Disobedient knowledge becomes possible when existing structures and global power relations are questioned. Disobedient knowledge enables us to better understand how the world has been shaped by colonial ideas and to seek knowledge beyond Eurocentric epistemological beliefs.
In Western societies, we often take it for granted that the knowledge we acquire at school and read about in the history books is correct. Our view of the world and knowledge is Eurocentric, that is, written from a European perspective that centres on European experience and history.
This Eurocentric perspective entails a disregard for the significance of colonialism for those parts of the world that were colonised by European countries for more than 400 years after the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean islands, but also demonstrates a lack of knowledge about how European colonialism and the slave trade have shaped Europe and its perception of the world. The geopolitical power relations that developed during colonialism continue to influence current economic relations and knowledge production. The events of today have their roots in the past.
“We must look to the past to understand our society today. We must also understand that these power relations exist in Finnish society,” says Academy of Finland Research Fellow Suvi Keskinen of the University of Helsinki’s Swedish School of Social Science.
Keskinen heads the project Intersectional Border Struggles and Disobedient Knowledge in Activism, funded by the Academy of Finland. The project aims to identify alternatives to exclusionary nationalism and the liberal multiculturalism that has been the subject of broad criticism.
Disobedient knowledge is a concept originating in decolonial theory and refers to knowledge that takes into account the experiences of migrants and racialised minorities concerning power relations, the consequences of border policies and everyday life. Disobedient knowledge can emerge through meetings between people with different positions in the racialised social order when prevailing norms and ideas are questioned, and people are forced to reflect on structures that produce inequalities. Such situations can create new ways of seeing and understanding the world.
“The world extends beyond Europe, and knowledge has been created in other parts of the world and in epistemological traditions other than ours,” Keskinen notes.
“Creating disobedient knowledge means delinking from the Eurocentric and colonial tradition of knowledge through a critical examination of prevailing epistemological norms and concepts. It may mean, for example, exploring Finnish history in relation to European colonialism and the various ways in which Finns participated in the colonial project as well as incorporating the often forgotten stories of ethnic minorities and indigenous people into the national narrative. If we think about society today, it is important to value the knowledge that, for instance, migrants and asylum seekers have rather than demonising these heterogeneous groups, as is often done in, say, discussions on criminality and violence. In this project, we are interested in how different types of knowledge are brought together and how people discuss or negotiate them. It may also be painful, but these meetings provide opportunities for new knowledge,” Keskinen explains.
Disobedient knowledge can emerge, for example, when people racialised as non-white or “Other” make whiteness visible as a privileged position and critically examine normative whiteness as something others are judged against. Racialisation means ascribing stereotypical traits to people based on their appearance, ethnic group or assumed background. Racialisation is based on and reproduces societal power relations.
“People don’t necessarily pay attention to normative whiteness when they have a body that fits into that norm and don’t have to question themselves. But those who do not fit into the norm feel it acutely in their everyday lives. We can create new knowledge by reflecting on our different societal positions and exploring the power relations that characterise even everyday encounters,” Keskinen notes.
Campaigning for social justice
The activism and disobedient knowledge the project is investigating aim to question prevailing norms and structures, such as border and migration policies, exclusionary practices and everyday racism, and improve the rights of racialised minorities.
Opportunities for disobedient knowledge may emerge, for instance, when people with different societal positions organise themselves and take seriously the knowledge developed by migrants, racialised minorities and indigenous people in order to understand and change society. Such knowledge provides new perspectives on, for example, legislation, racialised practices and the historical narratives common in Finland. Activism does not always have to be militant – it can involve discussions, work groups and cooperation between those defined as the “Other” by prevailing norms and those who support them.
“It’s important to create disobedient knowledge because Finland is already home to quite a large number of people subjected to racism, and our society is characterised by racialised power relations that lead to the unequal distribution of resources. It’s time to change the exclusionary ideas and practices that expose certain groups and people to racism,” Keskinen points out.
Disobedient knowledge creates opportunities to cross borders and strives to effect societal change. Crossing borders that are based on belonging and racialised power relations requires exploration of new ways of working together. With the help of disobedient knowledge, people can together establish new ways of living and engaging in political activism even if they have different positions in society and the global system.
Migration and refugees will remain hot topics for some time to come. That is why it is important to investigate how we live together.
“Research on the history of migration shows that people have always moved from one place to another, and this will not change. Migration will probably be an even bigger issue in the future and will keep demanding our attention,” Keskinen concludes.