Dr. Saana Svärd is director of the Centre of Excellence in Ancient Near Eastern Empires and leader of ANEE's Team 1.

Svärd (PhD, University of Helsinki) is experienced in interdisciplinary work, and holds expertise in collaborative and methodologically-diverse Near Eastern research. She is a docent of Assyriology at University of Helsinki and a docent of Cultural History of the Near East at the University of Turku. Her expertise in using ancient primary sources is complemented by her experience in interdisciplinary work. Svärd has collaborated with specialists in Arabic studies, classical studies, ancient history, archaeology, and language technology in publications. 

In her published work, she has adapted and developed approaches from gender studies, social sciences, and linguistic semantics to gain new perspectives on cuneiform sources. Identity, especially gender identity, has been a focal point in much of her work. Her monograph, Women and Power in Neo-Assyrian Palaces, and numerous peer-reviewed articles have established Svärd as one of the leading experts in the study of women and gender in the Neo-Assyrian empire. Her 2017-co-authored (with Dr. C. Halton) monograph, Women's writing of ancient Mesopotamia: an anthology of the earliest female authors (Cambridge UP), expands this work, raising questions of gender in cuneiform cultures on a broader scale, as does a forthcoming co-edited volume, Gender, Methodology and the Ancient Near East (with A. Garcia-Ventura; Eisenbrauns).

Keywords: Akkadian, Sumerian, Cross-disciplinary (esp. methodological) applications to Mesopotamian history, Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian eras, Gender studies, Digital Humanities approaches (Social network approach, language technology, Gephi), Study of emotions

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Dr Krister Lindén is vice-leader of Team 1. Lindén is Research Director of Language Technology at the Department of Digital Humanities of the University of Helsinki and National Coordinator of FIN-CLARIN. He is particularly interested in Cross-Language Lexical Semantics and Corpus Linguistics. His contribution to Team 1 is focused on developing state-of-the-art methods from the field of language technology to handle masses of ancient textual data. These electronic corpora can be processed by computational means (e.g. clustering and machine learning) to generate semantic domains for lexemes relating to social group identities.

Working closely together with the philological experts,  he aims to guide the development of language technology for automated building of contextual semantic models from primary sources which offers novel possibilities for understanding first millennium BCE Mesopotamia from an emic perspective. By identifying semantic domains, researchers can attempt to determine which concepts (or which domains) were important for the people writing Akkadian. Such a quantitative perspective broadens the possibilities for semantic and linguistic research on these text corpora by other linguists and historians.

To investigate imperial identities, Team 1 uses language technology and social network analysis (WP1). Former centres that became marginal inform us how the local elites interacted with imperial systems differently from those in more central regions (WP2). Team 1 will document digital approaches to ancient texts related to studying changes in semantic fields and social group dynamics over the longue durée (WP4).

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Dr. Tero Alstola (PhD, Leiden University) is a scholar of Near Eastern cultures and languages interested in studying ancient history with digital tools. His previous research has focused on migration and immigrants in Babylonian society in the first millennium BCE. He currently works as a postdoctoral researcher studying the Akkadian language and Mesopotamian societies with computational methods from language technology and social network analysis. His work in ANEE aims to enhance the understanding of Akkadian concepts related to identity and to reveal patterns in social interaction within and between different population groups in Assyria and Babylonia.

Keywords: Migration, Social history, Judah, Babylonia, Judeans, Hebrew Bible, Cuneiform, Neo-Assyrian period, Neo-Babylonian period, Persian period, Digital humanities, Language technology, Social network analysis, Gephi

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Dr. Johannes Bach studied Assyriology, Ancient History and Comparative Historic Linguistic at the University of Erlangen, with a strong inclination towards literature and literary history. For his PhD at the Freie Universität Berlin, he studied the so-called “Transtextual poetics of Assyrian royal narrative texts.” In that project, he evaluated recent theories on inter- and transtextuality, as well as on narratology, and developed a methodology to identify and properly analyse transtextualities within the corpus of Assyrian royal inscriptions and related texts. During this work, it became apparent that deeper research into the history of the literary evolution of the genre is needed in order to properly understand the textual developments, especially in the later Neo-Assyrian period. Within ANEE, Bach aims to create a database relating to the literary history of Assyrian royal narrative texts, which is of great use for the study of the construction of history and royal identity not only during the Neo-Assyrian Empire, but also in Old and Middle Assyrian times.

Keywords: Literary theory, Intertextuality, Middle and Neo Assyrian history, Middle and Neo Assyrian literary history, Assyrian royal narrative texts, Cuneiform, Akkadian philology

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Ellie Bennett is an Assyriologist with a strong interest in Gender Studies. Her PhD thesis (University of Birmingham) focussed on the ‘Queens of the Arabs’ during the Neo-Assyrian period, which explored both female rulers and Pre-Islamic Arabian history and archaeology. Ellie’s previous work was a further exploration into gender studies and investigated the masculinities used by the Neo-Assyrian kings in their titles and epithets. Her current work within ANEE will use analysis of semantic domains to further explore the masculinities expressed within Akkadian texts, which will then be used to explore how ‘being a man’ changed across time and place, as well as how it was dependent upon the individual’s characteristics (whether he – or she – was old, young, their ethnicity, or what their social class was). 

Keywords: Neo-Assyrian history, Pre-Islamic Arabian history, Qedarite Confederation, Sabaean Kingdom, Queen of Sheba, Gender Studies, Masculinities theory, Digital Humanities (Gephi, Python, LateX), royal inscriptions, royal palace reliefs, royal ideology, Akkadian, titles and epithets

Dr. Sebastian Fink (PhD University of Innsbruck) is an Assyriologist with a strong background in philosophy (especially Philosophy of Language).  His research focuses on Sumerian, especially on Emesal, and the intellectual and literary history of Mesopotamia. For several years he was part of a Innsbruck-based Emesal-dictionary project and his current work at CSTT focuses on change in Emesal-lamentations and is mainly concerned with the changing conceptualization of the divine in these texts. Currently (2017-2019) he is the vice chair of the Melammu project that fosters interdisciplinary research regarding the Ancient World.

Within ANEE he is interested in applying language technology on Sumerian and Akkadian in order to deepen our understanding of complex terminologies and subtle distinctions within the Mesopotamian tradition. His work on bilingual texts and multilingualism in Ancient Mesopotamia contributes to the questions of imperial and professional identities.

Keywords: Sumerian, Sumerian literature, Sumerian Lexicography, Ancient Near Eastern history, Emesal Lamentations, Historiography, Intellectual History of the Ancient World, History of Assyriology

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Dr. Julia Giessler is an Assyriologist specialising in Neo- and Late-Babylonian sources. She studied at Philipps-Universität Marburg with a broad perspective on philology and comparative linguistics. Her M.A. thesis there and her subsequent PhD at Freie Universität Berlin changed the emphasis on socio-cultural aspects of Ancient Near Eastern life by investigating tattoos, brandings and other forms of body marks on humans and animals. This project largely concerned unfree individuals like chattel slaves and temple servants, who bore the same types of ownership marks as cattle, equids and small livestock. During her recent work for the prosographical online database Prosobab, Julia developed a keen interest in Babylonian onomastics, on which her current research is based. Within ANEE she applies social network analyses on private archives of first millennium to evaluate the distribution and variety of theophoric elements in personal names. The aim of this project is to examine the impact of religious preferences for distinct deities on social group formations.    

Keywords: Neo-Babylonian period, Achaemenid period, slave studies, temple servants, animal husbandry, body modification, legal and administrative texts, onomastics, Social Network Analysis

Dr. Heidi Jauhiainen has a background in Egyptology, where her interests lie in local and individual religion as well as everyday life. After defending her doctoral thesis in 2009 on the topic of "Feasts and Festivals in Deir el-Medina," she earned a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science. Since 2013, she has been working in a project identifying and harvesting pages written in Finno-Ugric languages on the Internet. She is responsible for crawling the internet and post-processing and publishing the texts found. She is currently working with Assyriologists and Language Technologists on identifying semantic domains in Akkadian Texts. Her main interests include corpus linguistics, especially the analysis of texts, and text mining.

Within ANEE she works with the Assyriologists and Language technologists to find evidence on migration and identity in the textual material and to find and create more digitized texts for analysis.

Keywords: Gephi, FastText, Social Network Analysis, Scripting, Databases, Ancient Egypt, Deir el-Medina, Feasts, Religion

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Dr. Tommi Jauhiainen defended his doctoral thesis in 2019 on the topic of “Language Identification in Texts”. He also has a master’s degree in Language Technology (2010) with minor studies in Computer Science, Assyriology, and Egyptology. He wrote his master’s thesis on automatic language identification and he continued his research on the same subject in the "Finno-Ugric Languages and the Internet" project as a doctoral student under the guidance of Dr. Krister Lindén and Prof. em. Kimmo Koskenniemi. During his studies, he was also enlisted as an information systems manager at the National Library of Finland, where he has gained experience in software engineering projects, both small and large. 

In ANEE, Jauhiainen's research concerns Akkadian dialect and text genre identification. He organized the first shared task in Cuneiform Language Identification (CLI) in 2019. The methods for dialect and text genre identification can be used to improve the quality of existing annotations in the corpora used by Team 1. For texts without annotation, the methods can be used to partly automate the annotation process.

Keywords: Language identification, Dialect identification, Text categorization, Machine learning, Language technology, Computational linguistics

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Dr. Mikko Luukko (PhD, University of Helsinki) studied Assyriology, Semitics and Linguistics at the University of Helsinki and the Freie Universität Berlin. His main research interests include Neo-Assyrian studies, ancient letter writing and Assyrian grammar, but he has edited Mesopotamian myths, anti-witchcraft rituals and Neo-Assyrian legal transactions, too.

Within ANEE, Luukko is preparing an Akkadian treebank. To this end, he is applying the methods of language technology on Assyrian Royal Inscriptions of the first millennium BCE by annotating the corpus. The goal of the treebank is to deepen the study on the syntax of the Akkadian language. Semantically, this should also enhance our understanding of the royal identity in the Assyrian Empire.

Keywords: Assyrian Grammar, Lemmatisation, Letters, Mesopotamian Witchcraft, Neo-Assyrian Period, Orthography, Syntax, Treebanking

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Aleksi Sahala (PhD student) has a combined master’s degree in Language Technology and Assyriology (2014) with a focus on computational Assyriology and the Sumerian language. He is currently writing an article based PhD thesis on applying statistical and machine learning methods on fragmentary text corpora under the supervision of Saana Svärd and Krister Lindén. Automatical transcription, lemmatization and semantic analysis of Akkadian texts provides ANEE team 1 with quantitative data, which can be used to analyze royal identities from new perspectives.

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Evelien Vanderstraeten (PhD student) has a Master of Arts in the Language and Area Studies of the Ancient Near East (Syro-Mesopotamia) (KU Leuven) and a Bachelor in Archaeology (Ghent University). Through her university studies she has gained a broad knowledge on different topics in the Greek, Roman and Near Eastern history and archaeology. Her master dissertation focused on the female investors in the Neo-Babylonian and Persian empires.

Next to her interest in studying the lives of ordinary men and women in the Ancient Near East, she developed a keen interest in digital humanities. She worked for innovative open-access digital repositories such as Nabucco and Prosobab for which she prepared about 700 legal and 700 administrative texts from the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid periods.

As a member of team 1, she will apply approaches from digital humanities (e.g. Social Network Analysis) and social sciences to study the historical development of marriage as an adaptive and responsive social institution, for the different regions of Mesopotamia, from the early to the late 1st millennium BCE. Her doctoral dissertation aims to establish how changes in the political, social, economic and administrative dynamics of the subsequent first world empires of the Assyrians, Chaldeans/Babylonians, Persians and Macedonians/Seleucids influenced the marriage system of various social groups.

Keywords: Marriage, Social History, Cuneiform, Women, Assyria, Babylonia, Neo-Assyrian period, Neo-Babylonian period, Social Network Analysis, Digital humanities, Digital repositories (e.g. Prosobab, Nabucco), Achaemenid period, Hellenistic period, Legal and Administrative texts

Dr. Gina Konstantopoulos (PhD, University of Michigan) is an Assyriologist. Her research has focused on Sumerian and Akkadian literary texts, as well as the study of religion and magic in the ancient Near East, especially the place of demons and monsters in Mesopotamia. Her previous project explored the role of one group of supernatural figures, known as the Sebettu, examining their appearances in texts, their utilization in the political sphere, and the development of their official cult. Her current project examines conceptions of distant places in Mesopotamia in the second and first millennia BCE. In particular, her project investigates the fictionalization of distant locations, places that were at the edges of Mesopotamia's worldview and, though known to be real, were given fantastical qualities in textual depictions. Her work with ANEE considers the intersection of distant space and empire in the first millennium BCE, and how Mesopotamian society conceived of the lands at and beyond its borders.

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Dr. Shana Zaia (PhD, Yale University) is an Assyriologist specializing in the Neo-Assyrian period. Her previous research focused on Neo-Assyrian religion at the state level, specifically in the corpus of royal inscriptions, and the relationships between royal power and official cult. She is currently studying cult centers in the Assyrian Empire by focusing on cities that were not also political capitals, such as Arbela and Kilizi. She contributes to Ancient Near Eastern Empires through her expertise on the Assyrian Empire, especially in terms of the official text corpora, royal and elite levels of society, and religion.

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