Untypical forests

Most of the research into forest management has been carried out assuming rotation forestry.

This is reflected in data and models. To overcome these constraints, our research has a strong focus on modelling untypical stands, including old growth and continuous cover forests (link to IBC-CARBON).

In old growth forests we need to understand possible slowing down of growth as well as increased mortality. In continuous cover forests it is crucial to understand the dynamics of regeneration under different environmental conditions. This means modelling population dynamics in addition to growth. Furthermore, in both cases tree structure and carbon allocation patterns may differ significantly from those in even-aged rotation forests. Our research is aiming to understand the possible changes in tree structure and function unders these, until now untypical situations, so as to make projections of the impacts of climate and management on such stands.


Hu M, … Annals of Botany ...

Hu M, Lehtonen A, Minunno F, Mäkelä A. (2020) Age effect on tree structure and biomass allocation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Annals of Forest Science, 77.

Ilomäki S, Nikinmaa E, Mäkelä A. 2003. Crown rise due to competition drives biomass allocation in silver birch. Can J For Res. 33:2395–2404.

Kantola A, Mäkelä A. 2006. Development of biomass proportions in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Trees. 20:111–121.

Kumpu A, Mäkelä A, Pumpanen J, Saarinen J & Berninger F. 2018. Soil CO2 efflux in uneven-aged and even-aged Norway spruce stands in southern Finland. IForest. 11: 705-712

Kumpu A, Piispanen R, Berninger F, Saarinen J & Makela A. 2020. Biomass and structure of Norway spruce trees grown in uneven-aged stands in southern Finland. Sca J For Res. 35, 5-6: 252-261

Mäkelä A. 1997. A carbon Balance model of growth and self-pruning in trees based on structural relationships. For Sci. 43:7–24.

Mäkelä, A., Valentine, H.T., 2001. The ratio of NPP to GPP: evidence of change over the course of stand development. Tree Physiology 21, 1015-1030.

Peltoniemi, M., Mäkipää, R., 2011. Quantifying distance-independent tree competition for predicting Norway spruce mortality in unmanaged forests. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 30-42.