Samples will be obtained from effluent water and the abattoir facilities including floor drains and drainpipes. The project will be conducted in collaboration with the University of Pretoria. The collected samples will be analyzed with whole-genome sequencing methods to study the abundance of different bacterial species, antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements related to antimicrobial resistance spread. The aim of the study is to gain new knowledge on the antimicrobial resistance profile of South African abattoirs and factors influencing the profile. Further studies will include collaboration projects conducted in different countries in Africa.