You may find here the list of our Current HCAS Fellows A-N and short descriptions of their research projects. On the page Current HCAS Fellows O-Z you can find information about the rest of the fellows.
Current HCAS Fellows, A-N
- North America
- Indigenous People
- Dynamic Network Modeling
- Immigration, Ethnic minorities
- Philosophy of Action and Mind, ancient and modern
Social Network Analysis and Computer Modeling in the Study of the Human Past: Three Case Studies on New Research Methods
Social network analysis (SNA) and computer modelling are one of the most promising areas of inquiry in the social sciences and computer science, and have even more potential in the humanities. Large datasets and new data modelling tools allow people to explore and visualize problems that were previously beyond the grasp of a researcher using traditional methods. These computer tools and research methodologies can be used to better understand historical, anthropological, sociological, and demographic issues in almost any context. They will have a profound impact on, for example, studying human migrations, kinship networks, minority group responses to external pressures, relationships between individuals and institutions, and other questions of complicated human relationships. Dynamic network analysis takes the traditional social network analysis methods a step further by investigating how networks evolve over time.
Andersson's project consists of three case studies that demonstrate the versatility of Dynamic network modelling in different historical and cultural circumstances focusing, for example, the Lakota Indians in the late 19th and early 20th century and Finnish immigration to Sugar Island, Michigan, in the early 20th century.
Dr. Rani-Henrik Andersson served as the McDonnell Douglas Chair, Professor of American Studies at the University of Helsinki Finland during 2014–2016. He was recently appointed Senior University Lecturer of North American Studies and a CORE Fellow at the at the University of Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies. He is the author of eight books including the Lakota Ghost Dance of 1890 (University of Nebraska Press, 2008). His most recent book A Whirlwind Passed Through Our Country: Lakota Voices of the Ghost Dance focuses on Lakota accounts of the Ghost Dance and the Wounded Knee Massacre (University of Oklahoma Press 2018). One of his current projects is entitled “Bridging Cultural Concepts of Nature: A Transnational Study on Indigenous Places and Protected Spaces of Nature”. He is also the President of the Finnish American Studies Association.
- Anthropology of gender and masculinity
- feminist theory
- performance (especially dance and music)
- the body and embodiment
- diplomacy, bureaucratic practices, international institutions
- human rights, minority rights
- social and political theory
- anthropology and history
- Greece, Balkans, the Mediterranean, post-Ottoman cultural formations
Minority or Nation? Competing Justice Projects at the League of Nations
In my Collegium project I am writing a book that examines a key moment in the pre-history of international human rights, tracing competing justice projects at play at the site of the League of Nations minority supervision mechanism between 1920-1935. As guarantors of the “permanent peace” of the post-imperial New Europe of nation-states, League diplomats and international civil servants cooperated with European states in securing the new territorial status quo. Among other activities, they supervised newly designated “minority states”—those, primarily on Europe’s eastern boundaries, who were compelled to accept minorities treaties or conventions—in their regulation of their population’s linguistic, religious or ethnic difference. This involved introducing “minority” as a newly sanctioned legal-political category endowed with protections and rights, and promoting an embrace of minority citizenship. Conversely, a variety of civic and revolutionary organisations, supported by a range of concerned world citizens, used the petition process to claim rights and protections but, in some cases, also to resist the project of minoritisation and to continue an unfinished struggle for nationhood. Focusing specifically on the encounters generated by petitions for Macedonia and the Macedonians, the book will offer an original, anthropological yet interdisciplinarily-informed perspective on the history of rights and the construction of the international at the conjuncture with nationalisms.
Jane Cowan is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Sussex in Brighton UK, where she has taught since 1991. American born and educated, she received her BA from Macalester College and her MA and PhD from Indiana University, Bloomington. Professor Cowan’s prize-winning first book Dance and the Body Politic in Northern Greece (Princeton University Press, 1990) explored the ways gender, power and identity were performed and negotiated within social dancing. Her fieldwork in a small Greek town in the ethnically mixed, multilingual Macedonian region alerted her to its population’s diverse and complex responses to nation-building practices over the 20th century, and inspired her to investigate the contested consolidation of ‘minority’ as a legal-political category within the context of the League of Nations' supervision of interwar minority treaties.
- English historical linguistics
- Corpus linguistics
- Verb argument structure
- Syntactic change
- Translation in the Middle Ages
The Passivization of the English Verb HAVE from Old to Present-Day English: a corpus-based study
This research is planned in co-authorship with Docent Matti Kilpiö (University of Helsinki). We would like to study the historical development of the following types of passive construction with the verb HAVE from Old to Modern English:
- A good time was had by all – passive constructions with an auxiliary
- Common law claims for money had and received – auxiliary-less past-participial constructions in different syntactic functions.
The passivization of HAVE is rare – the verbs of 'being' and 'having' normally occur only in the active. With the help of corpora, part of which are syntactically tagged, we plan to find out:
- The overall relative frequency of passivizations of HAVE in the long diachrony of the English language
- The continuity vs. discontinuity of semantic groupings of passivized HAVE (which are expected to change and vary in frequency over time)
- Reasons for the use of passivized HAVE
Structured corpora have built-in properties which make it possible to study variation in the use of passivized HAVE over time, period by period, in different text types and, where a corpus allows it, along the oral - written continuum. The end result of the project will be an extended co-authored article.
I am a research fellow at the Institute for Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. I graduated from Saint Petersburg State University in 2008 (English Philology) and received my PhD from the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2016. In my doctoral study I analyzed semantically opposite groups of Old English verbs and their diachronic development. My current research is a corpus-based study, which aims at finding out more about passive construction with the verb HAVE from the earliest documented English to the present day.
- Comparative Literature
- Literary urban studies
- The fantastic
- Literary feminisms
- 20th century short fiction
The European City and Fantastic Literature during Modernity (19th century narratives)
It is a well-known fact that the birth of Modernity was driven by a drastic reconfiguration of the European metropolis during the 19th century. This unprecedented growth of Europe's urban centers has been largely studied in relation to the realist novel as the paradigm. However, an aspect that has been overlooked by urban historians and literary scholarship alike is that often the same realist writers (for example Balzac, Galdós, Maupassant) explored an alternative form of expression through their fantastic fictions. What can we learn about the modern European city from fictions of the fantastic? My stay at HCAS will allow me to write a book addressing this question. My research will show that the city in Europe and the discourse of the fantastic are interrelated at many levels. Selecting a gender-balanced corpus of French, Belgium, Spanish and British 19th century novels and short stories, this study will identify recurrent metaphors across European literary traditions that reflect the relationships between the metropolis and the fantastic, and the role of the fantastic in building European urban culture. The project is timely in that it addresses pressing issues of European identity that are currently undergoing major revision. It will show that the fantastic provides effective and very unusual techniques for expressing how European urban spatiality is perceived and artistically interpreted.
Dr Patricia García is an Associate Professor at the University of Nottingham (School of Cultures, Languages and Area Studies). Her research focuses on narrative spaces and their intersection with other fields such as the fantastic, feminisms and the contemporary short story. Her most notable publications include Space and the Postmodern Fantastic in Contemporary Literature (Routledge, 2015). She is the PI of the project Gender and the Hispanic Fantastic (funded by the British Academy), a member of the Spanish Research "Grupo de Estudios de lo Fantástico" and of the editorial board of the academic journal BRUMAL: Research Journal on the Fantastic. She has been a guest lecturer and researcher in Ireland, Spain, France, Lebanon and India and writer-in-residence at the Centre Culturel Irlandais (Paris) and International Writers' and Translators' Centre of Rhodes (Greece).
- Human rights
- International law
- Global governance
Movement in the right direction: an ethnography of a human rights report
This legal-anthropological project aims to write a pioneering ethnography of the full life-cycle of a human rights report submitted to a high-profile UN body – namely Finland's 6th state report to the UN Human Rights Committee on its compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). The monograph examines what formed a 'fact' for the report; what such reports highlight and hide; the role of 'the law' in the proceedings; and the expert practices accompanying its processing. The project's theoretical backbone is formed by the notion of movement, following both the work of Tim Ingold as well as the UN's own characterization of treaty bodies as forming an ongoing 'cycle'. The monograph concludes in a bold argument that the endless cycles around UN human rights reports, accompanied by the continued movement of people to UN sessions to 'embody the world' (Halme-Tuomisaari 2017), form a crucial component in our current world order – however, instead of their stated mission to change the world they essentially legitimize and solidify the current status quo.
Miia Halme-Tuomisaari is a legal anthropologist specialised in the analysis of the contemporary human rights phenomenon. Her field sites include a Nordic network of human rights experts and more recently the UN Human Rights Committee. She is also a specialist of the history of human rights, particularly the intersection of the inter-war US civil liberties movement and the European human rights movement. She earned her PhD in Social Anthropology from the University of Helsinki in 2008, and has been a researcher at the Erik Castrén Institute of International Law and Human Rights and the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, as well as a visiting senior fellow at the Geneva Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, and the University of Witwaterstrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. She is Docent (Adjunct professor) of international law at the University of Turku, and the co-founder of Allegralaboratory.net and Allegra Lab Hki. Her publications include 'Human Rights in Action: Learning Expert Knowledge' (2008, Brill), 'Revisiting the Origins of Human Rights' (co-ed with Pamela Slotte, Cambridge University Press 2015) and 'Meeting the World at the Palais Wilson' (in 'Palaces of Hope', Eds. Ron Niezen & Maria Sapignoli, CUP 2017) as well as numerous articles published among others in the Journal of Legal Anthropology and Migration Studies.
- African diasporic religion
”Women of Peace": Violence, Gender, and African Diasporic Religion in Salvador, Brazil
Recently, Salvador, Brazil has become one of the most violent cities in the world. Similar to other urban contexts in Brazil, the majority of those killed have been poor, young black men. This ethnographic project examines how understandings of and efforts to respond to such escalating violence intersect with local understandings of race, gender and religion in Salvador. It approaches this question through a focus on practitioners of the African diasporic religion Candomblé. The confluence of raced and gendered understandings of Candomblé practitioners as the quintessential "Black Mothers" of the "racially and culturally mixed" Brazilian nation has led them to be seen by state actors as the ideal purveyors of peace to Salvador's violence-ridden, Afro-Brazilian neighborhoods. In practice, however, Candomblé practitioners' views on and engagements with violence are more complex. This study takes the oftentimes contradictory intersections between state and religious efforts to respond to and ameliorate violence as its primary focus. In so doing, it provides a novel perspective to the study of racialized violence in the Americas. In addition, it expands scholarly understandings of religious engagements with violence.
Elina I. Hartikainen (Ph.D. University of Chicago) is a socio-cultural and linguist anthropologist who studies the intersection of religion, politics, and race in Brazil. In her past and current research, she has examined Afro-Brazilian religious activists’ engagements with Brazilian state projects of participatory democracy, multiculturalism, and violence prevention. In addition, she has written on the adjudication of religious intolerance in Brazil. Most recently, her research has appeared in American Ethnologist and Signs and Society.
- Archaeological science
- Ancient craft technologies
- Archaeology of Northern Europe
- Near Eastern archaeology
No (Viking) Man's Land? Materialising East-West Mobility on the Finnish Baltic Coast ca. 800-1000 CE
This project examines the late Iron Age, mainly Viking Age (ca. 800–1000 CE), material culture, and particularly archaeological pottery and metal artefact traditions in the region of the Finnish Baltic Sea coast (the coastal southern areas of modern Finland). The main research focus is to characterise signature details of the artefact technologies at different sub-regions of the Finnish late Iron Age material culture and to identify regional variants of domestic craftsmanship in Finland during this time. This project combines different categories of archaeological data, artefact analysis and archaeometry methods (e.g. scanning electron microscopy) to characterise artefact manufacturing traditions and to approach questions of material processing practices, craft technologies, manufacture site location, raw material source areas, and object circulation and networks between communities in the late Iron Age Finland.
Dr Elisabeth Holmqvist-Sipilä holds a PhD (Institute of Archaeology, University College London), MA and BA degrees in archaeology (University of Helsinki). Her research focuses on ancient craft technologies and mobility of goods and people. Prior to HCAS, she worked at the University of Helsinki as a senior lecturer (2016 - 2017) and Academy of Finland postdoctoral fellow (2012 - 2015). Her recent scientific articles include Tracing grog and pots to reveal Neolithic Corded Ware Culture contacts in the Baltic Sea Region (SEM-EDS, PIXE) Journal of Archaeological Science (2018), and Handheld portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) in Oxford Handbook of Archaeological Ceramic Analysis (2017).
- Indigenous multilingualism
- Language documentation
- Language contact
- Languages of Siberia
Multilingualism in Siberia
This project is devoted to multilingualism in Siberia, and takes two approaches: first, it collects descriptions of all oral multilingual practices attested today in the area, and second, it reconstructs multilingual practices of the past based on linguistic, anthropological, and historic data. The aim of the initiative is to create a database of all areas of multilingualism and to visualize these data with the help of maps and an interactive web resource. There are some descriptions of individual multilingual areas of Siberia, but there is no resource that would integrate all current knowledge on the multilingual locations, either in the past or in present. Data on the actual patterns of language choice in the multilingual settings are even more scattered: with whom and in what situations which language is/was used. This project aims to collect all the existing data on multilingualism in Siberia and make the resource available to researchers and to a wider public. Languages and linguistic communities of Siberia are still underrepresented in modern linguistics, and I hope to fill the gap at least partly with the proposed resource on multilingualism.
Olesya Khanina graduated from Moscow State University in 2002 and received her PhD in 2005 from the same university for a thesis in typology. Since then, she has been involved in documentation of Enets (Uralic, Samoyedic), based at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, University of Edinburgh, and since 2015, at the Institute of Linguistics in Moscow. Starting from Enets, she has become interested in the Tajmyr peninsula in the north of Siberia as a linguistic area. Language contact and patterns of indigenous multilingualism in the north of Siberia is her main research area at the moment. Besides, she specializes in Uralic languages, languages of Siberia, language documentation, and corpus-based approach to typology.
Iambic Verse in the Early Modern European Poetry
This research investigates the development of the syllabo-tonicism in the poetry of Northern Europe. The bulk of the material relates to German, Swedish and Russian iambic verse, but the analysis will be extended to include examples of English and Dutch poetry. This comparative study employs the linguo-statistical method which analyses the mechanisms of versification and the role of language in the creation of verse. For its successful accomplishment the use of the National Library of Finland with its unique collection of German, Swedish and Russian poetry is essential.
- Civic technology
- Open government
- Institutional change
Global Development Agenda: Aspirations of Multilateral Organisations and Citizens
The project aims to identify overlapping world development themes of declared and practiced objectives designated by intergovernmental organisations and the people. The initial challenge is that on the global level citizens neither have mechanisms to express their policy preferences nor possess a direct authority to advocate them. Instead, policies of world scale are developed by experts and adopted by politicians of multilateral organisations. Nevertheless, a genuinely global agenda has a potential to facilitate drafting and embodiment of truly universal world development goals. This raises the research question of what is the latent common global development agenda implicitly shared by multilateral organisations and citizens? In the pursuit of answers, this study foresees the following aims: to identify development goals of world scale as defined by multilateral organisations and citizens; to find out actually pursued objectives; to compare their declared and implemented objectives; and to elaborate a global development agenda on cross-cutting issues. The research will be performed by a document analysis of multilateral organisations, a statistical analysis of cross-national surveys, and a content analysis of expert interviews with scholars and policy analysts.
Dr. Dmytro Khutkyy is the National Researcher at the Independent Reporting Mechanism, Open Government Partnership initiative, and the Manager of E-Democracy Group, Reanimation Package of Reforms, in Ukraine. He has obtained his PhD in Sociology at the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and taught sociology courses at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. After that he has accomplished several international programs in Austria, Estonia, Germany, and the United States. In Ukraine, he participated in grassroots civic activism within the Center for Innovations Development and Transparency International. Also, Dr. Dmytro Khutkyy evaluated reforms of Ukrainian government. Besides, he performed expert consultancy for UNDP, OECD, eGA, EGAP, DRI, IRI, and other organizations on best practices of civic technology and open government. Dr. Dmytro Khutkyy conducts research, training, and communication to promote civic participation, good governance, and institutional change.
- Legal personhood
- Group agency
- Animal rights
Companies, Accomplices and Institutions - Group Agents in Law
People act constantly in different kinds of groups, such as multinational corporations, sports clubs, orchestras and motorcycle gangs. The group members decide on the goals of the group, assume different roles within it, and represent it in relation to non-members. The study of such collectivities from a philosophical point of view is called social ontology. Philosophers in this field have developed rigorous and sophisticated models for explaining group agency and collective action. However, these philosophers have not focused on the legal aspects of group agency, and the legal applications of social ontology have been superficial. A paradigmatic example of legal group agency is artificial persons, such as business corporations, foundations and associations. However, group agency is recognised by law in many other contexts as well. For instance, criminal doctrines of complicity determine when someone is deemed to have partaken in a criminal enterprise. Kurki investigates group agency in legal contexts, employing philosophical conceptual analysis and in particular social ontology. The objective is to create a theoretical framework that explains and classifies the central instances of how group agency is recognised in law.
Kurki is a Finnish legal philosopher. He completed his PhD in 2017 at the Law Faculty of the University of Cambridge, where he was supervised by Matthew Kramer. His doctoral dissertation, entitled "A Theory of Legal Personality", was approved without corrections in May 2017. After receiving his PhD, he was a visiting fellow at Uppsala University for six months, and worked as fixed-term University Lecturer in Public Law at the University of Tampere. Kurki has published in leading legal journals, such as the Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, and edited an anthology on legal personhood for Springer, together with Tomasz Pietrzykowski.
- Archaeology, Epigraphy, Papyrology
- Judaism, Christianity, Islam
- Bible, Quran
- Ancient Near East
The Alphabet: History and Development in the First Millennium BCE Levant
In the first millennium BCE, the alphabet evolves into distinctive scripts used to write Northwest-Semitic languages such as Aramaic, Phoenician and Hebrew. The alphabet spreads into the entire Mediterranean world and gives rise to such scripts as the Greek and Latin alphabets. Although the development of so-called national scripts can be observed, this distinction is not always obvious; recent discoveries show how scripts can be adapted and mixed in a single inscription, to the point that traditional classifications must be rethought. The present research project seeks to study, from the ground up, the history and evolution of these scripts in the light of new discoveries and with the help of new technologies.
My initial training is in formal sciences, especially mathematics, computer sciences, physics and chemistry, with a major in fundamental mathematics. I then turned to humanities with studies in theology, history and philology. The encounter between formal and social sciences was fruitful and never ceased to sustain my research. I received a PhD at the Sorbonne, in Paris, where I specialized in epigraphy. I worked as a researcher at the Collège de France until I was tenured Associate Professor at the University of Strasbourg. I also obtained an Habilitation, which enables me to supervise PhD students and researchers. I am sometimes asked to provide my main official titles. Here they are: Prof. Dr. habil. Michael Langlois holds a PhD and Habilitation in Historical and Philological Sciences from EPHESorbonne. He teaches as tenured Associate Professor at the University of Strasbourg and is a member of the University Institute of France. He is also an associate researcher with the CNRS / Collège de France, as well as an Auxiliary of the Academy of Inscriptions and Fine Letters.
- German Idealism
- Contemporary Continental Philosophy
With the increasing presence of technologies in contemporary life, the question of the imprint of different technologies on the human being him/herself has become ever more pressing. In contemporary debates it is possible to distinguish two antagonist positions. On the other hand, many bioethicists, often close to the post- and transhumanist movement, see technological progress, including technological enhancement of human beings, as an eminently positive development that accompanies scientific progress. On the other hand, a more existentialist or humanist point of view warns about totalitarian possibilities that emerge together with the technologies that manipulate human beings. It seems to me that philosophy cannot simply choose one of the two antagonist positions. In order to overcome their opposition, Lindberg proposes to examine their common ground, instead. This is why she proposes to effectuate a philosophical archaeology of the conception of human being that underlies contemporary debates on technological humanity. Doing philosophical research on "technological humanity", her overall research question is: what is the role of technology in the human being's self-constitution? In Lindberg's work, she will examine the ways in which human subjectivity is transformed by contemporary technologies, but she will also look for the aspects of human life that cannot be captured by technology.
- Roman law
- Classical archaeology
Materialising and Tracing Roman Sea Trade Law (2nd cent BC-3rd cent. AD)
This study seeks to understand the changes in sea trade law and the material record associated with it in the period from 2nd cent BC until the 3rd cent. AD. To that aim, I will merge ancient legal sources and the archaeological record in order to understand if there was a relation within the rulings established by law and the materials and structures used in the practice. This study will bridge the gap between theory and practice, and intends to understand what kind of communication was established between lawyers and merchants. Thus, I will address these main research questions: (1) what mechanisms to deal with sea trade were developed by Roman law from the 2nd cent BC until 3rd cent. AD? (2) How did the changes in the law have a reflection in the artefacts and infrastructures used in commercial daily life? (3) Was Roman law designed for traders and inspired by them? Conversely, (4) were traders aware of all the particularities of Roman trade law? These questions relate to other fields of research, such as the role of political authorities in the changes in the law. I will study legal commercial mechanisms (e.g. agreements, agency) chronologically and focusing on the areas of the case studies. The commercial sites from Rome and Arles' connections to the sea will be mapped and the areas where material evidence has been attested will be linked with the legal sources associated.
I defended my PhD in Roman law in March, 2014 (University of Alicante and Facolta di giurisprudenza Palermo) concerning the criminal liability for shipwrecking. I have just finished my second PhD in archaeology concerning the epigraphy of merchandise at the Universities of Southampton and Lyon 2 la lumiere, related to the Portus limen project. My research interest lies on Roman law and especially on its commercial and maritime focus. Moreover, my work is also devoted to examining the ways in which the material of inscribed artefacts provides information regarding their use as objects of communication. I like to connect the materiality of epigraphy of merchandise against the background of Roman law, by shifting the focus from traditional linguistic analysis to the means by which inscribed texts were created, shaped, and used as commercial tools in the different regions of the Mediterranean.
- Language processing
- Alzheimer's disease
- Finnish language
Morphological Language Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease
The grammars of Finnish and English differ so substantially that studies of language in Finnish speakers suggest a markedly different picture of the relationship between humans’ grammar and lexicon than the one standardly assumed based on studies primarily of English speakers. In this research project, Nikolaev will thus use Finnish as a tool to reconsider classic questions in the literature about language decline in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). By designing and implementing linguistic tests with recordings of neurophysiological electrical activity on the scalp, I will explore how and when language impairments manifest themselves in individuals with AD in Finnish and English. The results will be of crucial importance for linguists studying language pathologies as well as for psychologists creating test batteries for better diagnoses of AD.
Dr. Alexandre Nikolaev has substantial experience conducting research in the area of morphology of language. In his dissertation (2011), Nikolaev studied the complexity of inflectional systems by using corpus- and psycholinguistic methods. However, understanding the organization of our mental grammar is simply impossible without understanding how morphological structures are represented in the brain. Thus, Nikolaev’s aim is to conduct research on the relationship between humans’ mental grammar and mental lexicon in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or Mild Cognitive Impairment.
- Historical linguistics
- Celtic linguistics
The typology of singulatives: Definition, distribution and diachrony
Singulatives are noun forms where a morphological marker is added to denote one (unit), e.g. Welsh moch-yn a pig (from moch pigs). This is the opposite of the more familiar pattern where a marker is added to denote many, e.g. singular dog vs. plural dogs. Singulatives are found in many language families across the world, yet they have never been subject to a comprehensive typological study. This project will add significantly to our understanding of the morphology of grammatical number and possible number systems, that is, how languages denote one and many. I will build a database of singulatives in the world's languages and use it to explore three main themes: the definition, distribution and diachrony of singulatives. The first will result in a cross-linguistically informed definition of singulatives, and the second in an overview of their distribution in different language families and different number systems. Finally, I will explore how singulatives first arise in a language and whether there are common pathways of development.
I hold a BA (Celtic Studies) and an MPhil from the Department of Welsh and Celtic Studies, Aberystwyth University. I got my PhD from the University of Cambridge (Dept. of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic) in 2015 under the supervision of Paul Russell, and I spent the academic year 2012 - 2013 as a visiting scholar at the department of Vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft und Keltologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany, after winning a Leverhulme Trust Study Abroad Scholarship. Between 2015 - 2018 I was a postdoctoral scholar at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies working on my book titled Grammatical number in Welsh: Diachrony and typology.