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Dr. Santos Guested a Special Issue is dedicated to current research activities on materials science in Finland in Advanced Materials (IF = 19.8, 2016) journal. The issue provides a collection of outstanding contributions from diverse research groups on the recent progress on silicon and silica nanomaterials, DNA nanotechnology, micro‐/nanomotors, biomass‐based nanostructures, nanocellulose, 2D layered materials, atomic‐layer deposition, superhydrophobic surfaces, and microrobots, from University of Helsinki, Aalto University, VTT, University of Turku, Åbo Akademi University, Tampere University of Technology, and University of Eastern Finland.. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators developed a near‐infrared laser activitable nanosystem for chemo‐photothermal combination therapy of triple‐negative breast cancer. The nanosystem enhances the drug penetration depth, demonstrates an excellent antitumor effect, and prevents lung and liver metastasis by exterminating the cancer stem cells. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators developed a nanohybrid based on porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, and acetalated dextran is designed for acute liver failure (ALF) reversal and CT‐imaging‐facilitated ALF indication. This system is used to identify pathological changes in the tissues and selectively deliver drugs to these sites, facilitating imaging in vivo, and is thus a great potential theranostic platform for ALF. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators used new treatment strategies for spinal‐cord injury. Here, they show that intrathecally injected biodegradable polymeric microspheres, acetalated dextran, can protect traumatically injured spinal cord. The neuroprotective feature of acetalated dextran microspheres is achieved by sequestering the excessive glutamate and calcium ions in cerebrospinal fluid, and consequently attenuating the glutamateinduced excitotoxicity. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group review nanomedicine for cancer therapy. Nanomedicine is emerging as effective therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. In addition, cancer nanomedicine is at the interface of several diverse fields and this, taken together with the complexities of nanomedicine and cancer, requires a multidisciplinary effort to advance the understanding and development of cancer-specific nanomedicine in order to meet the current challenges in translating nanomedicine into the clinic. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators used spermine-modified acetalated dextran nanoparticles co-loaded with a MDM-2 inhibitor and a cytokine for chemo-immunotherapy. Immune cell recruitment to the cancer cells and its activation synergize the anticancer impact of the drug molecules. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators developed a multifunctional nanoparticle with cardioprotective potential, which selectively targets the endocardial layer of the left ventricle upon intravenous injection and delivers a drug molecule for modulating the hypertrophic signaling. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators developed a new biomimetic nanoreactor based on cancer-cell-membrane material in combination with porous silicon nanoparticles. This biomimetic nanoreactors can readily be integrated with cells, reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species levels under oxidative stress, and function as artificial organelles inside biological cells with potential applications for biomedical applications. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators developed an innovative cancer nanovaccine by merging the adjuvant properties of the nanoparticles produced by nanoprecipitation in a microfluidic glass capillary device with high reproducibility, together with a biomimetic source of antigens derived from cancer-cell membranes. The nanovectors induced maturation of antigen-presenting cells and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and co-workers demonstrated nanoparticles with controlled quality and high throughput that are generated from a microcapillary device using a microfluidic nanoprecipitation approach. The successful preparation of a variety of nanoparticles demonstrates the versatility of this platform. Independently of the formulation parameters, nanoparticles with homogeneous size distribution can always be obtained, showing the great robustness of this platform. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators from Harvard University developed a biocompatible double emulsion functionalized with gold nanorods, DNA origami, and porous silicon nanoparticles, as an advanced all-in-one platform for versatile targeted therapeutics and antibody co-delivery. This biocompatible platform can be easily formed with great therapeutics loading capacity and tunable ratio for different cancer treatments, and has great potential in advancing biomedical applications. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators fabricated an optimal nano-innano vector, consisting of a drug nanocrystal core and a polymer shell. The favorable features of both polymer nanoparticles and drug nanocrystals were inherited by the obtained core/shell nanovector. The half maximal inhibitory concentration value of the core/shell nanovector was over 50 times lower than that of conventional particles. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators from Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University of Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Soochow University, and Xi'an Jiaotong University developed electrospun hydrogel fibrous scaffolds based on photocrosslinkable gelatin, which exhibit not only hydrogel properties, but maintain a micro three-dimensional (3D) space structure. The structure surpasses conventional hydrogels in promotion of 3D cell growth on and migration into the scaffolds and vascularization, and is good for repairing random skin flaps. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators from Harvard University developed a biodegradable, photothermally, and pH responsive calcium carbonate@phospholipid@acetalated dextran hybrid platform for advancing biomedical applications. The versatile, therapeutics co-loaded, photothermally, and pH responsive platform efficiently induces cancer cell death and synergistically reduces multidrug resistance and HER2 expression. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and co-workers fabricated a multistage drug delivery nanocomposite, comprising porous silicon nanoparticles and micellar pH-responsive polymers, by microfluidic nanoprecipitation. The drug-loaded multistage platform showed high cytocompatibility, pH-dependent cell growth inhibition capacity, and reduced internalization by phagocytic macrophage cells. This nanocomposite is a good candidate for further development as a platform for cancer drug delivery. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and co-workers describe mucoadhesive and cell-associating porous silicon-based nanoparticles for oral delivery of insulin. Using a highly efficient top-down approach and simple crosslinking chemistry, porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs) are modified with L-cysteine- and cell-penetrating-peptides to enhance permeation of insulin across the intestine wall, through the close proximity to the intestinal epithelia. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and co-workers describe a novel water soluble desferrioxamine-loaded hydrogel nanofibrous scaffold designed to rapidly recruit angiogenesis relative cells. The scaffold promotes the healing process of diabetic wounds through up-regulating Hif-1a and its downstream genes. Furthermore, the degradation rate of the scaffold is effectively corresponding with the closing rate of the wound, leaving enough space for new epidermis formation. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and co-workers describe targeted theranostic nanoparticles with dual pH and magnetic responsive properties for intracellular delivery. Using a pH-switch nanoprecipitation method in organic-free solvents, a polymeric-drug conjugate solid nanoparticle containing encapsulated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and decorated with a tumor homing peptide, iRGD, are targeted to endothelial and metastatic cancer cells. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators from Jiangsu University and Soochow University developed an antibacterial prickly Zn-doped CuO nanoparticle, in which, the multi-dimension nano-piercing process is found to contribute greatly to the enhanced antibacterial activity. Such architecture-enhanced antimicrobial feature gives more insights on the antibacterial mechanism of nanomaterials and also provides a hint on design of novel antibacterial agents. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group presents the recent developments in the field of immunotherapy, describing the different systems proposed by categories: polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based nanosystems, metallic and inorganic nanosystems and, finally, biologically inspired and derived nanovaccines. Read more

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Dr. Santos' and collaborators tested a gramicidin embedded biomembrane that interacts with dextran sulfate (DS) and demonstrated that these interactions affect drug transfer across the liquid–liquid interface. Langmuir–Blodgett and voltammetry techniques were used to study the interfacial and physicochemical properties of the system and a detailed characterization of the monolayers was presented, and the drug transfer was discussed as a result of the modified surface charge and compactness of the lipid in the presence of gramicidin, calcium and DS. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators developed a multifunctional nanocarrier holding anti-diabetic drugs which slips right through the biological barriers along the gastrointestinal tract and delivers the medicine to the target site. The system can also enhance the nanoparticle's interactions with the intestinal mucus and epithelium, and protect the peptides from enzymatic degradation after the release in the intestine. Read more

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Dr. Santos' research group and collaborators from Harvard University developed a nano-in-micro platform composed of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) and giant liposomes (PSi NPs@giant liposomes) assembled on a microfluidic chip, which co-loaded and co-delivered hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs combined with synthesized DNA nanostructures, short gold nanorods, and magnetic nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the PSi NPs@giant liposomes nano-in-micro platform hold great potential for a cocktail delivery of drugs and DNA nanostructures for effective cancer therapy, controllable drug release with tuneable therapeutics ratio, and both photothermal and magnetic dual responsiveness. Read more

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