Brainstem GABA neurons
GABA neurons are the main inhibitory neurons in the brain, including the brainstem. Functionally diverse and highly important GABA neurons are located in the brainstem, both within and outside the dopaminergic and serotonergic nuclei. However, the spectrum of their subtypes and their specific molecular characteristics are poorly understood.
Our studies have revealed developmental mechanisms and molecular characteristics of the main GABA neuron subgroups in the brainstem. These include GABA neurons associated with the dopaminergic nuclei. Further work should address their cellular diversity, subtype-specific developmental regulatory mechanisms and neurophysiological roles.
Kala K, Haugas M, Lilleväli K, Guimera J, Wurst W, Salminen M, Partanen J. Gata2 is a tissue-specific post-mitotic selector gene for midbrain GABAergic neurons. Development. 136:253-62, 2009
Peltopuro, P., Kala, K. and Partanen, J. Distinct requirements for Ascl1 in subpopulations of midbrain GABAergic neurons. Dev. Biol., 343: 63-70, 2010 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20417196
Achim K, Peltopuro P, Lahti L, Li J, Salminen M, Partanen J. Distinct developmental origins and regulatory mechanisms for GABAergic neurons associated with dopaminergic nuclei in the ventral mesodiencephalic region. Development. 139:2360-70, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22627282
Virolainen, S.-M., Achim, K., Peltopuro, P., Salminen, M., Partanen, J. Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying the GABAergic neuron fate in different diencephalic prosomeres. Development, 139:3795-3805, 2012
Achim, K., Peltopuro, P., Lahti, L., Hui-Hsin, T., Zachariah, A., Åstrand, M., Rowitch, D., Salminen, M. and Partanen, J. The role of Tal2 and Tal1 in the differentiation of midbrain GABAergic neuron precursors. Biology Open, 2:990-997, 2013
Lahti L, Haugas M, Tikker L, Airavaara M, Voutilainen MH, Anttila J, Kumar S, Inkinen C, Salminen M, Partanen J. Differentiation and molecular heterogeneity of inhibitory and excitatory neurons associated with midbrain dopaminergic nuclei. Development. 143(3):516-29, 2016 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26718003