At the ophthalmology outpatient clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, patients undergo thorough eye examinations.

These always cover both eyes. An eye examination includes limited neuro-ophthalmological examination (assessment of responses and reflexes), measurement of lacrimal fluid production and tonometry, assessment of the structures surrounding the eye, assessment of the surface and interior of the eye including fundoscopy (biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy) and, when necessary, for example, collection of cytological and culture specimens as well as a limited general examination.

As a rule, basic examinations can be carried out without sedation, in a calm environment. Our veterinarians are accompanied by veterinary nurses familiar with ocular diseases who have established a stable routine in providing care for our patients, facilitating the progress of examinations.

Depending on individual findings and needs, the further examinations that can be carried out or offered include the following:

  • evaluation of the anterior chamber angle (gonioscopy),
  • measurement of the refractive error of the eye (retinoscopy),
  • measurement of the electrical responses of the retina (electroretinography, ERG) and imaging studies (ocular ultrasonography, ocular computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging).


At the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, surgical procedures on the eye and its surrounding tissues are carried out with modern microsurgical tools and techniques, including laser surgery and cataract surgery (phacoemulsification).

Animals suffer from many of the same eye diseases as humans. Dogs and, to a lesser extent, cats have several genetic diseases of various parts of the eye. In addition, post-traumatic injuries to the eye or its surrounding tissues occur in animals.

Common reasons for seeking treatment include changes in the appearance of the eye (e.g., red or cloudy eyes or discharge from the eye), watering of the eye and changes to vision. Some diseases, such as glaucoma and serious eye injuries, require urgent treatment to prevent loss of vision or of the eye itself. Eye complaints should be examined without delay, particularly if the eye is very sore (symptoms of which include squinting, redness, watery discharge and sensitivity to light), the surface of the eye is cloudy, or the appearance of the eye has otherwise clearly changed.

Urgent medical attention is also necessary if the animal’s vision clearly decreases. Eye diseases are occasionally associated with a more extensive set of problems, in which case their treatment may involve cooperation with other hospital wards.

In the Small Animal Hospital, the ophthalmology team is involved in treating ocular diseases:

Minna Mustikka, Licentiate of Veterinary Medicine (LVM), Finnish specialist in equine medicine, European recognised (EBVS) specialist in veterinary ophthalmology Dipl. ECVO, and Kukka-Maaria Helkiö, Licentiate of Veterinary Medicine (LVM), Finnish specialist in small animal medicine (currently on maternity leave; covered by Oona Miuku, Licentiate of Veterinary Medicine (LVM), veterinarian in postgraduate education).