Seismic observatory

Ground motion is registered in several seismic stations across Finland. Data are automatically processed at Institute of Seismology: signals caused by explosions, earthquakes and collapses are recognized and events are localized. The results of the analysis are published at the website of the institute, the automatic detections during the same day, reviewed events within a few business days.

Seismic measurement equipment can detect even very small explosions and earthquakes in Finland and adjacent areas, and larger earthquakes globally. Observations are utilized e.g. in the LUOVA Natural Disaster Warning System, and for the monitoring of nuclear tests.

Seismic station network

The role of the Finnish seismic network is to record seismic waves from earthquakes, explosions and other seismic events in order to identify, locate and determine the magnitudes of the events. A comprehensive national seismic network is essential for seismological research, observational activities, and government regulations for seismic hazard mitigation and the nuclear test-ban treaty verification. Research is focused on topics such as lithospheric structure and intraplate seismicity. At present, the network is comprised of over thirty permanent stations located throughout Finland and the database is maintained in the Institute of Seismology, situated in Helsinki. The Finnish seismic network is part of the Global Seismographic Network and the recordings and observational data are forwarded to several international seismic data centers (ORFEUS, ISC, EMSC, IRIS, GEOFON).

You can find the latest comprehensive description of the seismic station network and its data, data analysis, data management and tools in the following publication:

Veikkolainen, T., Kortström, J., Vuorinen, T., Salmenperä, I. E., Luhta, T., Mäntyniemi, P., Hillers, G., & Tiira, T. (2021). The Finnish National Seismic Network: Toward Fully Automated Analysis of Low‐Magnitude Seismic Events. Seismological Research Letters, 92(3), 1581-1591.

The data of the Finnish National Seismic Network (HE) has been licensed under Creative Commons BY 4.0 license. Data may be referred to using the permanent DOI identifier 10.14470/UR044600 registered by GEOFON.

Part of seismic stations in northern Finland belong to the Northern Finland Seismological Network (FN) maintained by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu. The data of this network has been licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC 4.0 license. Data may be referred to using the permanent DOI identifier 10.14470/SA879454 registered by GEOFON.

FINES is a small aperture array station comprised of 16 substations and is one of 50 primary monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The objective of this seismic monitoring is to detect and locate underground nuclear explosions. The seismic data are used to distinguish between an underground nuclear explosion and the numerous natural and man-made seismic events that occur every day, such as earthquakes and mining explosions.

In Helsinki, a network of three stations (HelsinkiNet) was established in 2019, supplementing the national seismic network. The network is owned by City of Helsinki, and maintained by Institute of Seismology. The Soil and Bedrock Unit of the city utilizes information of the network. Data are freely available. The network allows observations of smaller seismic events in the Helsinki region, and improves the determination of locations when compared with the situation where only the national network is used. The first stations of the network were established on outer limits of Helsinki in Kuninkaantammi (KUNI), Vuosaari (VUOS), and Lauttasaari (LAUT) for maximum areal coverage. In 2021, the network was supplemented by a station in Ruskeasuo (RSUO).

A network of 3-6 stations maintained by Institute of Seismology has been in operation in the seismicity area of Kuusamo since 2003. Currently the network consists of stations in Kurvinen (KU1), Taivalkoski (KU2), and Riekki (KU6). Additional results are obtained from Maanselkä (MSF) and Oulanka (OLKF) stations operated by Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory. The goal is to receive comprehensive observational data for local studies aiming at resolving source mechanisms of earthquakes and velocity model, stress field and active faults, particularly in the western part of the Kuusamo-Kandalaksha zone.

The seismic broadband station ABOA has been in operation since 2007. The station is situated at the Finnish Antarctic research station Aboa in Queen Maud Land, Antarctica (73°03'S, 13°25'W). Aboa is located at 130 km distance from the coast in Basen Nunatak in Vestfjella Mountains. Data collected from this station are used in cryoseismology and studies of the local seismicity. Cryoseismic research involves quantitative studies of ice processes that are known or are suspected to show sensitivity to climate change. The data are also used for studies of structure of the crust and upper mantle.

Mobile seismic stations are used to study: the structure of the lithosphere, spatial and temporal seismicity in intraplate settings especially in postglacial faults, the reasons behind periodic swarms of earthquakes, mineral deposit systems and their location and genesis in relation to crustal and lithospheric structures, induced seismicity generated in hydraulic stimulation experiments in deep bedrock, and how to estimate and mitigate seismic risk in environments with shock sensitive high technology installations.

FInnish national seismic network on map

On the map are the stations of the Finnish national seismic network. Stations belonging to the Northern Finland seismic network, operated by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, are noted in blue.