Our research focuses on ecological and physiological research questions related to forest growth, production and material balances. How does tree form interact with the photosynthesis capacity and water transport of the tree? What causes the decline of height growth in old trees? Can optimal solutions derived from evolutionary theory explain tree structure and function, such as carbon sequestration and allocation? The questions are analysed using theoretical models and numerical simulations that are based on a mechanistic description of tree processes. The models allow us to investigate quantitatively the impacts of environmental changes on forest growth and functioning. Will our forests grow more in the future, or will various disturbances counterbalance the potential gains in growth? The models are already being used in decision support in solving problems of multiobjective forest management and as a basis of economic analyses of forest production and ecosystem services. The group is led by professor Annikki Mäkelä.