National research infrastructures

INAR RI (Integrated Atmospheric and Earth System Research Infrastructure) belongs to the National Research Infrastructure Roadmap 2021-2024.

INAR RI acts as an umbrella research infrastructure (RI), taking care of the implementation and national coordination of the ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) infrastructures in the environmental domain in Finland, namely ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System), ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure), eLTER (Integrated European Long-Term Ecosystem, Critical Zone & Socio-Ecological Research Infrastructure) and AnaEE (Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems). The components of INAR RI study the atmosphere, biosphere and their interactions. The activities in these components are aligned by INAR RI towards common targets and integration of environmental infrastructures in European RI landscape. The cornerstone of INAR RI is the network of the SMEAR stations, which provide co-location for several ESFRIs.

Na­tional SMEAR net­work

SMEAR (Stations for Measuring the Earth surface - Atmosphere Relations) station network in Finland includes: SMEAR I in Värriö, SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, SMEAR III in Kumpula and SMEAR IV in Kuopio.


ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) has been operational since 2015, when ICOS ERIC was established. It has its statutory seat and the Head office in Finland. ICOS Finland is operated by five institutes (University of Helsinki, Finnish Meteorological Institute, University of Eastern Finland, University of Oulu and Natural Resources Institute) and currently consists of 18 stations, contributing to all three domains (Atmosphere, Ecosystem, Ocean). The Atmosphere station network covers a latitudinal gradient from 60°N (Utö) to 68°N (Pallas). The twelve Ecosystem stations (two of Class 1, three of Class 2, and seven Associated) cover the major boreal ecosystem types in Finland: unmanaged and managed forests, pristine and forestry-drained peatlands, agricultural field, and lake. One of the very few urban Ecosystem stations in whole ICOS (Kumpula/SMEAR III station in Helsinki) is part of the Finnish network. Finland contributes to the Ocean domain of ICOS with two Ocean stations, Tvärminne FOS, which is also an Ecosystem associate station, producing CO2 and CH4 flux data on Baltic coast, and Silja Serenade SOO which is travelling between Helsinki and Stockholm. Visit ICOS Finland webpages here.


ACTRIS (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure) provides sophisticated observational infrastructure for atmospheric properties. ACTRIS-FI is the Finnish component of the distributed research infrastructure ACTRIS. Finland hosts the ACTRIS ERIC Head Office and the statutory seat of the legal entity (est. 2023). ACTRIS-FI is organized as a consortium of 4 Research Performing Organizations (RPOs): University of Helsinki (UH), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), University of Eastern Finland (UEF), and Tampere University (TAU). ACTRIS-FI contributes to ACTRIS Central Facilities by hosting part of ACTRIS Data Centre namely the CloudNet database (FMI) and parts of ACTRIS Centre for Cloud Remote Sensing (FMI), ACTRIS Centre for Aerosol In Situ Measurements (UH) and ACTRIS Centre for Reactive Trace Gases In Situ Measurements. ACTRIS-FI is based on several comprehensive national observation sites (incl. SMEAR I-IV, Pallas GAW station and Utö) and state-of-the-art exploratory platforms operating on a national level from the Baltic Sea to Finnish Arctic, as well high-quality observation site overseas (Antarctic Peninsula).


eLTER RI (Integrated European Ecosystem, critical zone and socio-economic Research Infrastructure) focuses on supporting the research on the compounded impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, soil degradation, pollution, and unsustainable resource use in terrestrial, freshwater, and transitional water ecosystems. It aims at building a holistic understanding of ecosystem functions in different habitats. LTER Finland has 11 Sites and one eLTSER Platform distributed across the country and operated by Universities of Helsinki, Turku, Jyväskylä and Oulu, FMI, SYKE and Luke. CSC is also part of LTER Finland. Read more about LTER Finland.


AnaEE Finland brings together 12 state-of-the-art open and enclosed installations to complement the geographical resolution of ecosystem research in Northern Europe up to the Arctic. National and transnational access is facilitated to enable studies on global change across different climate gradients. The long-term operation of many AnaEE research installations allows for virtual access to background data, enabling researchers to achieve greater temporal resolution in their studies. AnaEE RI comprises a network in European level that will help to analyse, model, and predict how different ecosystems in Europe will respond to climate changes and how they can be sustainably maintained. AnaEE ERIC provides training, capacity building, and scientific activities to support researchers in utilising the infrastructure effectively. Explore AnaEE FI website to discover a wide range of information and resources.

FMI Sta­tions

FMI stations =  The FMI stations include Pallas-Sodankylä Global Atmospheric Watch station and Utö atmospheric and marine research station. GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) is the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) global programme for monitoring and assessing chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the global background atmosphere. The Finnish Meteorological Institute has participated to the GAW programme since 1994. The Arctic Research Centre and the Pallas Atmosphere –Ecosystem Supersite together form the Pallas-Sodankylä GAW station.

Utö atmospheric and marine research station has a wide range of meteorological, greenhouse gas, aerosol and marine observations on Utö Island at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. It is operated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Finnish Environment institute. Observations at Utö started in 1881 and it is recognized as one of the three WMO centennial observing stations in Finland. Utö station is also part of ICOS and HELCOM observation networks and belongs to the Finnish Marine Research Infrastructure FINMARI.