Truman doctrine, Brezhnev doctrine and CEE
6. Cold War geopolitics: Alternative approaches, Yugoslavia and the Non-Aligned Movement
7. 21st century geopolitics: Clash of Civilizations, End of History and Restructuring of Power in CEE after the fall of Communism
8. 21st century geopolitics: Critical approaches, feminist geopolitics and CEE

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place Kevät 2023
Kirjallinen työ

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content -

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 15.3.–4.5.2023

Wed 12:15 PM–1:45 PM Topelia, A205, Unioninkatu 38
Thu 10:15 AM–11:45 AM Metsätalo, sali 25, Unioninkatu 40

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Eemil Mitikka

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The course ”Introduction to Quantitative Data Analysis for Area Studies and Social Sciences” provides art and social sciences students an opportunity to learn and update their quantitative methods and numerical data analysis skills. Students with background in social sciences and humanities often shy away from using quantitative data in their study assignments and theses, and also later after graduating in work life. There might be many reasons behind this avoidance, like the fact that some curriculums do not include compulsory courses on the topic. It is also quite typical for social sciences and art students to think they simply lack literacy and numeracy skills with quantitative data.

This course addresses these problems by offering a beginner-friendly introduction to the programming language R, and by focusing on a powerful set of tools known as the Tidyverse. Students will learn the intertwined processes of data manipulation and visualization with real datasets relevant to area studies and social sciences. During the course, students will be also introduced where to find quantitative data relevant to their research work and how to apply these data in practice. The course is a suitable introduction for those who have no previous experience in R and are interested in enhancing their data analysis skills.

Learning outcomes

After completing this course, students will:

  • Be able to use R and know the basic workflow in R and RStudio,
  • Know relevant data sources for area studies and social sciences,
  • Be able to manipulate quantitative data with R, for example subset, sort and summarize datasets,
  • Be able to turn their data into informative visualizations,
  • Get a taste of the value of exploratory data analysis and the power of Tidyverse and other basic R tools,
  • Get a taste of re-producible research with R.


  1. Wed 15.3.2023 – Introducing the course, general workflow in R and relevant data sources
  2. Thur 16.3.2023 – Looking at the warm-up assignment and troubleshooting
  3. Wed 22.3.2023 – Looking at the lecture 1 assignments
  4. Thur 23.3.2023 – Data wrangling
  5. Wed 29.3.2023 – Looking at the lecture 4 assignments
  6. Thur 30.3.2023 – Data visualizations
  7. Wed 5.4.2023 – Looking at the lecture 6 assignments
  8. Thur 13.4.2023 – Creating and summarizing variables
  9. Wed 19.4.2023 – Looking at the lecture 8 assignments
  10. Thur 20.4.2023 – Enhancing data visualizations
  11. Wed 26.4.2023 – Looking at the lecture 10 assignments
  12. Thur 27.4.2023 – Conclusion: Re-producible research & reporting with R Markdown

Instructions for completing the course
The course consists of 12 lectures (length: 90 minutes/lecture). Lectures are held on Wednesdays and Thursdays. On Wednesday lectures, the previous week’s student assignments are discussed together. During these lectures, students can address the possible challenges they faced with their last assignment and learn from other students’ assignments. On Thursday lectures, in turn, the lecturer will introduce and discuss new themes, topics, and assignments. To successfully pass the course, students must return all the assignments given during the course.

The course can be taken entirely either in the online format, by partly attending the contact teaching and partly online (hybrid model), or by participating only in contact teaching. There will be also a couple of short teaching videos that will be uploaded to Moodle and/or YouTube.

Before the first lecture, students are expected to install R and RStudio to their personal/study computer and to perform a small warm-up of task (instructions for these will be given on the Moodle page of the course).

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 9.1.-12.3.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Viktor Pál

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

This is a master-level course that will analyze the environmental history of Eastern Europe and Russia (USSR) and the cultural-societal relationship to the natural environment. While there is a general assumption that Eastern European regimes have had less concern for nature preservation than Western liberal democratic systems, this course will compare the complex ways Eastern Europeans engineered and tackled pressing environmental issues since about 1750. 

Objectives: Participants will be introduced to the characteristics of the nature-culture and nature-society relationships in modern Eastern Europe and Russia (USSR). They will also gain an understanding of nature-culture and nature-society relationships on a global scale and will examine the objective of this course in a global and transnational context. 

Teaching Methods: The course focuses on the student's independent activity and will also utilize group work for analysis and discussion. 

1. Introduction.
Introduction to course requirements. 
Modernization and Ecological Consequences in Nineteenth Century Eastern Europe. 
2. From the October Revolution to The Great Stalin Plan for the Transformation of Nature in the USSR
3: Nazis and Nature Protection in Thirds Reich
4: Khrushchev's Reforms and their Ecological Consequences  
5: Soviet Satellite States of Eastern Europe and Environmental Protection  
6. The Flow of Environmental Information through the Iron Curtain  
7.  Experts’ Environmentalism in the USSR  
8.  Experts’ Environmentalism in Eastern Europe
9. Nature Suffers Again: From Communism to Capitalism  
10. Conclusive Session. Conclusion and Discussion

Course Requirements and Assignments
Completion of the course requires the completion of compulsory readings for each session as well as active participation in lectures and in group work, and a submitial of a learning diary. 

Groups in group work sessions will discuss content related to compulsory readings. Groups will also present their findings and answer questions. Participants will also keep a learning diary and record their main insights from each meeting (total of about 15 pages).
At the end of the course the reading diary will be submitted for evaluation.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 15.5.2023-
Online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Heli Reimann

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

This course aims to introduce jazz as a socio-cultural phenomenon in former Eastern bloc
area. It has no ambitions to provide comprehensive historical overview of each Eastern
European country, but it draws around significant selected subjects exemplifying the
particularities of jazz culture in those countries. Following to brief introduction to jazz culture in general, it demonstrates how jazz shaped its path in interaction with leisure, film, literature and folk music, how Cold War confrontation facilitated its development, and what was the impact of politics and social upheavals on the culture.

  1. Introduction to jazz. Meaning of jazz under state socialism
  2. Jazz and ideology in late-Stalinist era. Polish ‘catacomb’ jazz
  3. Jazz and Cold War. American jazz ambassadors program in Eastern Europe: VOA broadcaster Willis Conover and jazz ambassadors’ tours.
  4. Success of Polish jazz worldwide. Pianist Krzyztof Komeda and Roman Polanski’s films. Polish jazz journalism and the magazine Jazz Forum.
  5. Jazz in Hungary: Liberalism, refugees, opposition. György Szabados and free jazz movement. Jazz and recreation: Jazz clubs in GDR.   
  6. Bulgarian folk jazz movement. Jazz and fashion in Romania.  
  7. Czechoslovakian jazz and counterculture: ‘Jazz Section’. Jazz ‘writer’ Josef Škvorecký. Summary of the course.

Learning outcomes:
The students will be introduced the historical trajectory of jazz as a cultural, social and
musical phenomenon in former Eastern Europe. The participants will learn to discern the
modes of interaction between ideology of political power (state socialism) and musical actors in shaping the meaning of cultural form (jazz).

Students will

  1. Gain an understanding of the particularities and nature of jazz culture in Eastern European jazz  
  2. Be able to relate the development of jazz to different socio-cultural phenomena  
  3. Discern the role of Eastern Bloc in global context  
  4. Learn to compare the development of jazz in different Eastern Bloc countries  
  5. Develop critical thinking towards the sources on Eastern European jazz (media, archival and scholarly texts, visual and aural)

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 6.2.-15.2.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Dawid Bunikowski

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The aim of the course is to acquaint the student with the history of the Polish Jews since the Middle Ages to nowadays as well as with the Jews and Judaism in Russia, the Baltic countries and East Central Europe. The student should understand the diversity of Jewishness and Judaism in those countries and regions, especially in Poland, as well as the complexity of Jewish-Polish relations. 80% of the world's Jewry lived in Poland by 1800, however, there were also quite many Jews in Russia and other countries till the 1940s. The student should understand the phenomenon of Poland called "a paradise for the Jews". The student should get the reasons of different attitudes of majorities towards the Jews in the mentioned countries and regions. The international context of long-standing anti-Semitism is presented and should be well-understood as well. The student is also familiarised with the foundations of Judaism as a religion and a way of life.


  1. The Jews as a ("chosen") nation. Cultural and religious approaches.
  2. The Poles/the Russians/other Slavs/the Baltic people and the Jews as nations living together for 1000 years - characteristics.
  3. The Jews in Europe in the Middle Ages and modern times. The Jews in Russia, the Baltic countries and East Central Europe.
  4. The Jews' arrival in Poland in the Middle Ages: a legal/social status, restrictions and privileges.
  5. Jewish culture in multicultural Poland till the 19th century: Jewish religion, law, government/autonomy, parliament, kahals, customs, traditions, professions, activities, ordinary life.
  6. Sects in Judaism in Poland/Ukraine/East Central Europe in the 17th and the 18th centuries (Chasidism, Sabbateism, Jacob Frank's sect).
  7. Anti-Semitism in Poland, Russia, the Baltic countries and East Central Europe since medieval times to the 1930s: facts and reasons. Zionism: Jewish nationalism in the 20th century.
  8. Holocaust by Nazi Germany in the occupied Polish territories: "Shoah", Auschwitz-Birkenau.
  9. Jewish-Polish (interwar) literature: the Polish writers of Jewish origins Julian Tuwim, Jan Brzechwa, Bruno Schulz, Janusz Korczak, Isaac Singer.
  10. "Remnants: the last Jews of Poland" in homogeneous Poland since 1945 to the 21st century: assimilation, discrimination, emigration, grief, integration. The Jews in Russia, the Baltic countries and East Central Europe nowadays.

Online course format:

  1. The course will be held at the MS Teams platform.
  2. All the meetings will be in the Teams, online in a real time.
  3. The lectures will be also recorded in the Teams for those who cannot participate in a real time. This is made in order to watch it later.
  4. The students can contact the teacher via email or during an office hour (one a week) in the Teams, also in the field of reading, opinions, etc., especially if they cannot participate in a real time in the lecture meetings.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Click the name of the course (blue area) at the top of the page to see the course description.

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 17.1.–2.3.2023

Ti ja to klo 12-14

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Meri Herrala ja Susan Ikonen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Kurssi käsittelee sitä, miten Neuvostoliitossa politiikka ja ideologia toimivat taidetta muovaavina voimina ja miten kulttuuria käytettiin Neuvostoliitossa ja myöhemmin Venäjällä sisä- ja ulkopolitiikan välineinä. Käsittelemme myös, missä määrin Venäjän 2000-luvun historiapolitiikkaa voi tarkastella Neuvostoliiton kulttuuripolitiikan jatkumona.

Opintojakson suoritettuaan opiskelijalla on kattava näkemys Neuvostoliiton kulttuuripolitiikan keskeisistä piirteistä, kuten sensuurista, sosialistisesta realismista ja kommunistisen puolueen roolista. Opiskelija ymmärtää yhtäältä ideologian, toisaalta sisä- ja ulkopolitiikan vaikutukset neuvostokulttuurin sisältöihin ja niiden ohjailuun. Opiskelija ymmärtää kurssin suoritettuaan, miten kulttuuria käytettiin maan sisä- ja ulkopolitiikassa lokakuun vallankumouksesta Neuvostoliiton hajoamiseen asti. Esimerkkitapauksina esitellään musiikki, kirjallisuus ja elokuva, joiden vertailuun opiskelija saa valmiuksia. Kurssi tarjoaa empiirisiä ja analyyttisiä välineitä ymmärtää myös pehmeää diplomatiaa, “soft poweria” sekä informaatiovaikuttamista.

Kurssin lopuksi käydään läpi ns. Venäjän arkistovallankumous, joka on mahdollistanut
kurssillakin esitetyn neuvostohistorian tutkimisen alkuperäisaineistojen nojalla. Opiskelija saa siten kuvan siitä, millaiset lähteet ja metodologia ovat kurssin aihepiiriä koskevan akateemisen tutkimuksen takana. Lopuksi käsitellään 2010-2020-lukujen “kulttuuriskandaaleja” ja historiapolitiikkaa: miten nyky-Venäjän poliittinen johto haluaa esittää maan neuvostoajan ja miten tämä historiakuva eroaa akateemisesta historiantutkimuksesta.

Olennainen osa kurssin suorittamista on tutkimusartikkelien analyysi, joka tutustuttaa opiskelijat aihetta käsittelevään uusimpaan tutkimukseen sekä harjaannuttaa opiskelijat kriittiseen, reflektoivaan tieteellisen ajatteluun ja argumentointiin. Artikkelianalyysit syventävät opiskelijan ymmärrystä tieteellisen kirjoittamisen eri osa-alueista (kysymyksenasettelu, tutkimuksellinen viitekehys ja sisä- ja ulkopoliittinen konteksti, käsitteet, metodit ym.). Kurssitöiden laadinta ja esittely sekä muiden opiskelijoiden töiden kommentointi kehittävät osallistujien yhteistyö- ja keskusteluvalmiuksia.

Kurssin suorittaminen ja oppimateriaali
Kurssi suoritetaan osallistumalla luennoille, perehtymällä kahteen opettajien valitsemaan
tutkimusartikkeliin, osallistumalla pienryhmätapaamiseen ja pienryhmäesitelmän laatimiseensekä kirjoittamalla loppuesseen kurssin aihepiiriin kuuluvasta valitsemastaan aiheesta (8-10 sivua sekä bibliografia).

Opiskelijat lukevat kaksi tutkimusartikkelia pienryhmätyön osana. Kunkin pienryhmän jäsenet lukevat samat kaksi artikkelia, vastaavat kirjallisesti niitä koskeviin, artikkelin sisältöä ja akateemista kirjoittamista reflektoiviin kysymyksiin. He valmistelevat pienryhmänä artikkeleista Powerpoint-muotoisen esityksen koko ryhmälle. Opettajat tarjoavat Moodlessa kirjallisuusluettelon loppuesseen kirjoittamista varten.

Kurssin luennoimistapa 
Kurssi toteutetaan hybridiopetuksena. Kurssi suunnitellaan pidettäväksi Helsingin yliopistossa niin, että luennointi tapahtuu samanaikaisesti luokkahuoneelle ja Zoomiin. Luennot tallennetaan Moodleen. Pienryhmät voivat valintansa mukaan kokoontua joko lähitapaamiseen tai pienryhmän omaan Zoom-istuntoon, ja pienryhmäesitykset toteutetaan joko hybridinä tai pelkästään Zoomissa.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 26.1.–27.4.2023

Recorded online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Viktor Pál

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Students are introduced to major problems of Eastern European economic history with focus on the 19th and 20th centuries. During the course, students will gain an understanding of major socioeconomic changes in the Russian and the Habsburg Empires as well as of interwar and post-WWII states of Eastern Europe. Special attention is paid to developments in the Soviet Union. By completing the course the student will acquire fundamental understanding on the modern history of Eastern Europe and Russia.


1. Introduction. Feudalism and its consequences in Eastern Europe in the late 18th century
2. Modernization in Eastern Europe in the early 19th centuries
3. Urbanization and Industrialization in Eastern Europe in the 19th century
4. World War I, the Russian Revolution and their economic impact in Eastern Europe
5. Economic and social changes in the Soviet Union during the Interwar Period
6. The Sovietization of Eastern Europe after World War II
7. Reform communism in Eastern Europe in the 1950s-1960s
8. Economic stagnation in Eastern Europe in the 1970s
9. Economic decline, social and environmental problems in Eastern Europe in the 1980s
10. The collapse of communism in the late 1980s
11. Discontent with neoliberalism. The return of the authoritarian state in Eastern Europe
12. Concluding session


Watch and reflect on pre-recorded video lectures via mini-essays,
Complete reading diary assignments,
One discussion session via ZOOM

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 13.02.-21.02.2023

Luennot 18 h hybridiopetuksena, 13.–17.2.2023 ma-pe klo 14–17 ja 20.–21.2.2023 ma-ti klo 14–16 (sis. loppukeskustelun). Lähiopetus pidetään Oulun yliopistossa ja Zoom-yhteydellä etäopiskelijoille. Luennot nauhoitetaan ja ne ovat kurssin Moodle-työtilassa katsottavissa suoritusten palautuspäivään asti.

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Ilya Solomeshch, Seija Jalagin

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Kurssilla perehdytään Suomi-kuvan muotoutumiseen venäläisessä historiankirjoituksessa 1800-luvulta nykypäivään. Suomi-kuvaa esimerkkinä käyttäen käsitellään muun muassa historiantutkimuksen roolia Venäjän / Neuvostoliiton ideologiassa ja politiikassa sekä historiantutkimuksen eri koulukuntia ja suuntauksia eri aikoina. Yhtenä pitkän linjan tarkastelukohteena on historiantutkimuksen käyttö poliittisiin tarkoituksiin ja poliittisten ulottuvuuksien sisällöllinen ja institutionaalinen esiintyminen historiankirjoituksessa, myös nykyisten muistipoliittisten kamppailujen näkökulmasta. Suomea käsittelevien tekstien avulla otetaan tarkasteltavaksi eri käsitteiden merkitys: uhkakuva, valkoiset sivut, taistelu historian väärentäjiä vastaan ym.

Kurssin suoritettuaan opiskelija on perehtynyt Neuvostoliiton ja Venäjän historiankirjoituksen historian traditioihin ja historiapolitiikkaan sekä Suomen ja Venäjän suhteisiin historiakulttuurin valossa. Opiskelija on myös soveltanut diskurssianalyyttistä otetta kurssin teemaan liittyen.

Jokaista luentoa varten luetaan etukäteen Moodle-työtilasta saatava artikkeli. Luentoihin ja oheisteksteihin perustuva tentti (3 op) tehdään Moodlessa 3.3.2023. Lisäksi laaditaan alkuperäisaineistoa ja tutkimuskirjallisuutta hyödyntävä essee (2 op), jonka palautus on 31.3.2023. Tarkemmat ohjeet annetaan luennoilla ja Moodlen työtilassa.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 10.3.2023–21.4.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Lina Klymenko

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

How does the Russian political leadership narrate the country’s experience in World War II?  How is this narrative used in Russia’s
policy towards the EU? How is Europe framed in Russia’s political discourse? To answer these questions, we will explore the use of
language in foreign policy making and international politics. We will take the case studies of Russia and Eastern European countries and
discuss several interpretive approaches of how to analyze political language. This encompasses the study of narrative, frame, and

Learning outcomes
We will create a learning environment in which the students will develop the following knowledge and skills:
- analyze theoretical concepts common in the social sciences, and use them to critically evaluate the political development in Eastern Europe
- learn social sciences methodologies and methods to complete academic research assignments
- acquire communication techniques to create an in-group connection and an engaging classroom culture

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 16.1.–27.2.2023

Mondays 10-12

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Emma Rimpiläinen, Marina Khmelnitskaya, Kristiina Silvan

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The course examines some of the most salient political and social issues in the post-Soviet region through combining of insights from anthropology, history, and politics into questions of property, money, and distribution. Property opens up fruitful perspectives on the distribution and use of power in society, questions of state and sovereignty, the separation of the economic from the political and civic spheres of activity, and everyday lives under state socialism and after.

The course will use Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus as case studies and illustrations throughout, with the possibility to also examine other post-Soviet countries depending on students’ background and interest. After providing students with the tools to think about property in an analytical manner, the course explores questions such as: Was there private property under state socialism? How were property relations and networks of distribution transformed (or not) with the collapse of state socialism? How are property relations reflected in the organisation of political life in post-Soviet countries currently? How can we understand corruption, inequality, and organised crime in these societies by analysing property relations? How did the oligarchic system develop in Ukraine? What drives socioeconomic inequality in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus? The course is suitable for master’s degree students interested in the political economy of post-Soviet countries and questions of property more generally.

Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course, students will understand societal transformations in post-Soviet countries from the perspective of property and outcomes for different segments of society, including elites, oligarchs, and the wider public. They will know basic concepts of analysis in economic anthropology. They will also be able to evaluate the causes and consequences of variation between Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus with regards to the role of the state in mediating between property and politics. The students will develop advanced level of assessment of analytical concepts and learn to utilise analytical tools to evaluate evidence for research tasks. They will also be familiar with the different research methods and approaches used to analyse property relations in anthropology, political history, area studies, and politics.

Instructions for participation: The students will be graded for class participation and written work. Participation consists of regular attendance and active and thoughtful contributions in class. Students will sign up for two weeks where they are responsible for circulating discussion questions in advance of class. Everyone will be expected to have read all the required texts for the week (selected from the syllabus). Each student will also submit a weekly learning diary discussing issues they have learned in class and write one essay on a topic of their choice. The course will be realised in a hybrid format with some of the classes in person and some online.

Class 1: Introduction & key concepts in economic anthropology: property, money, gift exchange, types of value (Emma Rimpiläinen)
Appadurai, Arjun, ed. 1986. The Social Life of Things. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Graeber, David. 2011. Debt: The First 5,000 Years. Brooklyn, NY: Melville.
Gregory, Cristopher A. 2015. Gifts and Commodities (2nd ed.) Chicago: Hau Books.
Hann, Chris, and Keith Hart. 2011. Economic Anthropology: History, Ethnography, Critique. Cambridge: Polity.
Mauss, Marcel. 2015. Essay on the Gift: The Form and Sense of Exchange in Archaic Societies. Chicago: Hau Books.

Class 2: Property in the Soviet Union: a “complex form of gift economy”? (Emma Rimpiläinen)
Cherkaev, Xenia. 2018. “Self-Made Boats and Social Self-Management: The Late-Soviet Ethics of Mutual Aid.” Cahiers Du Monde Russe 59(2): 289–310.
Verdery, Katherine. 2003. The Vanishing Hectare: Property and Value in Postsocialist Transylvania. Ithaca: Cornell.
Verdery, Katherine, and Caroline Humphrey, eds. 2004. Property in Question: Value Transformation in the Global Economy. Oxford: Berg.
Ledeneva, A. V. (1998). Russia’s economy of favours: Blat, networking and informal exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Class 3: Transformation of networks and institutions in the immediate post-Soviet years (Kristiina Silvan)
Verdery, Katherine. 1996. What Was Socialism, and What Comes Next? Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Part III, chapters 6-8)
Wanner, Catherine. 2005. ‘Money, Morality and New Forms of Exchange in Postsocialist Ukraine’. Ethnos 70(4): 515–37.
Sakwa, Richard. 2021. Russian Politics and Society. London: Routledge (fifth edition).
Especially Chapter 6 ‘Crime, corruption and security’.

Class 4: Everyday modes of subsistence in 1990s Ukraine, Belarus and Russia OR Organised crime and the intertwining of force, power, and wealth (Emma Rimpiläinen)
Burawoy, M., P. Krotov, and T. Lytkina. 2000. ‘Involution and Destitution in Capitalist Russia’. Ethnography 1(1):43–65.
Humphrey, Caroline. 2002. The Unmaking of Soviet Life: Everyday Economics After Socialism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Morris, Jeremy. 2016. Everyday Post-Socialism: Working-Class Communities in the Russian Margins. London: Palgrave MacMillan.
Volkov, Vadim. 2002. Violent Entrepreneurs, The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Class 5: Housing as a property object: privatisation, mortgage finance, and subjectivity (Marina Khmelnitskaya)
Khmelnitskaya, Marina. 2014. Russian housing finance policy: state-led institutional evolution. Post-Communist Economies, 26/2, pp: 149-175.
Khmelnitskaya, Marina. 2015. The Policy-making process and social learning in Russia: the case of housing policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Zavisca, Jane. 2008. “Property without Markets: Housing Policy and Politics in Post-Soviet Russia, 1992–2007.” Comparative European Politics 6(3):365–86.

Class 6: Development of the oligarchic system and patronage networks, socioeconomic inequality (Marina Khmelnitskaya)
Bojcun, Marko. 2020. Towards a Political Economy of Ukraine: Selected Essays 1990-2015. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag.
Kolesnikov, Andrei, and D. Volkov. 2019. Pragmatic Paternalism: The Russian Public and the Private Sector. Carnegie Moscow, 18.1.2019.
Mihályi, Péter, and Iván Szelényi. 2019. Rent-Seekers, Profits, Wages and Inequality: The Top 20%. Cham: Springer International Publishing AG.
Sakwa, Richard. 2021. Russian Politics and Society. London: Routledge (fifth edition).
Especially Chapter 6 ‘Crime, corruption and security’, Chapter 14 ‘Russian Capitalism’ and Chapter 15 ‘Society and social movements’.

Class 7: Corruption on the macro and micro levels: from state capture to an economy of favours; popular reactions to corruption + final reflections (Emma Rimpiläinen)
Ledeneva, A. V. (1998). Russia’s economy of favours: Blat, networking and informal exchange. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ledeneva, Alena, 2013. Can Russia modernise? Sistema, power networks and informal governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Polese, Abel. 2008. ‘“If I Receive It, It Is a Gift; If I Demand It, Then It Is a Bribe”: On the Local Meaning of Economic Transactions in Post-Soviet Ukraine’. Anthropology in Action 15(3).
Sakwa, Richard. 2021. Russian Politics and Society. London: Routledge (fifth edition).
Especially Chapter 1 ‘Approaches to Russian politics’, as well as Chapters 6, 14 and 15 - on informality, cronyism, capitalism, economic transformation from the viewpoint of the elite and the public.

Other readings (list to be updated)
Musaraj, Smoki. 2020. Tales from Albarado: Ponzi Logics of Accumulation in Postsocialist Albania. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
World Bank. 2018. Crony Capitalism in Ukraine: Impact on Economic Outcomes. Washington D.C.: World Bank Group.
Yurchenko, Yuliya. 2018. Ukraine and the Empire of Capital: From Marketisation to Armed Conflict. London: PlutoPress.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 14.3.–28.4.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Igor Mikeshin

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content
This interdisciplinary course focuses on the historical, ideological, cultural, and political role of Christianity in contemporary Russia. A specific emphasis will be put on the rich diversity of the Russian Christian context, dominant and marginal discourses, the role of Christianity in a patriotic, conservative (gender and family), and secular narratives, and the impact Christianity makes in the current social and political situation in Russia.

The students are expected to attend courses, actively participate in class discussions, read selected papers from the recent research on Russian Christianity (in English), and write a final essay. Knowledge of the Russian language is not required, though it will definitely be an asset for the further study of the topic.

Learning outcomes. This is an introductory course on the history, ideology, and cultural context of Christianity in Russia. The students are not expected to have any previous knowledge or expertise on the topic. After the course, the students will have an understanding of key issues in history, ideology, and culture of Christianity in Russia and Russian-speaking Christianity, and its impact on the current political and social situation.

Course content:

  • Introduction: Christianity in Russia and Russian Christianities
  • Russian Orthodox Christianity: History
  • Russian Orthodox Christianity: Church, State, and Society
  • Secularism and Postsecularism in Russia
  • Old Believers
  • Evangelical Protestants in Russia
  • Traditional Values and Christian Morals in Russia
  • Wrapping up: Russian Christianity and current situation in Russia.

Requirements. Attendance and mandatory readings (40%), active participation in class discussions (10%), final essay (50%).

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 8.3.-3.5.2023

Wed 10-12

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Julia Bethwaite et al.

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

During the course, Russia and Russia’s foreign policy are examined through the concept of cultural statecraft. The course discusses and analyzes how culture has been used to promote Russia's foreign policy interests and what kind of political dimension and potential culture has. The cases presented in the course focus on cultural activities that occurred outside Russia's national borders. The course is taught in English.

The course is based on the book ‘Russia's Cultural Statecraft’, published by Routledge in 2022. The themes of the lectures are mostly based on the book's chapters written by Russia experts.

8.3 Tuomas Forsbeg ja Sirke Mäkinen: Introduction to Russia's Cultural Statecraft
15.3 Sirke Mäkinen: Higher Education as a Tool for Cultural Statecraft?
22.3 Julia Bethwaite: Fine Arts and International Relations: Russian Museum Diplomacy
29.3 Elina Viljanen: Soviet Legacies and Global Contexts: Classical Music and Russia’s Cultural Statecraft
5.4 Mari Pajanen: Stagecraft in the Service of Statecraft? Russia in the Eurovision Song Contest
12.4 Pia Koivunen: International Events in the Service of Cultural Statecraft: The Sochi Olympics and the World Festival of Youth and Students
19.4 Pallavi Pal: Russia's Nuclear Diplomacy
26.4 Lina Klymenko: Forging Common History: Russia’s Cultural Statecraft and the Soviet Second World War Monuments in Europe
3.5 Tuomas Forsberg: Sport as Cultural Statecraft: Russia and the Kontinental Hockey League

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place Spring 2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Andrey Zinovyev

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

This short short intensive course will give students an overview of the main trends in urban settlement pattern in Russia. By the end of the course, students will have a general understanding of urban development in Russia including specifics of different types of cities.

Despite Russia’s large size, most of the population is concentrated in a small number of urban centres, mainly in the European part of the country, that have been undergoing massive change since the end of the Soviet Union. Students will learn what strategies of development industrial towns in Russia have, what happens now in largest urban agglomerations of Russia, what transformations have happened in St. Petersburg in post-Soviet times, and what challenges small historical towns in Central Russia face. Additionally, during the course students will study the case of Moscow as a centre of the Central Russian Megalopolis.

Modes of Study
Lectures (16 hours) + a written exam (2 credits, evaluated by Dr. Zinovyev) and a research essay (8-10 pages, 3 credits) on a related topic of choice that will be evaluated by Adjunct Professor Paul Fryer. To receive credits, both assignments should be submitted.

Study Materials
A reading list will be distributed at the beginning of the course and readings made available online.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 11.1.2023–26.4.2023

ke 11.01.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104
ke 18.01.2023 14.15–15.45 Proxima, X 108
ke 25.01.2023 14.15–15.45 Proxima, X 308
ke 01.02.2023 14.15–15.45 Proxima, X 108
ke 08.02.2023 14.15–15.45 Proxima, X 108
ke 15.02.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104
ke 22.02.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104
ke 01.03.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104
ke 08.03.2023 14.15–15.45 Proxima, X 108
ke 15.03.2023 14.15–15.45 Proxima, X 108
ke 22.03.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104
ke 29.03.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104
ke 12.04.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104
ke 19.04.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104    
ke 26.04.2023 14.15–15.45 Oppio, O 103,104

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Anna Kyppö

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content


Kurssin käytyään opiskelija kykenee
- tunnistamaan slaavilaisia lähisukukieliä yhdistävät ja erottavat piirteet
- tuntee myös kunkin kielen sekä maan / kansan historiaa
- osaa tunnistaa ja erottaa eri slaavilaisia kieliä sekä
- tuntee yksittäisten slaavilaisten kansojen historiaa pääpirteittäin
- on tietoinen kulttuurienvälisistä eroista

Opiskelija tutustuu slaavilaisiin kieliin ja kansoihin. Kurssilla tutkitaan eri slaavilaisten kielten rakenteita vertaillen lähisukukieliä (esim. länsislaavilaisia, etelä- ja itäslaavilaisia kieliä). Kurssilla tutustutaan slaavilaisten kansojen historiaan ja kulttuuriin slaavilaisten kielten puhujien näkökulmasta. Kurssi sopii myös muiden kielten sekä humanististen tieteiden opiskelijoille.

Luennot ja harjoitukset, ryhmätyöskentely, slaavilaisten vieraiden esitelmät omasta maasta, kielistä ja kulttuurista, reflektiivinen oppimispäiväkirja.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivuille

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 13.1.–12.5.2023 on Fridays at 13:30-15:00

Online course

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Anna Tarasenko

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Content of the course:
1. Introduction and policy analysis perspective  
2. Post-soviet welfare state trajectories and welfare regimes: political ideologies and societal expectations
3. Political importance of unpopular reforms: agenda setting in policy process
4. Labour and pension reforms in Russia: interest groups and policy coalitions in decision-
5. Deinstitutionalisation of care: the impact of global shifts in ideals of care and country specifics
6. Social care provision: mismatch between policy goals, problem and instruments
7. New public management approach: the dynamic of modes of governance
8. Outsourcing of social services: policy compliance and principal-agent problems
9. Penitentiary systems and models of resocialization of former prisoners, the role of NGOs and international regulations
10. Policy evaluation: the case of the penitentiary system in Russia
11. Abortion regulation: feminist movements and conservative turn
12. Drug regulation: policy transfer between criminalization and health care
13. Discussion of policy papers produced by students
14. Final discussion

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 16.01.-13.03.2023 klo 12-14

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Teuvo Laitila ja Heta Hurskainen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojakson suoritettuaan opiskelija osaa
* selittää Venäjän, Ukrainan ja Puolan 1900-luvun uskonnollisten ja etnisten jännitteiden syitä ja seurauksia
* vertailla ja arvioida näiden kolmen maan uskonto- ja kansallisuuspolitiikan välisiä yhteyksiä
* esitellä kurssin aihepiiriin liittyvän annetun kokonaisuuden osana pienryhmää
* arvioida tärkeimpien uskonto- ja kansallisuuspoliittisten tapahtumien merkitystä Itä-Euroopassa


Kurssilla käsitellään Ukrainan, Venäjän ja Puolan valtakirkkojen ja valtionhallinnon kirkko- ja kansallisuuspolitiikan rajapintoja 1900-luvun alusta nykypäivään. Perinteisesti alueen kirkollista historiaa on tarkasteltu Moskovan tai Kiovan/Lvivin ja Varsovan näkökulmasta ottamatta vakavasti näiden kansojen ja eri poliittisten keskusten vahvaa keskinäistä vuorovaikutusta. Luentosarjassa keskitytään vuorovaikutukseen. Miten venäläinen ja ukrainalainen ortodoksisuus, Ukrainan ja Puolan kreikkalaiskatolisuus ja Puolan roomalaiskatolisuus vaikuttivat toisiinsa muuttuvissa poliittisissa konteksteissa? Miten kansallismielinen ja kommunistinen politiikka hyödynsivät kirkkoja omiin tarkoituksiinsa? Miten kansallisuuspolitiikka ja uskontopolitiikka vaikuttivat toisiinsa, ja miksi juutalaisista niin usein vaiettiin?

1. Kiovan Kaste historiallisena perspektiivinä 1900-luvulle HH
2. Ukraina: puolalainen, venäläinen vai itsenäinen maa? TK
3. Saksan uskonto- ja kansallisuuspolitiikka Puolassa ja Ukrainassa 1939-1945 TL
4. Kirkot ja Kylmä Sota HH
5. Holokausti ja sen perintö Neuvostoliitossa ja Puolassa TL
6. Antisemitismi ja juutalaisuuden elpyminen Ukrainassa 1991 jälkeen TL
7. Kirkot ja kirkkopolitiikka 1991-2013 HH
8. Ukrainan itsenäisen ortodoksisen kirkon synty 1989-2019 TL
9. Kirkot osana kansallispoliittisia projekteja 2019-2022 HH
10. Esitelmien läpikäynti HH & TL

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Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 13.3.-20.4.2023

Verkkokurssi. Ma ja to klo 15:15-15:45

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marina Vituhnovskaja-Kauppala

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Tänä vuonna täyttyy sata vuotta Venäjän kansalaissodan päättymisestä. Verinen ja paljon uhreja vaatinut kansalaissota kesti viisi vuotta, vaikka historiankirjoituksessa edelleen on erimielisyyksiä sen alku- ja loppuvuosiluvuista. Venäjän kansalaissotaa on tutkittu viime vuosina innokkaasti, mutta sen tutkimuksessa on edelleen paljon valkoisia läikkiä, koska neuvostoaikana sitä tutkittiin hyvin yksipuolisesti, ja nyt historioitsijoiden edessä on suuri kyntämätön pelto. Vaikeutena on myös, että kansalaissota oli hyvin monimutkainen prosessi, johon osallistui kymmeniä poliittisia ja sotilaallisia ryhmiä. Paitsi valkoisia ja punaisia venäläishallituksia ja sotilasosastoja siihen osallistui monenlaisia sosiaalisia ja kansallisia ryhmiä (suurelta osin talonpoikaiston sotilasosastoja) sekä ulkomaisia sotavoimia. Paitsi ententen ja keskusvaltojen joukkoja osallistui Venäjän kansalaissotaan monia ei-venäläisiä sotilasosastoja, alkaen ns. tšekkoslovakialaisesta legioonasta ja päättyen puolalaisiin ja latvialaisiin rykmentteihin. Kansalaissodan aikana entisen Venäjän imperiumin alueelle syntyi monia valtiollisia muodostelmia, sellaisia kuin anarkistinen Huljaipole tai Karjalan väliaikainen hallitus.

Suomalaisia osallistui Venäjän kansalaissotaan suuressa mittakaavassa rintaman eri puolin. Näin, punaisia suomalaisia joko liittyi Venäjän punaisten sotajoukkoihin tai ne loivat ns. Muurmannin legioonan, joka toimi brittien alaisuudessa. Valkoisten suomalaisten vapaaehtoisten joukot, jotka pyrkivät toteuttamaan Suur-Suomi-aatetta, järjestivät kaksi sotaretkeä Itä-Karjalaan vuosina 1918 ja 1919 (suomalaisessa kirjallisuudessa niitä kutsutaan heimosodiksi) sekä energisesti osallistuivat vuosien 1921–22 Karjalan kansalaissotaan. Kannattaa muistaa myös, että itäkarjalaiset kunnat Repola ja Porajärvi vuosina 1918 ja 1919 tekivät päätökset liittyä Suomeen, jonka de facto protektoraattina ne olivat vuoteen 1920 saakka. Tärkeää Venäjän kansalaissodalle oli myös Luoteis-Venäjän armeijan luominen, joka tapahtui osittain Suomessa kenraali Nikolai Judenitšin johdolla. Suomen poliittisissa piireissä käytiin vilkkaita keskusteluja suomalaisten sotajoukkojen mahdollisesta osallistumisesta Pietarin sotaretkeen, minkä aktiivisena kannattajana oli C.G.E. Mannerheim. Voi arvella, että, jos Suomi olisi päättänyt osallistua tähän retkeen, valkoiset olisivat valloittaneet Pietarin, ja Venäjän kansalaissodan kulku olisi muuttunut olennaisesti.

Ehdottamani kurssin perusaineistoina käytän paitsi lukuisia venäläisiä ja suomalaisia tutkimuksia, myös omaa tuoretta teostani, jonka julkaisin Pietarissa vuonna 2021 toisen tekijän, Aleksandr Osipovin kanssa: ”В пучине гражданской войны: карелы в поисках стратегий выживания. 1917-1922” (suomeksi: Kansalaissodan kurimuksessa: Karjalaiset etsimässä selviytymisstrategioita vuosina 1917-22). Monografiassamme on paljon uutta materiaalia Suomen ja suomalaisten osallistumisesta Venäjän kansalaissotaan.

Kurssin tarkoituksessa on sekä laajan kuvauksen esittäminen kuulijoille Venäjän kansalaissodasta, että Suomen ja suomalaisten roolia sotatoimissa ja vuosien 1918–1922 Venäjän sisä- ja ulkopolitiikassa kuvailu. Tämä oli periodi, jolloin alkoivat muodostua nuoren, itsenäisen Suomen ja vastasyntyneen Neuvosto-Venäjän suhteet, jotka tulevaisuudessa vaikuttivat perustavanlaatuisesti Suomen ja Neuvostoliiton keskinäisiin suhteisiin. Kurssiin osana pidän myös historiografisia kuvauksia. Kurssin pituus tulee olemaan 19 tuntia.

Luentokertojen otsikot

  • Luento 1. Venäjän kansalaissodan edellytykset ja alku vuonna 1918.
  • Luento 2. Valkoiset ja punaiset sotavoimat ja hallitukset. Liittoutuneiden interventio Venäjän pohjois- ja eteläalueilla sekä muut ulkomaalaiset sotilaalliset ryhmät ja niiden rooli kansalaissodassa.
  • Luento 3. Kansallisia liikkeitä ja alueita kansalaissodassa. Anarkistinen tasavalta Huljaipole. Bolševikkien sisäpolitiikka ja sen seurauksia. Tšekkoslovakian legioonan kapina ja sen rooli kansalaissodan tapahtumissa.
  • Luento 4. Itä-Karjalan kysymys vuoden 1917 vallankumouksien aikana. Suomi ja Itä-Karjalan kysymys vuosina 1918–1922. Heimosotien alku.
  • Luento 5.  Maailmansodan loppu ja ulkopoliittisen tilanteen muuttuminen. Suomen ulkopolitiikka ja Venäjän kansalaissodan vaiheet. Judenitšin sotaretki Pietariin ja Suomi.
  • Luento 6. Itä-Karjala ja sen asukkaat Venäjän kansalaissodan tulessa: erilaisten strategioiden luominen. Suomalaiset sotaretket Itä-Karjalaan, Muurmannin legioona ja ”punikit”.
  • Luento 7. Karjalainen rykmentti ja nk. ”Karjalan väliaikainen hallitus”. Korkein Hallitsija Aleksandr Koltšakin rooli Suomen kysymyksessä. Aunuksen sotaretki vuonna 1919.
  • Luento 8. Karjalan väliaikainen hallitus ja Suomi. Venäjän kansalaissodan loppurynnistykset. Puolan – Neuvosto-Venäjän sota (helmikuu 1919 − maaliskuu 1921) ja Wrangelin armeijan pako Krimiltä vuonna 1920.
  • Luento 8. Karjalan Työkansan kommuuni ja rauhan solmiminen Suomen kanssa. Talonpoikaiskapinoita Venäjän eri alueilla kansalaissodan aikana. Kronstadtin kapina vuonna 1921. Itä-Karjalan kansannousu vuosina 1921–22.
  • Luento 10 (yksi tunti). Kansalaissodan viimeiset taistelut maan raja-alueilla vuosina 1920–1923 (Jakutiassa, Kamtšatkan ja Tšuktšien niemimailla, Keski-Aasiassa jne.).  Kansalaissodan lopputulokset.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 20.1.–31.3.2023


Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Elina Kahla ja Markku Kivinen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Kurssi perehdyttää opiskelijat Venäjän modernisaatioyrityksiin 1900-luvun alusta tähän päivään. Opiskelija oppii arvioimaan makrotason sosiologisten käsitteiden yhteyttä empiirisesti havaittaviin indikaattoreihin ja ilmiöihin. Opitaan näkemään anomalioita ja välttämään selektiivistä virhettä, jossa havainnot eivät tuo mitään uutta teoreettisiin lähtökohtiin. Käyttämällä kaunokirjallisuutta lähtökohtana pohditaan pienimuotoisten harjoitusten kautta myös tulkinnan ja selityksen suhdetta. Samalla nostetaan esiin ”vedenalaista maailmaa”, toista todellisuutta, kamppailua eloonjäämisestä, valintoja hyvän ja pahan keskellä. Miten vankileireiltä selviytyjät kuvasivat kokemuksiaan? Miten pitäisi suhtautua kysymykseen absoluuttisesta pahasta? Mitä nykyihmisen tulee tietää vainojen ja puhdistusten vaietusta ja pimeästä historiasta? Miten nykyisen Venäjän kehitystä voidaan selittää ja tulkita? Miksi totuuden ja sovituksen kysymykset ovat yhä ajankohtaisia.
Suoritustapa ja arviointi
Kurssi sisältää kymmenen 90 min tapaamiskertaa, joihin sisältyy alustuksia, ryhmätöitä ja palautekeskusteluja. Opiskelijat valmistavat parityönä kurssin aikana kaksi esitystä sekä kirjoittavat loppuesseen, joka vaikuttaa loppuarvosanaan.


1. Kurssin tavoitteet ja lähestymistapa.
Johdatus teorian ja käsitteenmuodostuksen kysymyksiin Neuvostoliiton ja Venäjän tutkimuksessa. Avataan erilaisten paradigmojen historiallista taustaa ja yhteiskunnallista kontekstia. Tematisoidaan selityksen ja tulkinnan eroa. Nostetaan näkökulmaksi teorioiden yhteiskuntakriittinen ulottuvuus ja suhde koettuun historiaan ja sosiaaliseen toimintaan.

Opiskelijat jaetaan työryhmiin, joille annetaan joko tulkintaan tai selittämiseen painottuvat tavoitteet.  

2. Venäjän imperiumi: utopiat ja vallankumouksen aave
Luento Venäjän imperiumin messianismista ja erilaisista vastavoimista viime vuosisadan kulttuurin hopeakaudella. Venäläisen modernismin keskeiset teoriat (dekadenssi, symbolismi, uusi uskonnollinen tietoisuus, proletkult.) Esitellään aikakauden kaksi neroa: Aleksander Bogdanov ja Pavel Florenski. Hopeakauden modernismin tukahduttaminen ja uudelleen löytäminen Neuvostoliiton jälkeisenä aikana.  
(1. ryhmätyötehtävä opiskelijoille). 

3. Bolshevikkien pyhä ja neuvostoajan tabut
Avataan bolshevikkien modernisaatioprojektin kulttuuriset juuret Émile Durkheimin pyhää ja maallista koskevan teorian avulla. Juri Lotmanin ajatusta venäläisen kulttuurin jyrkästä dualismista sovelletaan kommunismille ominaisten kahtiajakojen tarkasteluun. Hahmotetaan bolshevikkien modernisaatioprojektin ei-tarkoitetut tulokset, jotka muodostuvat yhteiskunnallisen todellisuuden esittämistä koskeviksi tabuiksi. Tarkastellaan Andrei Platonovin tuotantoa neuvostoajan tabujen näkökulmasta. Pohditaan tabujen institutionalisoitumisen problematiikkaa.  (2. ryhmätyötehtävä opiskelijoille).

4. Modernisaatio ja GULAG
Neuvostoyhteiskunnan talousjärjestelmän ja teollistamisen erityislaatu. Stalinismi ja kaaderivalta. Suunnitelmatalous ja Karl Marxin kapitalismikritiikki. Talousjärjestelmän merkitys arjen rakenteissa. Totalismiteorian merkitys ja rajat. Syvennetään ei- tarkoitettujen tulosten tarkastelua. GULAGin historian pääpiirteet. Aleksander Solzhenitsyn ja Varlam Shalamov vankileirien koetussa todellisuudessa. Gulagin memorialisaatio nykyaikana: Jevgeni Vodolazkin.

5. Suojasää ja perestroika
Stalinismin päättyminen ja markkinasosialismin kokeilut. Uusi vapaus ja  yhteiskuntatieteen paluu. Optimaalisen suunnittelun koulukunta.  Vasemmistofundamentalismi paluuna alkuperäisen projektin koodeihin.  Suurvaltapolitiikka ja Brezhnevin aika. Kansainvälisten suhteiden ideologisuus ja valtapoliittisuus. Jatkuvuudet nykytilanteeseen. Perestroikan tarkoitetut ja ei-tarkoitetut tulokset. Avautumisen ja sulkeutumisen syklisyys?

6. Transitio ja romahdus
Ajatus historian lopusta. Kylmän sodan päättyminen ja tunnustamisen dialektiikka. Toiveiden horisontti ja empiirinen yhteiskuntatiede. Transitio kohti markkinataloutta, demokratiaa ja hyvää hallintoa. Muutoksen ei-tarkoitetut tulokset: sosiaalinen kriisi ja anomia. Pysyykö selitys yhteiskunnan dramaattisen muutoksen mukana ja miten muodostuu vastuu ei-tarkoitetuista tuloksista?

7. Neuvostoihmisen loppu
Neuvostoihmisen käsite yhteiskuntatieteellisenä selityksenä. Yhteiskuntatieteen ja kirjallisuuden rooli koetun todellisuuden tulkitsemisessa. Selityksen ja tulkinnan rajat. Tragediat ja tabut eivät pääty Stalinin aikaan, mutta miten yhteiskuntatiede kykenee niitä käsittelemään? Tässä kokonaisuudessa paneudutaan suuren isänmaallisen sodan, Afganistanin sodan ja Tšernobylin onnettomuuden tabujen käsittelyyn erityisesti nobel-kirjailija Svetlana Aleksijevitšin tuotannon avulla.  Samalla pohditaan kirjallisuuden ja yhteiskuntatieteen eettistä horisonttia.

8. Nykyisen Venäjän modernisaation antinomiat
Neuvostoliiton hajoaminen mullisti kansainvälistä politiikkaa ja venäläisten arkipäivää. Yhteiskuntatieteilijät joutuivat uuden haasteen eteen. Venäjää ei enää voinut selittää poikkeavana talousjärjestelmänä. Samalla venäläisen yhteiskunnan makrotason muutos tarjosi suuren sosiaalisen koeasetelman ja avasi mahdollisuuden pohtia yleisemmin yhteiskuntateorian mahdollisuuksia muutoksen selittämisessä. Viimeisten kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana Venäjällä on jälleen kerran puhuttu modernisaatiosta. Suomalaisessa Venäjän tutkimuksen huippuyksikössä lähdettiin tutkimaan tähän liittyviä yhteiskunnallisia valintoja ja prosesseja. Lopputuloksena päädyimme esittämään uutta paradigmaa, jossa nykyisen venäläisen yhteiskunnan kehitystä voidaan selittää kymmenen keskeisen antinomian kautta. Tässä luennossa nämä antinomiat avataan ja pohditaan niihin liittyviä avoimia teoreettisia ja empiirisiä kysymyksiä.

9. Venäjä ja länsi: modernisaation monet problematiikat
Tällä luennolla kysytään, noudattaako Venäjä jonkinlaista universaalia läntisen modernisaation mallia. Venäjän eliitti ja sen ytimessä oleva konservatiivinen valtablokki näkee modernisaation vain teknologisena ja taloudellisena kilpailukykynä. Eliitin modernisaatiosta puuttuvat laajemmat yhteiskunnalliset ulottuvuudet. Venäjällä on suuri tarve laajempaan poliittiseen ohjelmaan kohti sosiaalisesti oikeudenmukaisempaa ja ekologisesti kestävämpää yhteiskuntaa, jonka poliittinen järjestelmä olisi avoimempi, pluralistisempi ja inklusiivisempi. Pohditaan sosiologian suurten prosessikäsitteiden suhdetta yhteiskunnallisen muutoksen voimiin ja vastavoimiin. 

10. Yhteeveto: 
Kurssin lopuksi palataan alussa esitettyihin kysymyksiin. Miten erilaisella abstraktiotasolla olevat teoriat ovat vaikuttaneet yhteiskunnan suuriin muutoksiin? Minkälaisella empiirisellä tarkastelulla makrotason teoriat muuttuvat uskottaviksi tai johtavat uusiin selityksiin tai käsitteisiin? Kuinka paljon voidaan laskea yleisten prosessikäsitteiden varaan? Miten koettu todellisuus välittyyyhteiskuntatieteen tuloksiin tai kaunokirjallisiin esityksiin? Miten voimme käsitteellistää tai ymmärtää yhteiskunnallisen toiminnan ei-tarkoitettuja tuloksia tai tabuja? Mitä itse asiassa olemme oppineet Neuvostoliiton ja Venäjän tragedioista?

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Kevät 2023 - lähiopetuskurssit / Fall 2023 - on-site lecture courses

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 13.3.-30.4.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Kari Liuhto + guest lecturers

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

The Baltic Sea Region accounts for approximately five percent of the global economy and it is one of the most dynamic regions in the whole world. Moreover, this region covers nearly a half of Finland's foreign trade and foreign investment. The course provides a student with a comprehensive picture of the macroeconomic situation and the business development in the Baltic Sea Region. Several top level visiting lecturers, representing business, state administration and the Academia, guarantee that a student receives the most up-to-date information on their field of expertise. In addition to lectures, the course contains an analytical case study (a course work) conducted by a student.

After completing the course, a student is able to evaluate independently business opportunities the region offers and assess the future development of the Baltic Sea Region.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 18.4.–11.5.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marianna Muravyeva

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content -

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 25.1.–3.3.2023
Wed 14.15–15.45    Kielikeskus, sh.105, Fabianinkatu 26
Fri 12.15–13.45    Metsätalo, sali 11, Unioninkatu 40

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Dragana Cvetanovic

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals

1. Gain an understanding of the histories and nature of hip hop culture(s) in the former Yugoslav spaces
2. Be able to link the development of hip hop culture to various socio-cultural-political phenomena in the region
3. Place the Balkan hip hop culture into the global context
4. Develop critical thinking towards the reading on hip hop culture in media, archival and scholarly texts, as well through visual and aural work


1. Introduction to the course. Origins and localisms of hip hop culture in the Balkans
2. Hip hop between Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav time
3. From funk to folk inspirations in music of hip hop culture
4. Hip hop city tales: Zagreb scene in the 1990’s and the diesel style of Belgrade
5. Reconciliation hip hop
6. Hip hop’s patriots and traitors
7. Women in Balkan hip hop
8. Balkan graffiti art
9. DJ art and craft
10. Race and minorities in Balkan hip hop
11. Students’ seminar
12. Conclusions, discussions and feedback


Lectures with discussion, reading, supplementary material (videos, musical examples), students’ seminar aiming to prepare in writing an essay and the final essay

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 24.1.–28.2.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Ryhor Nizhnikau and Katalin Miklóssy

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals

Students will gain knowledge of major theoretical approaches (geopolitics, nationalism, Europeanization, regionalism, strategic culture) and critically analyze and compare major developments in Ukraine and the region. They will also get a better knowledge of topical issues in Belarus, Moldova and CEE.

Course outline

This course studies the domestic and regional effects of the Euromaidan Revolution and the Russia-Ukraine conflict. The Revolution and the war in Donbas made a profound impact on Ukrainian state, politics and society and its foreign relations. In a similar fashion, the events of 2013-2014 restructured the domestic policies of the neighbouring states and their foreign relations.
The first 2 lectures will discuss the major impact of 2013-2014 events on domestic politics, society, and institution building in Ukraine. Other lectures will analyze how the ever since 2014 continuing Ukrainian crisis is from the outside stakeholders’ point of view. Here special focus is directed to Russia, the US, NATO, EU and the immediate regional neighbors. The question is how all these sides accelerated the crisis arriving at a stalemate situation.


1. Introduction: Ukraine’s many crises since 2013 (Ryhor Nizhnikau - RN)
2. Domestic effects: political change, nation-building and state society relations (RN)
3. Russian geopolitical interest (RN)
4. Belarusian foreign policy after the Crimea (RN)
5. Belarusian crisis (RN)
6. US and NATO responses (RN)
7. Ukraine from the EU-angle (Katalin Miklossy - KM)
8. Conflicting Visegrad views (KM)
9. Moldova and Romania (KM)
10. Security in the Black Sea region (RN)
11. Conclusion (RN)

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page. Check the course info before start of the course.

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 17.1.–2.5.2023
Tiistaisin 10:15-11:45, Metsätalo, sali 18, Unioninkatu 40

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojakso rakentuu kulttuurisen muistin käsitteen ympärille ja tarkastelee kulttuurista muistia Virossa esimerkiksi kirjallisuuden, elokuvan, kulttuuriperinnön ja historiankirjoituksen kautta.

Opintojakson suoritettuaan opiskelija on perehtynyt kulttuurisen muistin käsitteeseen ja sen merkitykseen Virossa. Hän osaa tarkastella Viron menneisyyttä, nykyisyyttä ja tulevaisuutta kulttuurisen muistin näkökulmasta. Opiskelija kykenee analysoimaan kulttuurisen muistin välineitä eli Viroa koskevaa historiankirjoitusta, kirjallisuutta, elokuvaa, rituaaleja ja kulttuuriperintöä, ja sijoittamaan ne laajempaan alueelliseen ja kulttuuriseen kontekstiin.

Opintojakson aikana harjoitellaan kulttuurisen muistin analyysiä moninaisesta näkökulmasta. Lisäksi kehitetään vuorovaikutus-, keskustelu- ja analyysitaitoja.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivuille

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 16.3.–4.5.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Johanna Virkkula

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals

After the course the student will have learnt about the history of literacy in Europe in general and in the Balkans especially. The course will deal with the official languages and literacy in them in the different states, while discussing political and social movements and policies that have meaning in the advancement of literacy in the region. The emphasis is on the Slavonic languages in the Balkans, but other languages - especially Albanian - are also included.

Course outline

Literacy spread in the Balkans after the Second World War as a result of language policies and increasingly positive attitudes towards reading and writing as a skill for the whole population (as opposed to a select few). Changes in the normed languages, however, also played a role. These language policies and changes in attitudes and normed language are specifically studied through Central South Slavonic (also known as Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian; formerly known as Serbo-Croatian), Macedonian and Albanian, which coexist in the chosen area. Macedonian required the status of an official language at the end of the war and is thus illuminating for literacy purposes a specific language policy situation.Albanian is crucial for the study of language policies and attitudes, as it covers both Albanian and Yugoslav language policies and as such show differences and similarities between them. Central South Slavonic languages are crucial for studying language policies and attitudes, as these language areas cover both Ottoman and non-Ottoman lands.


1. Literacy in the Balkans; course introduction
2. Pre-world war II literacy in the Balkans
3. Language policy and literacy: theoretical overview
4. Literacy and didactic materials
5. Female and rural illiteracy revisited
6. Socialist literacy campaigns
7. Recent illiteracy in the Balkans.


Lectures with reading and group discussions, prepared beforehand by the students, and a final essay.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivuille

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 4.4.-16.5.2023, Joensuun kampus

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Minna Piipponen ja Joni Virkkunen

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Kurssilla käsitellään Venäjän nykyisiä alueellisia ja yhteiskunnallisia rakenteita sekä sen taloudellista ja poliittista kehitystä. Näkökulmia kurssille tuovat mm. federaatiorakenne ja aluehallinto, väestökehitys, etnisyys ja muuttoliikkeet, ympäristö- ja luonnonvarakysymykset, kansalaisyhteiskunta ja media sekä Venäjä kansainvälisenä toimijana. Nykypäivän tarkasteluja taustoitetaan entisen Neuvostoliiton alueen yhteisellä historialla. Venäjää käsitellään ylirajaisena, otetaan huomioon sen yleinen yhteiskunnallinen tilanne sekä sen lähialueiden ja kansainvälisten toimijoiden kuten Euroopan unionin rooli.



  • on tietoinen Venäjän nykyisistä alue- ja yhteiskuntarakenteista sekä taloudellisesta ja poliittisesta kehityksestä.
  • tuntee Venäjän ja sen lähialueiden rakenteiden ja yhteiskunnallisten prosessien historiaa ja nykytilannetta.
  • pystyy arvioimaan prosessien moninaisuuden sekä kansallisten ja kansainvälisten toimijoiden vaikutukset näihin.

The language of instruction is English (2023 spring semester), though the written assignment maybe submitted in Finnish.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 30.1.-6.3.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marja Sorvari

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojaksolla perehdytään kulttuurintutkimuksen keskeisiin käsitteisiin, joiden kautta tarkastellaan nyky-Venäjän kulttuurin ilmiöitä, sekä selvitetään ilmiöiden historiallista taustaa ja yhteiskunnallista kontekstia.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 7.2–17.2.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Miglena Dikova-Milanova

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning goals

The course aims to stimulate curiosity about the region of Southeastern Europe, to enable the students to analyze and evaluate a range of literary, cultural and political issues representative for the modern and contemporary history of the Balkans, to develop critical understanding of the cultural and philosophical concept of ”post-communist nostalgia” and to create skills necessary for the interpretation of primary and secondary sources on the region’s socialist past.

Course outline

In The Future of Nostalgia (2001), S. Boym famously distinguishes between two types of nostalgia – restorative and reflective. In her turn, in the preface to Post-Communist Nostalgia (2010), the historian M. Todorova connects this complex and diverse cultural sentiment to gender, self-censorship and political attitudes. The question here is, what is post-communist nostalgia - a feeling that helps moving forward, a critical mirror, or a powerful emotion that longs for, and brings, a restauration of the past?

Some answers could be found in two books which outline crucial aspects of post-communist nostalgia as experienced in Southeastern Europe. In 2004 the Bulgarian contemporary writer G. Gospodinov published Az Zhivyah Sotsializma / I lived socialism, which contains 171 stories told by Bulgarians who lived during socialism. In 2004 Leksikon YU mitologije /The Lexicon of YU mythology was published in Belgrade (Serbia) and Zagreb (Croatia). The book contains over 800 personal narratives which map the cultural, political and everyday life in socialist Yugoslavia.

The course intends to compare the two books’ narratives, and their respective political, cultural and historical contexts, in order to outline the common trends and differences of the faces of post-communist nostalgia in Southeastern Europe.


Lectures, reading, essay

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 19.1.- 4.5.2023
to 10:00-11:30 Porthania P417

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Lidia Gripenberg

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content -

Lisätietoa / More information Kanditasoinen kurssi, linkki kurssisivulle

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 18.1.–3.5.2023
Keskiviikkoisin 10:00-12:00, Päärakennus sali U3041

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content -

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivuille

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 17.3.–5.5.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Anatoly Pinsky

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Learning Outcomes

The course aims to be of value to two sets of students: those who seek to pursue academic careers and those who seek to pursue non-academic careers (e.g., to work in government, for cultural institutions, non-governmental organizations, etc.). Students who wish to become academics in the Ukrainian/Eurasian field will be trained to evaluate the central scholarly debates surrounding key periods in twentieth-century Ukrainian/Eurasian history, and to interpret the classic primary sources that scholars draw upon in these debates. Students will also be trained in habits of mind useful for all professionals, including how to critique complex arguments and analyze data that tells a variety of stories.

General Description

In 1928–1929, Joseph Stalin and the Communist Party launched the “Great Turn,” or the industrialization of the Soviet economy and the collectivization of agriculture in an effort to build socialism. In the early 1930s, as part of this policy, Stalin and the Party instigated a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine that took the lives of some four-million people. Ukraine endured as a Soviet republic and even increased in size in the years that followed, but the Great Famine, or Holodomor in Ukrainian, had a devastating effect on Ukrainian society, culture, and politics.

In this course, we will examine the famine and its Soviet and post-Soviet legacies. In doing so, we will analyze the evolution and consequences of Soviet nationality policy, drawing on scholarship on nationalism and empire in relation to both the Soviet Union and other polities. We will also evaluate the debate on whether the Great Famine was a genocide against ethnic Ukrainians, and enrich this discussion by examining scholarly work on famine and genocide in other parts of Europe and beyond.

Completion and Evaluation

Seven lectures, reading, discussion, and final essay

Students will be evaluated based on the following:

1) Attendance: 10%

2) Participation in discussion: 40%

3) Final essay, 4 double-spaced pages (1,000–1,200 words): 50%. Students will be asked to write a short historiographical essay in which they would evaluate and take a position in the scholarly debate on the nature of the Great Ukrainian Famine. Essays may be based on assigned readings, though the use of outside readings is encouraged.

Lisätietoa / More information Link to the course page

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 16.1.–24.4.2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojakso tarjoaa katsauksen 1990-2000-luvun Viron kirjallisuuden tärkeimpiin suuntauksiin, merkittävimpiin aiheisiin sekä keskeisiin kirjailijoihin ja heidän teoksiinsa, joita tarkastellaan Viron yhteiskunnallisessa kontekstissa.

Opintojakson suoritettuasi tunnet virolaisen nykykirjallisuuden keskeiset suuntaukset ja kirjailijat. Olet tutustunut niihin liittyvään kirjallisuuden tutkimukseen ja perehtynyt tarkemmin muutaman kirjailijan tuotantoon. Osaat tulkita virolaista nykykirjallisuutta Viron yhteiskunnallisessa kontekstissa ja laajemmassa alueellisessa kontekstissa.

Opintojakson aikana luet virolaista nykyproosaa ja -runoutta viroksi tai suomeksi, ja analysoit sitä yhdessä muiden kurssilaisten kanssa. Osana suoritusta syvennyt jonkun kirjailijan tuotantoon, jota esittelet muille.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivuille

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place 17.1.–2.5.2023
Tiistaisin 14:15-15:45 Metsätalo sali 9

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Sigrid Kaasik-Krogerus

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojakso tarjoaa kronologisen katsauksen Viron kirjallisuuden kehitykseen, keskeisiin kirjailijoihin ja heidän teoksiinsa, joita tarkastellaan laajemmassa kulttuurikontekstissa.

Opintojakson suoritettuaan opiskelija tietää virolaisen kirjallisuuden kehitysvaiheet, perusteokset ja keskeiset kirjailijat eri aikakausilta. Hän osaa analysoida virolaisen kirjallisuuden kehitystä laajemmassa kulttuurikontekstissa, ja on lukenut erilaisten kirjailijoiden tuotantoa.

Opintojakso tarjoaa kronologisen katsauksen virolaisen kirjallisuuden kehitykseen, käsittelee keskeisiä kirjailijoita, heidän teoksiaan ja niihin liittyvää kirjallisuuden tutkimusta. Kurssilla luetaan ja analysoidaan eri aikakausien kirjailijoiden kaunokirjallisia tekstejä. Jokainen perehtyy tarkemmin jonkun kirjailijan tuotantoon, jota hän esittelee muille.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivuille

Aika ja paikka / Time and Place Kevät 2023

Luennoitsija(t) / Lecturer(s) Marja Sorvari

Tavoite ja sisältö / Aim and content

Opintojaksolla perehdytään 1900-luvun venäläisen kirjallisuuden ja kulttuurin osa-alueisiin (esim. modernismi, sosialistinen realismi, elokuva, teatteri) keskeisten teosten ja tekijöiden kautta ja tutustutaan niiden historiallisiin ja yhteiskunnallisiin taustoihin.

Lisätietoa / More information Linkki kurssisivuille

Yliopistojen lyhenteet / Abbreviations
  • Aalto Yliopisto / Aalto University: Aalto
  • Helsingin yliopisto / University of Helsinki: HY / UH
  • Itä-Suomen yliopisto / University of Eastern Finland: ISY / UEF
  • Jyväskylän yliopisto / University of Jyväskylä: JY / JYU
  • Lapin yliopisto / University of Lapland: LY / UL
  • Lappeenrannan teknillinen yliopisto / Lappeenranta University of Technology: LUT
  • Oulun yliopisto / University of Oulu: OY / UO
  • Hanken Svenska handelshögskolan / Hanken School of Economics: SHH / Hanken
  • Tampereen yliopisto / University of Tampere: TAU
  • Turun yliopisto / University of Turku: TY / UTU
  • Vaasan yliopisto / Univesity of Vaasa: VY / UV
  • Åbo Akademi / Åbo Akademi University: ÅA
  • Aleksanteri-instituutti / Aleksanteri Institute: AI