National research infrastructures

INAR RI (Integrated Atmospheric and Earth System Research Infrastructure) belongs to the National Research Infrastructure Roadmap 2021-2024.

INAR RI acts as an umbrella research infrastructure (RI), taking care of the implementation and national coordination of the ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) infrastructures in the environmental domain in Finland, namely ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System), ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure), eLTER (Integrated European Long-Term Ecosystem, Critical Zone & Socio-Ecological Research Infrastructure) and AnaEE (Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems). The components of INAR RI study the atmosphere, biosphere and their interactions. The activities in these components are aligned by INAR RI towards common targets and integration of environmental infrastructures in European RI landscape. The cornerstone of INAR RI is the network of the SMEAR stations, which provide co-location for several ESFRIs.

Na­tional SMEAR net­work

SMEAR (Stations for Measuring the Earth surface - Atmosphere Relations) station network in Finland includes: SMEAR I in Värriö, SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, SMEAR III in Kumpula and SMEAR IV in Kuopio.


ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) is a pioneer in harmonisation and standardisation of greenhouse gases and in combining atmospheric, flux and oceanic measurements. ICOS Finland consists of 13 measurement stations, of which 9 are labelled as official ICOS stations at the moment. ICOS Finland 14 stations include the four SMEAR stations and altogether seven stations are operated by FMI. Visit ICOS Finland webpages here.


ACTRIS (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure) provides sophisticated observational infrastructure for atmospheric properties. ACTRIS-FI is the Finnish component of the distributed research infrastructure ACTRIS. ACTRIS-FI will host the ACTRIS Head Office and the statutory seat of ACTRIS legal entity. ACTRIS Head Office will comprehend the ERIC Management Unit, RI Operations Unit, and Strategies and Relation Unit. ACTRIS-FI is organized as a consortium of 4 Research Performing Organizations (RPOs): the University of Helsinki, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the University of Eastern Finland, and Tampere University. The RPOs contribute to ACTRIS Central Facility by hosting, coordinating and supporting the ACTRIS Data Centre namely the CloudNet database (FMI), ACTRIS Centre for Cloud Remote Sensing and ACTRIS Centre for Aerosol and Reactive Trace Gases in-situ Measurements. ACTRIS-FI is based on a large number of existing observational sites (SMEAR I-IV) and exploratory platforms operating on a national level from the Baltic Sea to Finnish Arctic, as well high-quality observation sites overseas (Antarctic Peninsula) and Northern Siberia.

INAR RI Eco­sys­tems

INAR RI Ecosystems is complementing the Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research –infrastructure, focusing on terrestrial ecosystem and biodiversity research and covering ecological research infrastructures in forests, peatlands, agricultural fields and inland waters with their catchment areas in subarctic, boreal and urban/agro-ecosystems. The activities of INAR RI Ecosystems include upgrading research infrastructures at various ecosystem observation stations and experimental stations and laboratories, coordination of their national activities and creation of deeper co-operation between them as well as between ecosystem researchers in Finland. INAR RI Ecosystems received funding from the Academy of Finland for 2017-2021. Find more information about the INAR RI Ecosystems activities here.

FMI Sta­tions

FMI stations =  The FMI stations include Pallas-Sodankylä Global Atmospheric Watch station and Utö atmospheric and marine research station. GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) is the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) global programme for monitoring and assessing chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the global background atmosphere. The Finnish Meteorological Institute has participated to the GAW programme since 1994. The Arctic Research Centre and the Pallas Atmosphere –Ecosystem Supersite together form the Pallas-Sodankylä GAW station.

Utö atmospheric and marine research station has a wide range of meteorological, greenhouse gas, aerosol and marine observations on Utö Island at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. It is operated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Finnish Environment institute. Observations at Utö started in 1881 and it is recognized as one of the three WMO centennial observing stations in Finland. Utö station is also part of ICOS and HELCOM observation networks and belongs to the Finnish Marine Research Infrastructure FINMARI.