Employed, grant-funded or self-funded? At the University of Helsinki, a doctoral degree may be completed through either full- or part-time study. Doctoral students may receive funding from the University of Helsinki or one of its departments, institutes or faculties, a research project, foundation, association or some other external funder. They may also fund their own studies or pursue their degree in tandem with work. About a third of all doctoral students are in an employment relationship with the University and are thus members of University staff.

The source of funding does not necessarily influence the content of the research, but it does affect the doctoral student’s position at the University and also other practical matters such as immigration, health care, housing options etc.