Research in archaeology ranges from early human prehistory all the way to modern times. Archaeological material includes fixed relics, objects and traces of human activity found in nature.

Archaeology is a discipline comprised of several specialist fields. It brings together the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. The central research questions in archaeology are related to history, but the most important research methods are based on the natural sciences. The connection to social sciences originates in the fact that archaeological research is focused on past cultures. Specialist fields in archaeology include classical archaeology, maritime archaeology, bioarchaeology such as osteology and archaeobotany, as well as historical archaeology and medieval archaeology.

At the University of Helsinki, one specialisation option is maritime archaeology.

Classical archaeology studies the Greco-Roman culture of the Mediterranean, its objects and fixed relics. Geographical focal points include contemporary Greece and Italy, whose cultural spheres fluctuated from one period to another. In the east, Greco-Roman culture encompassed the Hellenistic kingdoms and the early Byzantine Empire; in the West, the Roman Empire during its entire imperial period. Due to its extensive nature, classical archaeology can be approached from several perspectives related to certain periods and locations as well as the nature of the subject under investigation.

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