INAR RI (Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research –infrastructure) belongs to the National Research Infrastructure Roadmap 2014-2020. INAR RI acts as an umbrella research infrastructure (RI), taking care of the implementation and national coordination of the ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) infrastructures in the environmental domain in Finland, namely ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System), ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure), eLTER (European Long-term Ecosystem Research) and AnaEE (Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems). The components of INAR RI study the atmosphere, biosphere and their interactions. The activities in these components are aligned by INAR RI towards common targets and integration of environmental infrastructures in European RI landscape. The cornerstone of INAR RI is the network of the SMEAR stations, which provide co-location for several ESFRIs.
ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) is a pioneer in harmonisation and standardisation of greenhouse gases and in combining atmospheric, flux and oceanic measurements. ICOS Finland has in total 14 stations, of which 4 are SMEAR stations (Station for Measuring Earth system - Atmosphere Relations) and altogether 7 are operated by FMI. Atmospheric stations Pallas, Puijo, SMEAR II and Utö have been equipped to be ICOS compliant and the labeling process to start operational phase is ongoing.
ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure) provides sophisticated observational infrastructure for atmospheric properties. Especially the four SMEAR-stations and Pallas-Sodankylä GAW super site provide essential signposts for the other ACTRIS research stations in Europe. ACTRIS Finland is participating as major partner in the ACTRIS Preparatory Phase Project and develops in co-operation the standards and concepts for the national and central facilities.
INAR RI Ecosystems is complementing the Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research –infrastructure, focusing on terrestrial ecosystem and biodiversity research and covering ecological research infrastructures in forests, peatlands, agricultural fields and inland waters with their catchment areas in subarctic, boreal and urban/agro-ecosystems. The activities of INAR RI Ecosystems include upgrading research infrastructures at various ecosystem observation stations and experimental stations and laboratories, coordination of their national activities and creation of deeper co-operation between them as well as between ecosystem researchers in Finland. INAR RI Ecosystems received funding from the Academy of Finland for 2017-2021. Find more information about the INAR RI Ecosystems activities here.
FMI stations = The FMI stations include Pallas-Sodankylä Global Atmospheric Watch station and Utö atmospheric and marine research station. GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) is the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) global programme for monitoring and assessing chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the global background atmosphere. The Finnish Meteorological Institute has participated to the GAW programme since 1994. The Arctic Research Centre and the Pallas Atmosphere –Ecosystem Supersite together form the Pallas-Sodankylä GAW station.
Utö atmospheric and marine research station has a wide range of meteorological, greenhouse gas, aerosol and marine observations on Utö Island at the outer edge of the Archipelago Sea. It is operated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Finnish Environment institute. Observations at Utö started in 1881 and it is recognized as one of the three WMO centennial observing stations in Finland. Utö station is also part of ICOS and HELCOM observation networks and belongs to the Finnish Marine Research Infrastructure FINMARI.