This page summarizes the relevant legislation and best practices in each of the areas where the European Public Finds Recording Network is active, and refers to necessary resources. It is intended for metal detectorists, including those visiting from abroad.
You will find information on how best to prepare for detecting, things to keep in mind while in the field, and how to deal with your finds. The 'General' section lists more general suggestions for best practice. These may seem obvious, but keep in mind that they are essential for the responsible detectorist. Many of these pointers are also legal requirements in several of the countries discussed further on.
For now this page is only available in English, but our aim is to provide other language versions in the future.
While we strive to provide accurate and up-to-date information, we strongly recommend reading the relevant legislation in full before detecting abroad. The European Public Finds Recording Network will not take any responsibility for misconduct of any kind by people referring to the information provided on this page.
Archaeological finds, as defined by Czech legislation, are things or sets of things that provide evidence or relics of human life and activities from the early stages of human evolution to the modern era. Typically preserved underground, these finds fall under the jurisdiction of §23 Act no. 20/1897 Coll. According to the Ministry of Culture's interpretation, finds originating from WWI and WWII, particularly militaria, should be considered as archaeological finds. Archaeological finds are subject to various ownership rules based on the circumstances, with the municipality, region, or state claiming ownership. According to §23a, Act No. 20/1987 Coll., natural persons are prohibited from possessing archaeological finds, and such items must be deposited in museums.
The utilisation of metal detectors is not explicitly addressed by Czech legislation and therefore not prohibited. However, only organisations authorised by the Ministry of Culture are permitted to conduct archaeological fieldwork in the Czech Republic (§21 Act no. 20/1987 Coll.). The use of metal detectors for surveying is classified as a form of archaeological fieldwork and must comply with the regulations outlined by the Ministry of Culture. This same approach is applied to the use of magnets for underwater surveys or any other forms of exploration.
The process of searching for archaeological finds using a metal detector in the Czech Republic is subject to legal regulations. It can only be undertaken as part of official fieldwork that is conducted and overseen by an archaeological organisation. Additionally, permission from the landowner must be obtained before entering the land for the purposes of metal detecting. All archaeological finds found during this process must be handed over to the organisation responsible for conducting the fieldwork. Individuals who are not affiliated with an authorised organisation may only collect finds from the topmost layer of soil and are prohibited from disturbing intact archaeological sites. Furthermore, foreign prospectors seeking to engage in archaeological fieldwork must also have an established agreement with an authorised organisation and be part of an existing archaeological project. Compliance with these regulations is essential to ensure the scientific and cultural significance of the finds is preserved, and to prevent unauthorised excavation and looting of archaeological sites.
When encountering munition, it is required to inform the Czech Police by dialling 158. In the event of discovering human remains, both the police and the designated archaeological liaison should be contacted.
It is important to note that independent exploration for archaeological finds, outside of authorised archaeological fieldwork, is a criminal offence and may result in fines up to CZK 4 million (approximately 150.000 Euro).
The Institutes of Archaeology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic have implemented a comprehensive information system for managing archaeological fieldwork, known as the Archaeological Map of the Czech Republic (AMCR). This system serves various purposes, including the notification of construction activities, the administration of fieldwork, and the storage of related documentation, including final reports. To facilitate detector prospecting and surface collections, a new module named the "Portal of Amateur Collaborators and Register of Individual Finds" was launched in 2021. Under this system, amateur collaborators can register and, upon mutual agreement, engage in cooperation with a selected archaeological organisation, usually within their region. Collaboration is subject to approval by the designated archaeologist, who must ensure that it is a legitimate and lawful collaboration.
In accordance with the directions provided by the archaeologist, the collaborator performs a detector survey and independently documents their discoveries and the accompanying context in the AMCR-PAS for a particular fieldwork project, which may have a broad scope. The archaeologist subsequently verifies and supplements the information. The collaborator transfers the physical finds to the archaeologist at an agreed-upon interval.
Upon being reviewed by archaeologists, the archaeological finds that have been documented in the AMCR-PAS system are made public via the AMCR Digital Archive. These records are accessible to both the general public and professionals alike.
Metal-detecting is permitted to be conducted by anyone (also non-Danish citizens and people without permanent residence in DK), as long as finders have the landowners' permission to search and they avoid archaeological excavations and protected sites and monuments (e.g. burial grounds, castle ruins).
It is important to note that all land will have an owner, this includes beaches and 'common land', so finders should never presume it is ok to search without permission. It is required by law that all finds of potentially cultural historical significance are reported to the local museum of the district in which they were found.
Metal-detecting is prohibited on protected sites and monuments.
Only detect after having obtained explicit permission from the landowner! We recommend that you don't detect on the ‘permission’ of other detectorists, unless they have invited you to do so. Ask the landowner if in doubt.
Follow the heritage agency’s rules and recommendations for the use of detectors in Denmark, and the Danish Amateur Archaeologist’s Association’s ethical rules.
Don't dig below a depth of 30cm!
Whenever you find something below plough soil level and/or something that seems to remain in situ (e.g. a treasure or a burial) do contact the professional archaeologists at the local museum and stop digging.
Record your finds in DIME. You can do so even while in the field!
All finds of archaeological interest, including potential treasure trove, are automatically owned by the state. Neither the finder nor the landowner has any ownership rights over archaeological finds. All archaeological finds found by members of the public have to be reported AND must be handed over to the local museums or the National Museum.
The National Museum compensates finders of treasure trove (Danefæ). Treasure trove (Danefæ) is roughly defined in the Consolidated Act on Museums but each case is individually assessed by the National Museum, with regard to 1) material value, 2) rarity and cultural historical value and 3) contextual information provided by the finder. See the Danish National Museum’s information on Danefæ.
DIME is the publicly accessible, online recording tool for detector finds from Denmark and it is recommended that DIME is used to record finds.
Extract from the Danish ‘Consolidated Act on Museums’
Part 9: Treasure trove (…)
(1 ) Objects of the past, including coins found in Denmark, of which no one can prove to be the rightful owner, shall be treasure trove (danefæ) if made of valuable material or being of a special cultural heritage value.
(2) Treasure trove shall belong to the state. Any person who finds treasure trove, and any person who gains possession of treasure trove, shall immediately deliver it to the National Museum of Denmark.
(3) The National Museum shall pay a reward to the finder. The amount shall be fixed by the National Museum having regard to the value of the material and the rarity of the find as well as to the care with which the finder has safeguarded the find.
Metal-detecting is permitted in England and Wales, as long as finders have the landowners' permission to search and they avoid protected sites, such as Scheduled Monuments (SMs) and Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs). There might also be other restrictions to searching, in line with local council bye-laws or on land under countryside stewardship. It is important to note that all land will have an owner, this includes beaches and 'common land', so finders should never presume it is ok to search without permission. It is required by law that all finds of Treasure are reported to the Coroner in whose district they were found within 14 days, normally via the local Finds Liaison Officer (see below).
In England and Wales (and Northern Ireland), all finders of gold and silver objects, and groups of coins from the same finds, over 300 years old, have a legal obligation to report such items under the Treasure Act 1996. Prehistoric base-metal assemblages found after 1st January 2003 also qualify as Treasure. Finders of potential Treasure in England and Wales should contact their local Finds Liaison Officer for help in reporting Treasure and for further advice. By law, finds of potential Treasure must be reported to the Coroner in whose district they were found within 14 days of discovery.
The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) was established to promote the voluntary recording of all archaeological finds made by the public, so that these finds can advance archaeological knowledge. Its network of Finds Liaison Officers (FLOs) across England and Wales borrow these finds so that they can be recorded (described, measured and photographed) on its online database. FLOs also can help finders with the reporting of Treasure (see above). Anyone wishing to view these finds online may do so, though only those with research access are able to get full locational information - necessary for research.
Metal detecting is permitted in Finland within the limits of the everyman’s rights. Digging is prohibited in places such as ancient monuments protected by the Antiquities Act (295/1963), sites suspected to be ancient monuments, or areas protected under the Nature Conservation Act (1096/1996) without a separate permit. Digging in the soil in the immediate vicinity of an archaeological site is not recommended, because the borders of the site are rarely precisely known. If you are not sure whether digging is allowed in certain area, take contact to the Finnish Heritage Agency and the regional museum.
Ask the landowner’s permission to dig in his or her land. If the landowner or his or her representative has prohibited digging, this must be respected. Make also an agreement on whether the landowner will allow the finder to keep any found objects or not, provided that legislation does not have any bearing on their ownership.
According to the Antiquities Act, artefacts or fragments that are 100 years old or older that are discovered must be reported to the Finnish Heritage Agency without delay, accompanied with details about the discovery location. If the discovered artefact is fragile or in danger of breaking, it should be left in the ground, only submitting its discovery information. Discoveries should be delivered to the Finnish Heritage Agency uncleaned. You should avoid touching the artefact unnecessarily.
You should avoid digging in the discovery site in order to make further discoveries, because the entity might be an ancient relic protected by the Antiquities Act. An excavation at a stationary relic site is prohibited without a legal permit.
If an artefact is younger than 100 years and its owner is unknown, it is considered lost property, according to the Lost Property Act (778/1988). Matters concerning lost property are handled by the police. Military material that dates from after World War I is reported to the military, police, border or customs authorities.
Note: in the federal state of Belgium, immovable heritage (including archaeology) is a regional competence. As such, the following reflects only legislation in the region of Flanders.
A licence (erkenning) is needed to detect legally in Flanders. Once you have this licence, you are free to detect in most areas. You can apply for a licence with Flanders Heritage Agency. In addition to the application form, you will need to supply a legalized statement of your criminal record, in one of the official languages (Dutch-French-German). If you are Dutch, a 'verklaring omtrent het gedrag' suffices. Finally, you will also need a social security number for foreigners to be able to login to the Flanders Heritage Agency reporting module (BIS-number).
With a licence, you are allowed to detect in most open spaces, provided you have oral or written permission of the landowner. Besides ongoing excavations, protected archaeological sites are also strictly off-limits. A list of protected sites can be found here (in Dutch).
Wherever you detect, you must abide by the Code of Good Practice. Besides most of the points listed under 'General' above, you are not allowed to dig below a depth of 30cm. Detecting after sunset is illegal.
You are allowed to keep your finds, but you have to report them to Flanders Heritage Agency. You can do so via the online form (in Dutch; login required). In particular, finds dating before AD 1800 need to be reported, as well as later hoards and finds from both World Wars.
MEDEA (www.vondsten.be) is the publicly accessible, online recording tool for detector finds from Flanders, without restriction, including finds that predate the current legislation (April 2016). For now, it is not linked to the official Flanders Heritage Agency reporting module. The site is available in Dutch only, but feel free to contact the MEDEA coordinator for support.
Searching on protected archaeological monuments is prohibited. Check on the internet that the area you want to metal detect does not hold protected monuments.
In some municipalities (or parts thereof) searching with a metal detector is prohibited. Such regulations are written in the municipal by-laws abbreviated as APV. Every municipality’s APV can be found online.
Check the website of the municipality where you want to go searching whether the APV contains restrictions on metal detecting. Ask a native speaker for help if you do not read Dutch.
Ask permission from the landowner (or tenant) to access the property with a metal detector. To metal detect in publicly accessible land such as woods, permission from the landowning organization must also be obtained.
Never dig deeper than 30 cm; it is prohibited to move and/or take finds deeper than 30 cm.
Water environments are off limits. Do not search in sea, rivers or lakes and their wet surrounding (riverbeds). This applies to metal detecting and searching with magnets as well.
Record findspots as precisely as possible, preferably by GPS coordinates per find.
If you find live ammunition or human remains, call the police. Do not move or take with you (parts of) weapons produced after 1870 or ammunition, not even empty cases.
For hoard finds (defined as matter of value that was hidden on purpose so long ago the owner cannot be found any more) the landowner and the finder share ownership of the find and any revenue that results from sale. Return to the landowner and arrange the property of the finds. Most small finds that are not hidden on purpose can be claimed by the finder without the landowner.
Declare all the finds and the location(s) where they were retrieved to PAN, the database & organisation kept by the National Heritage Agency of the Netherlands. In addition, hoard finds must be declared to the municipality in which they were found.
Within EU-countries it is allowed to transport Dutch soil finds (or send them by mail) if they were legally obtained (top 30 cm, no monuments, access granted, reported). Unlicensed transport or sending of any finds to non-EU countries is prohibited – apply for an export license first. Finds have to stay in the Netherlands pending the application process. If the finder leaves the Netherlands and cannot take the finds, please leave the finds at the Provincial Depot for Soil Finds. Ask PAN or the National Heritage Agency if you want to know more.
Metal-detecting is permitted in Scotland. Finders must have landowners’ permission before detecting and they must avoid protected sites such as Scheduled Monuments (SMs) and Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs).
Under Scots Common Law, ownerless property belongs to the Crown, including portable antiquities. All finds made by chance that are archaeological or historical in nature legally must be reported to the Treasure Trove Unit within one month of discovery. There are no limitations on material or age of the artefacts.
If any artefacts are found, finders must record the findspot (10-figure grid reference is preferred) and must not excessively clean the find. In situ deposits, such as a hoard, must be left in the ground and reported immediately to the Treasure Trove Unit.
The Treasure Trove Unit (TTU) is responsible for the daily running of the Treasure Trove system and is the first port of call for new discoveries and finders. It carries out investigations and object assessments, and, where appropriate, investigates findspots.
TTU has delegated authority from the Queen’s and Lord Treasurer’s Remembrancer to decide whether an artefact should be claimed or not.
If an object is claimed, it will appear before the Scottish Archaeological Finds Allocation Panel (SAFAP) and accredited Scottish museums are asked to apply for the cases. The TTU provides a report and estimated valuation to the panel to use in deciding the level of ex gratia award for the finder.