Finnish small animal gastroenterology first generation

Group leader Prof. Elias Westermarck (1990–2004)
Researcher profile

PhDs and topics (year of finalization)

Susanne Kilpinen, FIN: Clinical trials on tylosin´s treatment efficacy, dosage regimen, andeffects on fecal enterococci (Defense on 2.9.2016)

Rafael Frias, ESP: Preclinical evaluation of common markers and iohexol for the development of intestinal permeability tests in dogs. — Studies on laboratory Beagle dogs and Sprague-Dawley rats. (2013)

Minna Rinkinen, FIN: Methods for assessing the adhesion of probiotic and canine gut-derived lactic acid producing bacteria to the canine intestinal mucosa in vitro and measuring mucosal secretory IgA (2004)

Mairi Speeti, FIN: Comparison of subclinical and clinical stages and evaluation of etiopathogenesis of the disease (2004)

Jaana Harmoinen, FIN: A novel enzymatic therapy, targeted recombinant beta-lactamase, in the prevention of antibiotic-induced adverse effects on gut microbiota (2004)

Maria Wiberg, FIN: Pancreatic acinar atrophy in German shepherd dogs and rough-coated Collies (2002)

Irmeli Happonen, FIN: Canine and Feline Gastric Helicobacters: Diagnosis and Significance in Chronic Gastritis (1999)



Kasiraj AC, Harmoinen J, Isaiah A, Westermarck E, Steiner JM, Spillmann T, Suchodolski JS. The effects of feeding and withholding food on the canine small intestinal microbiota. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2016 Jun;92(6). pii: fiw085. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiw085. Epub 2016 Apr 21.


Kilpinen S, Rantala M, Spillmann T, Björkroth J, Westermarck E. Oral tylosin administration is associated with an increase of faecal enterococci and lactic acid bacteria in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhoea. Vet J. 2015 Sep;205(3):369-74. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.04.031. Epub 2015 Apr 23.


Kilpinen S, Spillmann T, Westermarck E. Efficacy of two low-dose oral tylosin regimens in controlling the relapse of diarrhea in dogs with tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a prospective, single-blinded, two-arm parallel, clinical field trial. Acta Vet Scand. 2014 Aug 6;56:43.


Westermarck E, Wiberg M. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the dog: historical background, diagnosis, and treatment. Top Companion Anim Med. 2012 Aug;27(3):96-103. doi: 10.1053/j.tcam.2012.05.002. Epub 2012 Jun 23. Review.

Frias R, Steiner JM, Williams DA, Sankari S, Westermarck E. Urinary recovery of orally administered chromium 51-labeled EDTA, lactulose, rhamnose, d-xylose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and sucrose in healthy adult male Beagles. Am J Vet Res. 2012 May;73(5):654-8.

Frias R, Strube K, Ternes W, Collado MC, Spillmann T, Sankari S, Westermarck E. Comparison of 51chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and iohexol as blood markers for intestinal permeability testing in Beagle dogs. Vet J. 2012 Apr;192(1):123-5.


Kilpinen S, Spillmann T, Syrjä P, Skrzypczak T, Louhelainen M, Westermarck E.Effect of tylosin on dogs with suspected tylosin-responsive diarrhea: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, prospective clinical trial. Acta Vet Scand. 2011 Apr 14;53:26.


Frias R, Harmoinen J, Laitinen-Vapaavuori O, Spillmann T, Sankari S, Westermarck E. Small intestinal permeability and serum folate and cobalamin absorption after surgical construction of permanent jejunal fistulas in laboratory beagle dogs. Comp Med. 2010 Oct;60(5):369-73.

Frias R, Collado MC, Spillmann T, Sankari S, Westermarck E. The 51-chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid intestinal permeability blood test in healthy Beagle dogs: a comparison between serum and plasma levels. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010 Nov;22(6):949-53.

Westermarck E, Saari SA, Wiberg ME. Heritability of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in German Shepherd dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2010 Mar-Apr;24(2):450-2.


Suchodolski JS, Dowd SE, Westermarck E, Steiner JM, Wolcott RD, Spillmann T, Harmoinen JA. The effect of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin on microbial diversity in the canine small intestine as demonstrated by massive parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing. BMC Microbiol. 2009 Oct 2;9:210.


Suchodolski JS, Morris EK, Allenspach K, Jergens AE, Harmoinen JA, Westermarck E, Steiner JM. Prevalence and identification of fungal DNA in the small intestine of healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies. Vet Microbiol. 2008 Dec 10;132(3-4):379-88. Epub 2008 May 24.


Westermarck E, Wiberg ME. Effects of diet on clinical signs of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006 Jan 15;228(2):225-9.


Westermarck E, Frias R, Skrzypczak T. Effect of diet and tylosin on chronic diarrhea in beagles. J Vet Intern Med. 2005 Nov-Dec;19(6):822-7.

Mentula S, Virtanen T, Kanervo-Nordström A, Harmoinen J, Westermarck E, Rautio M, Huovinen P, Könönen E. Relatedness of Escherichia coli strains with different susceptibility patterns isolated from beagle dogs during ampicillin treatment. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006 Jan;27(1):46-50.

Mentula S, Harmoinen J, Heikkilä M, Westermarck E, Rautio M, Huovinen P, Könönen E. Comparison between cultured small-intestinal and fecal microbiotas in beagle dogs. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Aug;71(8):4169-75.

Spillmann T, Happonen I, Kähkönen T, Fyhr T, Westermarck E. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography in healthy Beagles. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2005 Mar-Apr;46(2):97-104.

Westermarck E, Skrzypczak T, Harmoinen J, Steiner JM, Ruaux CG, Williams DA, Eerola E, Sundbäck P, Rinkinen M. Tylosin-responsive chronic diarrhea in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;19(2):177-86.


Mentula S, Harmoinen J, Koski P, Westermarck E, Rautio M, Huovinen P, Könönen E. Inhibition of ampicillin-induced emergence of resistance in intestinal coliforms by targeted recombinant beta-lactamase. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004 Dec;24(6):555-61.

Wiberg ME. Pancreatic acinar atrophy in German shepherd dogs and rough-coated collies. Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. A review. Vet Q. 2004 Jun;26(2):61-75.

Spillmann T, Happonen I, Sankari S, Wittker A, Kähkönen T, Westermarck E. Evaluation of serum values of pancreatic enzymes after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2004 May;65(5):616-9.

Frias R, Sankari S, Westermarck E. 51Cr-EDTA absorption blood test: an easy method for assessing small intestinal permeability in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2004 Mar-Apr;18(2):156-9.

Rinkinen ML, Koort JM, Ouwehand AC, Westermarck E, Björkroth KJ. Streptococcus alactolyticus is the dominating culturable lactic acid bacterium species in canine jejunum and feces of four fistulated dogs. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004 Jan 15;230(1):35-9.

Harmoinen J, Mentula S, Heikkilä M, van der Rest M, Rajala-Schultz PJ, Donskey CJ, Frias R, Koski P, Wickstrand N, Jousimies-Somer H, Westermarck E, Lindevall K. Orally administered targeted recombinant Beta-lactamase prevents ampicillin-induced selective pressure on the gut microbiota: a novel approach to reducing antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Jan;48(1):75-9.


Rinkinen M, Westermarck E, Salminen S, Ouwehand AC. Absence of host specificity for in vitro adhesion of probiotic lactic acid bacteria to intestinal mucus. Vet Microbiol. 2003 Dec 2;97(1-2):55-61.

Westermarck E, Wiberg M. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003 Sep;33(5):1165-79, viii-ix. Review.

Speeti M, Ståhls A, Meri S, Westermarck E. Upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens in hepatocytes in Doberman hepatitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2003 Nov 15;96(1-2):1-12. Erratum in: Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005 Feb 10;103(3-4):295.

Rinkinen M, Teppo AM, Harmoinen J, Westermarck E. Relationship between canine mucosal and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations: serum IgA does not assess duodenal secretory IgA. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47(2):155-9.

Harmoinen J, Vaali K, Koski P, Syrjänen K, Laitinen O, Lindevall K, Westermarck E. Enzymic degradation of a beta-lactam antibiotic, ampicillin, in the gut: a novel treatment modality. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003 Feb;51(2):361-5.

Rinkinen M, Jalava K, Westermarck E, Salminen S, Ouwehand AC. Interaction between probiotic lactic acid bacteria and canine enteric pathogens: a risk factor for intestinal Enterococcus faecium colonization? Vet Microbiol. 2003 Mar 20;92(1-2):111-9.


Harmoinen J, Saari S, Rinkinen M, Westermarck E. Evaluation of pancreatic forceps biopsy by laparoscopy in healthy beagles. Vet Ther. 2002 Spring;3(1):31-6.

Wiberg ME, Westermarck E. Subclinical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002 Apr 15;220(8):1183-7.


Harmoinen JA, Mättö JM, Rinkinen ML, Wilsson-Rahmberg M, Westermarck E. Permanent jejunal fistula: promising method for obtaining small intestinal chyme without disturbing intestinal function. Comp Med. 2001 Jun;51(3):252-6.


Spillmann T, Wiberg ME, Teigelkamp S, Failing K, Chaudhry YS, Kirsch A, Eifler R, Westermarck E, Eigenbrodt E, Sziegoleit A. Canine faecal pancreatic elastase (cE1) in dogs with clinical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, normal dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies. Europ J Comp Gast 5, 2000: 5-10

Wiberg ME, Westermarck E, Spillmann T, Teigelkamp S, Eifler R. Canine faecal pancreatic Elastase (cE1) for the diagnosis of subclinical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs. Europ J Comp Gast 5, 2000: 21-25

Wiberg ME, Saari SA, Westermarck E, Meri S. Cellular and humoral immune responses in atrophic lymphocytic pancreatitis in German shepherd dogs and rough-coated collies. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2000 Aug 31;76(1-2):103-15.

Happonen I, Linden J, Westermarck E. Effect of triple therapy on eradication of canine gastric helicobacters and gastric disease. J Small Anim Pract. 2000 Jan;41(1):1-6.

Wiberg ME, Saari SA, Westermarck E. Exocrine pancreatic atrophy in German Shepherd Dogs and Rough-coated Collies: an end result of lymphocytic pancreatitis. Vet Pathol. 1999 Nov;36(6):530-41.


Wiberg ME, Nurmi AK, Westermarck E. Serum trypsin like immunoreactivity measurement for the diagnosis of subclinical exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Vet Intern Med. 1999 Sep-Oct;13(5):426-32.


Happonen I, Linden J, Saari S, Karjalainen M, Hänninen ML, Jalava K, Westermarck E. Detection and effects of helicobacters in healthy dogs and dogs with signs of gastritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998 Dec 15;213(12):1767-74.

Speeti M, Eriksson J, Saari S, Westermarck E. Lesions of subclinical doberman hepatitis. Vet Pathol. 1998 Sep;35(5):361-9.

Wiberg ME, Lautala HM, Westermarck E. Response to long-term enzyme replacement treatment in dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998 Jul 1;213(1):86-90.


Speeti M, Ihantola M, Westermarck E. Subclinical versus clinical hepatitis in the dobermann: evaluation of changes in blood parameters. J Small Anim Pract. 1996 Oct;37(10):465-70.

Happonen I, Saari S, Castren L, Tyni O, Hänninen ML, Westermarck E. Comparison of diagnostic methods for detecting gastric Helicobacter-like organisms in dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol. 1996 Aug;115(2):117-27.

Happonen I, Saari S, Castren L, Tyni O, Hänninen ML, Westermarck E. Occurrence and topographical mapping of gastric Helicobacter-like organisms and their association with histological changes in apparently healthy dogs and cats. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1996 Jul;43(5):305-15.


Westermarck E, Junttila JT, Wiberg ME. Role of low dietary fat in the treatment of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Am J Vet Res. 1995 May;56(5):600-5.

Hänninen ML, Jalava K, Saari S, Happonen I, Westermarck E. Culture of "Gastrospirillum" from gastric biopsies of dogs. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995 Feb;14(2):145-6.


Westermarck E, Myllys V, Aho M. Effect of treatment on the jejunal and colonic bacterial flora of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Pancreas. 1993 Sep;8(5):559-62.

Westermarck E, Batt RM, Vaillant C, Wiberg M. Sequential study of pancreatic structure and function during development of pancreatic acinar atrophy in a German shepherd dog. Am J Vet Res. 1993 Jul;54(7):1088-94.

Westermarck E, Siltanen R, Maijala R. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in seven dogs with gastrointestinal signs. Acta Vet Scand. 1993;34(3):311-4.


Westermarck E, Wiberg M, Junttila J. Role of feeding in the treatment of dogs with pancreatic degenerative atrophy. Acta Vet Scand. 1990;31(3):325-31.


Westermarck E, Rimaila-Pärnänen E. Mesenteric torsion in dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: 21 cases (1978-1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Nov 15;195(10):1404-6.

Westermarck E, Pamilo P, Wiberg M. Pancreatic degenerative atrophy in the collie breed: a hereditary disease. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1989 Aug;36(7):549-54.

Räihä M, Westermarck E. The signs of pancreatic degenerative atrophy in dogs and the role of external factors in the ethiology of the disease. Acta Vet Scand. 1989;30(4):447-52.

Westermarck E, Saario E. Traumatic pancreatic injury in a cat--a case history. Acta Vet Scand. 1989;30(3):359-62.

Marvola M, Hannula AM, Ojantakanen S, Westermarck E, Rajamäki M. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium starch glycolate on the in vivo disintegration of hard gelatin capsules--a radiological study in the dog. Acta Pharm Nord. 1989;1(6):355-62.


Westermarck E. Treatment of pancreatic degenerative atrophy with raw pancreas homogenate and various enzyme preparations. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A. 1987 Dec;34(10):728-33.


Westermarck E, Lindberg LA, Sandholm M. Quantitation of serum phospholipase A2 by enzyme-diffusion in lecithin agar gels. A comparative study in man and animals. Acta Vet Scand. 1984;25(2):229-41.


Westermarck E, Rimaila-Pärnänen E. Serum phospholipase A2 in canine acute pancreatitis. Acta Vet Scand. 1983;24(4):477-87.


Rimaila-Pärnänen E, Westermarck E. Pancreatic degenerative atrophy and chronic pancreatitis in dogs. A comparative study of 60 cases. Acta Vet Scand. 1982;23(3):400-6.

Westermarck E. The diagnosis of pancreatic degenerative atrophy in dogs--a practical method. Acta Vet Scand. 1982;23(2):197-203.


Westermarck E, Sandholm M. Faecal hydrolase activity as determined by radial enzyme diffusion: a new method for detecting pancreatic dysfunction in the dog. Res Vet Sci. 1980 May;28(3):341-6.

Westermarck E. The hereditary nature of canine pancreatic degenerative atrophy in the German shepherd dog. Acta Vet Scand. 1980;21(3):389-94.