After Gardiner & Schaeffer, 1989 (from Hamel, 2005), Lund, 2000 (partly), Zhu, Yu, Wang, Zhao & Jia, 2006 (partly), and Friedman & Blom, 2006

Alternative phylogeny of basal actinopterygians after Lund & Poplin, 2002

Alternative phylogeny of basal actinopterygians after Dietze, 2000

Family-level taxonomy of basal actinopterygians.

<==o Actinopterygii Klein, 1885 non? Cope, 1887 (Ray-finned fishes; viuhkaeväiset)
   |?- †Naxilepis Wang & Dong, 1989
   |--+?- †Ligulalepis toombsi [alternative position 1]
   |  `--+-- †Meemannia eos Zhu, Yu, Wang, Zhao & Jia, 2006; E.Dev. SEAs. [sensu Lu, Zhu, Ahlberg, Qiao, Zhu, Zhao & Jia, 2016]
   |     `--o †Dialipina Schultze, 1968
   |        |-- †D. markae Schultze, 1992
   |        `-- †D. salgueiroensis Schultze, 1968
   `--+--o †Cheirolepis Agassiz, 1835; M.Dev. Eu., U.Dev. NAm. [Cheirolepiformes: Cheirolepidae Pander, 1860]
      |  |?- †C. curtus M'Coy, 1848
      |  |?- †C. gaugeri Gross, 1973
      |  |?- †C. gracilis Gross, 1973
      |  |?- †C. macrocephalus M'Coy, 1848
      |  |?- †C. sinualis
      |  |-- †C. trailli Agassiz, 1835
      |  `--+-- †C. schultzei Arratia & Cloutier, 2004 [C. sp. cf. C. canadensis Arratia & Cloutier, 2002]
      |     `-- †C. canadensis Whiteaves, 1881
      `--+--+?- †Ligulalepis toombsi [alternative position 2]
         |  `-- †Osorioichthys marginis Casier, 1952 [Stereolepidella; Stereolepis] U.Dev. Eu. [Osorioichthyidae Gardiner, 1967]
         `--+--+-- †Tegeolepis clarki (Newberry, 1888) Miller, 1892; L.Dev. ENAm. [Tegeolepididae Romer, 1945]
            |  `--o †Howqualepididae Long, Choo & Young, 2008
            |     |-- †Howqualepis rostridens Long, 1988; M.Dev. Aust. [paraphyletic Mimiidae Gardiner, 1993]
            |     `-- †Donnrosenia schaefferi Long, Choo & Young, 2008; L.Dev. Ant.
            |?-o †Paramblypteriformes
            |  `--o †Paramblypteridae [synonymous with Amblypteridae sensu Diatze, 2000]
            |     `--o †Paramblypterus [Amblypterops, Cosmopoma, Dipteroma] L.Perm. Eu.
            |        |--+-- †P. gelberti (Goldfuss, 1847) Boy, 1976 [Palaeoniscus gelberti Goldfuss, 1847; Amblypterus gelberti (Traquair) Woodward, 1891]
            |        |  `-- †P. duvernoyi (Agassiz, 1833) Boy, 1976 [Palaeoniscus duvernoyi Agassiz, 1833; Amblypterus duvernoyi (Giebel) Woodward, 1891]
            |        `--+-- †P. decorus (Egerton, 1850) Blot, 1966 [Palaeoniscus decorus Egerton, 1850; Amblypterus decorus (Egerton) Traquair, 1877; incl. P. comblei, P. gaudryi]
            |           `-- †P. rohani (Heckel, 1861) [incl. P. caudatus, P. luridus, P. obliquus, P. reussi]
            `--o Actinopteri Cope, 1972 [Palaeoniscimorpha Lund, et al., 1995]
               |?- †Borichthys Miss. Eu. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
               |?- †Orvikuina Gross, 1953; M.Dev. Eu. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
               |-- †Mansfieldiscus sweeti (Woodward, 1906) Long, 1988 [?Elonichthyidae Aldinger, 1937]
               |--o † Mimiidae Gardiner, 1993
               |  |-- †Gogosardina coatesi Choo, Long & Trinajstic, 2009
               |  `--o †Mimipiscis Choo, 2011 [Mimia Gardiner & Bartram, 1977, non Mimia Evans, 1953 (a hesperiid butterfly)] U.Dev. Aus. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
               |     |?- †M. paravertebra (nomen dubium)
               |     |-- †M. toombsi (Gardiner & Bartram, 1977) Choo, 2011
               |     `-- †M. bartrami Choo, 2011
               |-- †Melanecta anneae Coates, 1998, L.Dev. Eu. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
               `--+--+-- †Krasnoyarichthys jesseni Prokofiev, 2002; L.Dev. CAs. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
                  |  `-- †Stegotrachelus finlayi Woodward & White, 1926; M.Dev. Eu. ?U.Dev. NAm. Ant. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
                  `--+-- †Rhadinichthyidae Romer, 1945 sensu Poplin & Lund, 2000 and Lund, 2000 [incl. Aesopichthyidae Poplin & Lund, 2000]
                     `--+--o †Moythomasia Gross, 1950; M.-U.Dev. Eu., U.Dev. Aust. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
                        |  |?- †M.? devonica (Clarke, 1885)
                        |  |-- †M. perforata (Gross, 1942) [Aldingeria perforata Gross, 1942]
                        |  |-- †M. lineata Choo, 2015
                        |  `--+-- †M. nitida Gross, 1950
                        |     `-- †M. durgaringa Gardiner & Bartram, 1977
                        `--+-- †Woodichthys bearsdeni Coates, 1998, U.Dev. Eu.
                           `--+?- †Coccocephalus wildi Watson, 1925 [Coccocephalichthys; Cocconiscus) Penn. Eu. [Coccocephalichthyidae]
                              |-- †Kentuckia hlavini Dunkle, 1964; Miss. NAm. [paraphyletic Kentuckiidae]
                              |--+-- †Limnomis delaneyi Daeschler, 2000; U.Dev. ENAm.
                              |  `-- †Cuneognathus gardineri Friedman & Blom, 2006; U.Dev. NENAm.
                              `--+--o †Pteronisculus White, 1933 [Glaucolepis] L.Trias. Spits. Gr. Mad. Aus. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae Gardiner, 1963]
                                 |  |-- †P. cicatrosus White, 1933
                                 |  |-- †P. macropterus White, 1933
                                 |  |-- †P. stensioei
                                 |  `-- †P. magnus
                                 `--+-- †Belichthys minimus Wade, 1935 [Belichthys -group]; M.Trias. Aus.
                                    |-- †Australichthys longidorsalis Gardiner, 1969 [Australichthys -group]
                                    |--o †Cosmoptychiidae [=? Watsonichthys -group sensu Gardiner & Schaeffer, 1989]
                                    |  |-- †Cosmoptychius Traquair, 1877; Miss. Eu.
                                    |  `-- †Watsonichthys lotzi Gürich, 1923; Miss. Eu. L.Perm. SAf.
                                    |?- †Terrasiiformes sensu Lund & Poplin, 2002
                                    `--o Chondrostei sensu lato (rustokillesuomuiset) [paraphyletic assemblage of basal actinopterygians no yet revisited]
                                       |?- †Phanerorhynchus armatus Gill, 1923; Penn. Eu. [Phanerorhynchiformes: Phanerorhynchidae]
                                       |?- †Haplolepiformes
                                       |-- †Ptycholepiformes [=? Boreosomus -group sensu Gardiner & Schaeffer, 1989]
                                       `--+--o †Amplypterus -group
                                          |  |?- †Roslerichthys riomafrensis Hamel, 2005; L.Perm. SA.
                                          |  `-- †Amblypteridae Romer, 1945 [incl. Paramblypteridae sensu Dietze, 2000]
                                          `--+--+-- †Redfieldiidae Hutchinson, 1973 [Catopteridae; Dictyopygidae]
                                             |  |-- Cladistia Cope, 1871 sensu Lund, 2000 (lapaeväiset; bichirs & reedfishes)
                                             |  `--+==Platysomoidei
                                             |     |?-o †Dorypterus Germar, 1842; L.Perm. EAs. U.Perm. Eu. [Dorypteriformes: Dorypteridae]
                                             |     |  |-- †D. althausi Munster, 1842
                                             |     |  `-- †D. hoffmanni Germar, 1842
                                             |     `?-o †Eurynotiformes Sallan & Coates, 2013
                                             |        |--o †Mesolepis Young, 1866 [Pododus] Miss. Penn. Eu.
                                             |        |  `-- †M. scalaris Young, 1866
                                             |        |  `-- †M. wardi Young, 1866
                                             |        |-- †Paramesolepis rhombus Moy-Thomas & Bradley Dyne, 1938 Miss. Eu.
                                             |        |-- †Wardichthys cyclosoma Traquair, 1875
                                             |        |-- †Proteurynotus Moy-Thomas & Bradley Dyne, 1938; Miss. Eu. 
                                             |        |--o †Amphicentridae
                                             |        |  |--o †Amphicentrum Young, 1866
                                             |        |  |  |-- †A. granulosum Young, 1866
                                             |        |  |  |-- †A. crassum (Traquair, 1890)
                                             |        |  |  `-- †A. orbiculare
                                             |        |  |-- †Cheirodopsis geitziei Traquair, 1881; Miss. Eu.
                                             |        |  `-- †Eurynotus crenatus Agassiz, 1833-1844 [Eurynothus; Notacmon; Plectrolepis] Miss.-Penn. Eu. NAm. Penn. NAs. ?M.Trias. SAm.
                                             |        `--o †Styracopteridae Moy-Thomas, 1937 [Sctyracopteridae (lapsus calami)]
                                             |           |-- †Benedenius deneensis Traquair, 1878 [Benedenichthys] Miss. Eu.
                                             |           |-- †Fouldenia ischiptera (Traquair, 1881) White, 1927 [Holorus ischipterus Traquair, 1881; Styracopterus ischipterus Traquair, 1890, Fouldenia ottadinica White, 1927; Styracopterus ottadinica Moy-Thomas, 1937; Styracopterus ischipterus Moy-Thomas, 1937; Styracopterus fulcratus Gardiner, 1985]; Miss. Eu.
                                             |           `-- †Styracopterus fulcratus (Traquair, 1881) Traquair, 1890 [Holorus fulcratus Traquair, 1881; Styracopterus fulcratus Moy-Thomas, 1937; Styracopterus fulcratus Moy-Thomas & Bradley Dyne, 1938; Styracopterus fulcratus Gardiner, 1985]; Miss. Eu.
                                             `--o Actinopteri sensu stricto [Chondrostei+Neopterygii, and all decendants of their last common ancester]
                                                |--o Chondrostei sensu stricto?
                                                |  |-- †Saurichthyiformes Aldinger, 1937
                                                |  `--+-- †Birgeriidae Berg, 1940
                                                |     `-- Acipenseriformes Berg, 1940 sensu Grande & Bemis, 1996 (Sturgeons and Paddlefishes; sampikalat)
                                                `--o Neopterygii Regan, 1923(?) sensu Xu & Wu, 2012
                                                   |--o †Australosomus Pivetau, 1930; M.Trias. Mad. Gr.
                                                   |  |-- †A. merlei Pivetau, 1930
                                                   |  `-- †A. kochi Stensiö, 1932
                                                   |-- †Pholidopleuriformes
                                                   `--+-- †Peltopleuriformes
                                                      `--+-- †Perleidiformes Berg, 1937 [1940?] 
                                                         `==o †Luganoiiformes sensu Carroll, 1988 [incl. Thoracopteridae]
                                                            |-- †Thoracopteridae Griffith 1977 sensu Xu, Zhao, Gao & Wu, 2012
                                                            `--+-- †Luganoiiformes
                                                               `-- Neopterygii Regan, 1923(?) sensu Carroll, 1988 (neopterygian actinopterygians; uusviuhkaeväiset)

“Palaeoniscimorpha” indet.:

    ?†Anaglyphys L.Perm. Eu.
    †Andreolepis Gross, 1968 [Andreolepididae Märss, 2001]A. hedei Gross, 1968
        †A. petri Märss, 2001
    †Ameghinichthys antarcticus Arratia, Scasso & Kiessling, 2004; U.Jur. Ant. [possibly a ptycholepiform]
    †Anatoia L.Trias. SA. 
    †Atherstonia [Hypterus] U.Perm. Eu. L.Trias. SAf. Mad. U.Trias. NAm.
        †A. minorAtracauda Miss. NAm. [Bear Gulch, Montana]
        †A. lundiBroometta L.Trias. SAf.
    †Caminchaia L.Trias. SA.
        †C. draghii Rusconi, 1946a
    †Cenechoia L.Trias. SA.
        †C. paramillensis Rusconi, 1946c
    †Challaia L.Trias. SA.
        †C. striata Rusconi, 1946c
    †CosmoptychiusDiphyodus Miss. NAm.
    †Discoserra Miss. NAm. [Bear Gulch, Montana]
        †D. pectinodonDisichthys U.Perm. SAf.
    †Echentaia L.Trias. SA.
    †Elpisopholis U.Trias. Aus.
    †Eurynotoides U.Perm. Eu.
    †Evenkia L.Trias. NAs.
    †Fubarichthys Miss. NAm. [Bear Gulch, Montana]
        †"F." copiosusF. prolatusFrederichthysF. musadentatusGardineria Perm. Eu.
        †G. akkolkensisGuaymayenia L.Trias. SA.
        †G. paramillensis Rusconi, 1946b
    †Haywardia U.Trias. NAm. [Bear Lake, Idaho]
        †H. jordaniIsodus Miss. Eu. 
    †Kalops Poplin & Lund, 2002 [Acanthoniscus Lowney, 1980 (nomen nudum)]; U. Miss. NAm. [Bear Gulch, Montana]
        †K. monophrys Poplin & Lund, 2002 [Acanthoniscus cracens Lowney, 1980 (nomen nudum)]
        †K. diophrys Poplin & Lund, 2002 [Acanthoniscus bilobatus Lowney, 1980 (nomen nudum)]
    †KansasiellaLawrenciellaLeighiscus M.Trias. Aus.
    †LeuderiaL. kempiLuederia L.Perm. NAm.
    †Moythomasia striata Gross, 1952; L.Dev CEu. (nomen dubium, undiaganostic scales)
    †Moythomasia laevigata Gross, 1952; L.Dev CEu. (nomen dubium, undiaganostic scales)
    †Moythomasia antiqua (Williams, 1886) (nomen dubium, undiaganostic scales)
    †Muenstrichthys U.Perm. Eu.
        †M. buergeriMyriolepis L. U.Trias. Aus. ? L.Trias. SA.
        †M. clarkiOxypteriscus Miss. NAs.
    †Palaeobergeria Miss. NAs.
    †Pasamhaya L.Trias. SA.
    †Peleichthys U.Perm. SAf.
    †Plesioperleidus Su & Li, 1983 sensu Tong et al., 2006 [†Perleidus in partim; †Zhangina Liu in Liu et al., 2002; Liu in Jin et al., 2003] L.Trias. EAs.
        †P. dayeensis Su & Li, 1983
        †P. yangtzensis (Su, 1981) sensu Tong et al., 2006 [†Perleidus yangtzensis Su, 1981; Perleidus eurylepidotrichia Liu in Liu et al., 2002; †Zhangina yangtzensis (Su) Jin et al., 2002]
        †P. jiangsuensis (Qian et al., 1997) [Perleidus cf. madagascariensis Piveteau, 1934, Jin et al., 2003; Perleidus piveteaui Lehman, 1952, Jin et al., 2003; Perleidus jiangsuensis Qian et al., 1997; †Zhangina cylindrica Liu in Lie et al., 2002]
    †“Perleidus” lutoensis Antunes & Schaeffer, 1990
    †Pteroniscus Jur. WAs.
    ?†Schizospondylus U. Cret. Eu.
    †Tanaocrossus U.Jur. WAf.
    †Terenolepis turnerae Burrow, 1995; L. Dev. Aust.
    †Urosthenes L.Perm. Aust. [New Southj Wales]
        †U. latusWillomorichthys U.Dev. SAf.
        †W. striatulusYogoniscus Miss. NAm. [Bear Gulch, Montana]
        †Y. guloPaleonisciformes [paraphyletic]

    Actinopterygii incertae sedis:
        †Diplospondichthys moreaui Filleul & Dutheil, 2004

After Choo, 2011, 2015

<==o Actinopterygii
   |-- †Cheirolepis
   `--+-- †Osarioichthys
      `--+--+-- †Tegeolepis
         |  `--o †Howqualepididae
         |     |-- †Howqualepis
         |     `-- †Donnrosenia
         `--+--+-- †Moythomasia
            |  `--o †Mimiidae
            |     |-- †Gogosardina
            |     `-- †Mimipiscis
            `--+-- †Stegotrachelus
               `--+--+-- †Krasnoyaichthys
                  |  `--+-- †Novagonatodus
                  |     `--+-- †Cuneognathus
                  |        `-- †Limnomis
                  `--+-- †Mansfieldiscus
                     `--+-- †Kentuckia
                        `--+-- †Wendyichthys
                           `--+-- †Melanecta
                              `-- †Woodichthys

Reference(s):

  • Choo, B., 2015: A new species of the Devonian actinopterygian Moythomasia from Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, and fresh observations on M. durgaringa from the Gogo Formation of Western Australia.
    –Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology: Vol. 35, #4, pp. e952817 (1-21) [doi: 10.1080/02724634.2015.952817]
  • Choo, B., 2011: Revision of the actinopterygian genus Mimipiscis (=Mimia) from the Upper Devonian Gogo Formation of Western Australia and the interrelationships of the early Actinopterygii.
    –Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Vol. 102, #02, pp. (77-104) [doi: doi:10.1017/S1755691011011029]

After Swartz, 2009

<==o Actinopterygii
   |--o †Cheirolepis
   |  |-- †C. trailli
   |  `--+-- †C. schultzei
   |     `-- †C. canadensis
   `--+-- †Osorioichthys
      `--+-- †Donnrosenia
         `--+--+-- †Tegeolepis
            |  `-- †Howqualepis
            `--+--+-- †“Mimia”
               |  `-- †Krasnoyarichthys
               `--+--o †Stegotrachelidae
                  |  |-- †Stegotrachelus
                  |  `-- †Moythomasia
                  `--+--+-- †Limnomis
                     |  `-- †Cuneognathus
                     `--+-- †Kentuckia
                        `--+-- †Melanecta
                           `--+-- †Wendyichthys
                              `-- †Woodichthys

Reference(s):

  • Swartz, B. A., 2009: Devonian actinopterygian phylogeny and evolution based on a redescription of Stegotrachelus finlayi.
    –Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: Vol. 156, #4, pp. 750-784 [doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00505.x]

(Partly) after Dietze, 2000

<==o Actinopterygii
   |-- †Cheirolepis
   `--o Actinopteri
      |-- †Aetheretmon valentiacum
      |-- †Commentrya traquairi [Elaveria] L. Perm. Eu. [Commentryidae]
      |-- †Elonichthys[paraphyletic Elonichthyidae]
      |-- †Howqualepis
      |-- †Mansfieldiscus
      |--o †Rhabdolepidae
      |  |-- †Osorioichthys
      |  `-- †Rhabdolepis
      |     `-- †R. macropterus
      |--+-- †Mimia
      |  `--+?- †Moythomasia
      |     `-- †Coccocephalus
      |--o †Kentuckia
      |  `-- †K. hlavini
      `--+-- †Namaichthys schroederi [paraphyletic Acrolepidae]
         `--+-- †Australichthys longidorsalis
            `--+-- †Cycloptychius
               |-- †Gyrolepidotes
               |-- †Mentzichthys
               |-- †“Rhadinichthys” canobiensis
               `--+-- †Palaeoniscum freieslebeni
                  |--o ?†Rhadinichthyidae
                  |  |?- †Rhadinichthys laevis Traquair, 1890
                  |  |--+-- †“Rhadinichthys” athertonensis
                  |  |  `--+--o †Wendyichthys Lund & poplin, 1997
                  |  |     |  |-- †W. dicksoni Lund & poplin, 1997
                  |  |     |  `-- †W. lautreci Lund & poplin, 1997
                  |  |     `--o †Pteronisculus [Glaucolepis] L. Trias. Spits. Gr. Mad. Aus. [paraphyletic Stegotrachelidae]
                  |  |        |-- †P. cicatrosus
                  |  |        |-- †P. stensioei
                  |  |        `-- †P. magnus
                  |  `--+-- †Cyranorhis bergeraci Lund & poplin, 1997
                  |     `--+--o †Fubarichthys Miss. NA. [Bear Gulch, Montana]
                  |        |  |?- †F. prolatus
                  |        |  `?- †“F.” copiosus
                  |        `--o †Yogoniscus Miss. NA. [Bear Gulch, Montana] [= Yugoniscus]
                  |           `-- †Y. gulo
                  |--+-- †Dicellopygidae
                  |  `--+--o †Belichthys M. Trias. Aus.
                  |     |  `-- †B. minimus Wade, 1935
                  |     `--+-- †Canobiidae
                  |        `--+--o †Acrolepis [paraphyletic Acrolepidae]
                  |           |  |-- †A. sedgwicki
                  |           |  `-- †A. ortholepis
                  |           `-- †Amblypteridae [incl. Paramblypteridae sensu Dietze, 2000]
                  `--+--o †Gonatodus Miss. NA. Miss. Penn. EU. [paraphyletic Elonichthyidae]
                     |  `-- †G. punctatus
                     `--+-- †Pygopteridae
                        `--+--+--o †Gardineria Perm. Eu.
                           |  |  `--†G. akkolkensis
                           |  `--+-- †Cylindrichthys macropterus
                           |     `--+-- †Cylindrichthys vasilenkoi
                           |        `-- †Karaoungaria kleimani
                           `--+-- †Eigilia nielseni
                              `--+-- †Uydenia latifrons
                                 `--+-- †Uydenichthys magnus
                                    `--+--+-- †Kenderlichthys tuberculatus
                                       |  `--+-- †“Phanerosteonphonax
                                       |     `--o †Akanolepis [paraphyletic Rhadinichthyidae]
                                       |        `-- †A. decernans
                                       `--+-- †Aeduellidae
                                          `-- †Ptycholepiformes

reference(s):

  • Dietze, K., 2000: A revision of paramblypterid and amplypterid actinopterygians from Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian lacustrine deposits of central Europe.
    –Palaeontology: Vol. 43, #5, pp. 927-966

Reference(s):