The secondary objective is to carry out research on the textual history of 2 Samuel—the Hebrew and Greek texts and the secondary versions—and the impact of the Septuagint on a broader field of studies on the Books of Samuel-Kings.
All the witnesses of the Septuagint of 2 Samuel ultimately stem from a single Greek archetype. The textual traditions were split into three branches: the B-text, the Majority text, and the Proto-Lucianic text. The B-text underwent the Hebraizing kaige revision perhaps the first century BCE. The Majority text shares most, but not all, of the kaige readings in B. In addition, one branch of the B-text has undergone another, later, Hebraizing revision that is commonly called “Hexaplaric”. Its notable trait are additions done on the basis of Origen’s (d. 254 CE) Hexapla, a multi-column work that presented a comparison between the Hebrew text, the Septuagint, and a number of other Greek versions. The Proto-Lucianic text attests to only a very small number of kaige readings. However, it served as the base text for another, much later, revision that bears the name of Lucian of Antioch (d. 311 CE)—hence the name “Proto-Lucianic”; the fully developed recensional text is called “the Lucianic text”. Because of the heavy revision, the Lucianic text on the whole is furthest away from the original translation. However, since its Proto-Lucianic base text contained very few kaige readings, the Lucianic text often retains the original reading when both the B and the Majority texts attest a kaige reading. This makes the Lucianic text a highly important witness especially in 2 Sam 10–24 (so-called kaige section) where the Majority text shares most of the kaige readings of the B text.
See a sample of the edition:
The edition includes:
The key questions for the text-historical research are:
The new critical edition will allow for a more refined reconstruction of the underlying Hebrew Vorlage to be used in the textual criticism of the Hebrew 2 Samuel. In addition, it can be expected that the research included in the editing process will refine the view on the textual history of the Greek 2 Samuel and, by extension, of all the Books of Samuel-Kings.
The expected results can be formulated as the following hypotheses:
The most important ancient translations of the Greek 2 Samuel were made early enough for them to witness stages of textual development that antedate our existing Greek manuscripts. Especially, the translations were made before the Hexaplaric and Lucianic revisions, although readings from those revisions have later entered into the textual transmission of those versions. Each of the versions have a distinct translation technique and a textual history of their own. In order to use the ancient versions in the textual criticism of the Septuagint, their distinct traits have to be investigated.
The various Old Latin versions are attested notably by Palimpsestus Vindobonensis, marginal readings in Vulgate manuscripts, and quotations by early Latin patristic authors. Each of these sources have different transmission histories that have to be discerned before using them in textual criticism. Old Latin witnesses can be expected to contain some contamination from Lucianic Greek readings as well as from the Vulgate. Underneath that contamination, however, there is a good and old text very close to the original Greek translation.
The Syrohexaplaric translation of 2 Samuel has been preserved only very fragmentarily in a handful of lectionaries and catena manuscripts. Readings stemming from this version can be found scattered in Syriac biblical commentaries. However, the Peshitta and Jacob of Edessa's version may occasionally reflect Greek readings. The Syriac witnesses are important when they side with one or another of the supposedly recensional readings, especially when the Greek manuscripts are heavily divided.
Ethiopic is a Semitic language with no formal resemblance to Greek. However, the Ethiopic translation is highly isomorphic and, for the most part, it is easy to determine which Greek reading it attests. The Ethiopic version can be expected to closely follow the B-text but attesting to an earlier phase of the development of that text-type than codex Vaticanus.
The over-all objective in the study of the ancient versions is to determine their value and proper usage as textual witnesses for the Septuagint of 2 Samuel. The key questions are: