After Carroll, 1988, Long 1990, Märss & Gagnier, 2001 and Williams, 1999-2000

Family-level taxonomy of basal Chondrichthyes.

<==o Chondrichthyes Huxley, 1880 (chondrichthyans; rustokalat)
   |?- †Areyongalepis oervigi Young, 1997
   |?- †Kathemacanthus rosulentus Gagnier & Wilson, 1996a; E.Dev. WNAm.
   |?- †Polymerolepis
   |?- †Pilolepis margaritifera Thorsteinsson
   |?-o †Pucapampella Maisey, 2001; Dev. SA., SAf.
   |  `-- †P. rodrigae
   |?- †Mongolepida Karatajüte-Talimaa et al. 1990
   |?- †Omalodontida
   `--+?- †Leonodus carlsi Mader, 1986, L. Dev. Eu.
      |?-o †Coronodontia [Coronodontiformes; Coronodontida Zangerl, 1981]
      |  |-- †Siamodus janvieri Long, 1990
      |  |--o †Coronodus
      |  |  |-- †C. plademodus
      |  |  `-- †C. reimanni Bryant, 1923
      |  `--o †Diademodus [Tieradontus]
      |     |-- †D. hydei Harris, 1950
      |     `-- †D. sp.
      `--+--o †Cladoselachimorpha
         |  `-- †Cladoselachiformes Dean, 1909c
         `--o Euchondrocephali
            |?-o †Helodontiformes
            |  `--o †Helodontidae
            |     |-- †Helodus [Diclitodus, Pleurodus, Pleuroplax] U. Dev. L. Perm. NA. Miss. Penn. Eu. Perm. Aus.
            |     `--o †Venustodus St. John & Worthen, 1875 [Lophodus, Oxytomodus, ?Rhampodus, Tomodus] Miss. Eu. NA. [regarded as Cochliodontidae incertae sedis by Elliott et al., 2004]
            |        |-- †V. argutus St. John & Worthen, 1875
            |        |-- †V. robustus St.John & Worthen, 1875a
            |        |-- †V. leidyi St.John & Worthen, 1875
            |        `-- †V. sp. Miss. WNA.
            |-- Elasmobranchii Bonaparte, 1838 (leveäsuiset, true sharks)
            `--+== †Symmorida Zangerl, 1981 [Symmoriiformes]
               `--o Holocephali Bonaparte, 1832-41 (koppapäiset)
                  |?- †Squaloraia [Spinocorhinus] L. Jur. Eu. [Squalorajidae]
                  |-- †Paraselachimorpha [paraphyletic?]
                  `-- Holocephalimorpha (sillikuningaskalat; holocephalans, rabbitfish, chimaerans)


Chondrichthyes incertae sedis:Aganacanthus striatulus Traquair, 1884; L.Carb.: Edinburgh, Scotland
            †Amacanthus gibbosus Newberry, & Worthen, 1866; Mississippian: St.Louis, MO
            †Anodontacanthus pussilus Hussakof & Bryant, 1918; M.Dev.: NY
            †Antacanthus insignis Dewalque, 1877; L.Carb.: IO; MO; MS; Belgium
            †Batacanthus baculiformis St.John & Worthen, 1875; L.Carb.: IO; MO
            †Bulbocanthus rugosus Bryant, 1932; Bear Tooth Butte, WY
            †Bythiacanthus vanhornei St.John & Worthen, 1875; L.Carb.: Alton, IL
            †Chalazacanthus verrucosus Davis, 1883; L.Carb.: Bristol, England
            †Chondrichthyes genera et species indet. Penn. NA. [Bear Gluch, Montana]
            †Cosmacanthus malcolmsoni Agassiz, 1844; Dev.: Elgin, England
            †Crassidonta stuckenbergi Branson, 1916; L.Perm.: WY; Western Australia
            †Cynopodius crenulatus Traquair, 1916; L.Carb.: Scotland
            †Deltoptychius - Carb.: Queensland, Australia
            †Drepanacanthus anceps Newberry, & Worthen, 1866; Penn.: Springfield, IL
            †Elegestolepis grossi Karatajute-Talimaa, 1973; U.Sil.: Tuwa, Indonesia
            †Ellesmereia schultzei Vieth, 1980; L.Dev.: NW Territory, Canada
            †Euctenius elegans Traquair, 1881; L.Carb.: Edinburgh, Scotland
            †Euctenodopsis tenuis Wellburn, 1901; L.Carb.: Lancashire, England
            †Euphyacanthus semistriatus Traquair, 1894; L.Carb.: Edinburg, Scotland
            †Geisacanthus stellatus St.John & Worthen, 1875A; Miss.: St.Louis, MO
            †Glossodus linguabouis (White & Moy-Thomas, 1940) [Euglossodus]- L.Carb.: Armagh, Ireland
            †Glymmatacanthus irishi St.John & Worthen, 1875A; Miss.: LeGrande, IO
            †Gnathacanthus triangularis - L.Carb.: Armagh, Ireland
            †Gogoselachus lynbeazleyae Long, Burrow, Ginter, Maisey, Trinajstic, Coates, Young & Senden, 2015; U.Dev. Aust.
            †Hamiltonichthyes mapesi Maisey, 1989; Upper Penn.: KS
            †Homacanthus arcuatus Agassiz, 1845; Dev.: Russia
            †Iberolepsis aragonensis Mader, 1986; L.Dev.: N.Spain
            †Knerialepis mashkovae (Karatajute-Talimaa, 1997) Hanke & Karatajute-Talimaa, 2002, L. Dev. EEu. [non Kneria, a gonorynchiform actinopterygian fish]
            †Lispacanthus retrogradus Davis, 1883; L.Carb.: Armagh, Ireland
            †Lophacanthus tailori Stock, 1880; U.Carb.: Newsham, England
            †Lunatepis leonensis Mader, 1986; L.Dev.: N.Spain
            †Maplemillia costata Gross, 1973; Up.Dev.: Washington Co., IO
            †Margaritacanthus margaritatus White & Moy-Thomas, 1940 [Eucanthus] - M.Carb.: Moscow, Russia
            †Multidentodus typicus Harlton, 1933; Miss.: OK
            †Obtusacanthus corroconisOstinaspis coronata Trautschold, 1879; M.Carb.: Mjatschkowa, Russia
            †Ostracanthus dilatus Davis, 1879; U.Carb.: Yorkshire, England
            †Plesioselachus macracanthus U.Dev. (Witpoort Form. SAf.)
            †PleurodusP. affinis - Carb.: Newsham, England
                †P. woodi Hancock & Althey, 1872; L.Carb.: Yorkshire, England
            †Pleuroplax rankinei - Carb.: Airdrie, Scotland
            †Ptychacanthus sublaevis Agassiz, 1837; L.Carb.: Scotland
            †Rhamphodus dispar Davis, 1883; L.Carb.: Armagh, Ireland
            †Scolopodus striatus “oklahomensis” Harlton, 1933 ?
            †Seretolepis elegansSkamolepis fragilis Griffin, 1980; U.Dev. Aust. [New South Wales]
            †Stichacanthus coemansi de Koninck, 1878a; L.Carb.: Belg.
            †Thaumatacanthus blandfordi Waagen, 1878a; U.Perm.: Pakistan
            †Tomodus convexus - Carb.: Queensland, Australia; Beith, Scotland
            †Tubulacanthus sulcatus Fritsch, 1889b; ?Perm.: Kounova, Czechoslovakia
            †Xystracanthus arcuatus Leidy, 1859c; Penn.: KS

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