Tackling wicked problems, such as climate change, requires understanding complex processes and interrelationships, along with generating and evaluating novel solutions. Education must support such adaptive expertise, which challenges the pedagogical expertise of university teachers. Thus, our research focuses on investigating: 1) the professional development of life science students and 2) the development pedagogical expertise of life science university teachers. The outcomes help to advance both teaching and learning in the life sciences. We use mixed-method and multi-method approaches to gain access to the processes and practices that constitute expertise in life sciences and life science education.