The University of Helsinki has four doctoral schools, which offer a total of 32 doctoral programmes. Our doctoral students, supervised by top-class researchers, carry out their research as part of an international academic community. In addition to research work, the doctoral degree encompasses studies in the student’s discipline, as well as career orientation and guidance. English is the primary language of study in doctoral education. The University has 4,700 doctoral students, one-fourth of them international students, and awards some 450 doctoral degrees annually. The University of Helsinki is the only Finnish university in the League of European Research Universities (LERU), founded in 2002.