HELSUS Brown Bag Lunch

HELSUS Brown Bag Lunch pitkä

HELSUS Brown Bag Lunches are concise lunchtime events where participants bring their own lunch box and gather to a seminar with presentations over topical research themes. The 20-30 minutes talks by the presenter will be followed by an open discussion for about 30-40 minutes. The topics are related to five HELSUS research themes, or other relevant sustainability science topics. No advance registration is needed.

Follow the streamed seminars online: https://connect.funet.fi/brown_bag_lunch/

General information

WHERE

HELSUS Hub at Porthania (2nd floor)
Yliopistonkatu 3

WHEN

On Fridays at 11.30-12.30.

TO WHOM

HELSUS Members and others

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HELSUS Brown Bag Lunches Spring 2020

17.01. Economic, social, and political geography in the context of Sustainable Urban Development?, presenter Mikko Weckroth

As an interdisciplinary inquiry, sustainability sciences are characterized by complex and to some extent overlapping concepts. This complexity is increasingly apparent when focusing on specific research areas, which inevitably involve a wide range of methodological variation e.g.  “Sustainable Urban Systems / Development”. In this presentation, I try to analyze and disentangle some of this conceptual complexity by utilizing concepts, ideas and theories used in political, social, and economic geography.

The research on sustainable cities and urbanism is dominated by techno-economic rationality and supply-side solutions. In contrast, human geographers have tendency to argue that socio-spatial as well as political context matters when trying to understand the agency, action, and decision-making of individuals.  Therefore, insights from political and behavioral economic geography can complement economic perspectives while trying to understand socio-spatial human behavior in several areas relevant for sustainability sciences (e.g. voting behavior, consumption choices, housing markets and location choices). In this presentation, I will present and discuss certain geographical but also mental divisions and dimensions within societies that affect these key issues in sustainability sciences.

Within this context, I shall address the following questions: What is the socioeconomic and political geography of climate change attitudes and efficacy? What can be learn from interpreting the carbon neutral agendas of cities from the political geography perspective and especially as acts of city-regionalism? What is the role of human wellbeing and values in the transformation into sustainability? And ultimately, instead being fixated on “sustainable cities”, should we be discussing on a broader concept of “sustainable spatial form of a society”?

In this presentation, I shall also present my past and present research on the geographies of wellbeing, human values, and development and try to reflect these results to different definitions on Sustainable Urban Development and Systems.

Bio: Mikko Weckroth is a Post doctoral researcher in Horizon 2020 project IMAJINE Integrative Mechanisms for Addressing Spatial Justice and Territorial Inequalities in Europe. Additionally, the research interests of Weckroth involve empirical analyses on different forms of wellbeing, economic development and human values at subnational scale.

31.01. Indicators of wetland sustainability: methodological approaches and field-based experiences, presenter Sara Freixedas

14.02. Navigating the science policy interface:  forestry researcher perspectives, presenter Maria Ojanen

28.02. Learning sustainability competencies, presenter Kalle Juuti

13.03. Becoming Earth: Rethinking and (re-)connecting with Sámi lands and relations, presenter Hanna Guttorm

03.04. Forests on the front line: Livelihoods at the forest-farm interface in the context of global change, presenter Nicholas Hogarth

24.04. Re-thinking sustainability transformation of Northern sparsely populated areas, presenters Daria Gritsenko and Nadezdha Stepanova

HELSUS brown bag lunches Autumn 2019

CANCELLED: 13.12. The evolution of local involvement in international conservation law, presenter Nikolas Sellheim

The role of local populations in international environmental law-making and implementation has found increasing recognition in international fora, even though lack of local involvement has been identified in the UN gaps report. This presentation traces the history of recognition of local populations and takes three case studies to demonstrate the differences in textual and practical recognition of local populations. This recognition is particularly relevant in light of the recently adopted UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants (UNROP), which this study briefly introduces in regard to its participatory rights. It is furthermore discussed how the UNROP might influence three existing regimes and the role local populations might play in them in the future.

Nikolas Sellheim is a postdoctoral researcher at HELSUS, focusing on the role of local populations in international conservation law with a particular focus on the marine mammal hunt. He is co-Editor-in-Chief of Polar Record, the journal of the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge. His new book International Marine Mammal Law will be published by Springer in 2020.

13.9. Understanding human-nature interactions from social media, presenter Anna Hausmann

People´s life and well-being depend on biodiversity. Interacting with nature provides essential physical and psychological benefits from material (e.g. food, energy, water purification, diseases control) and non-material (e.g. cultural, recreational, educational, spiritual) ecosystem services. However, we are living in the Anthropocene, an era where human activities are causing an unprecedented loss of species worldwide. Understanding human-nature interactions is therefore crucial in identifying sustainable solutions that can help address the biodiversity crisis, while promoting people´s well-being. However, collecting such information is costly, time consuming and difficult to implement (e.g. at global scale), while available resources are scarce.

We also live in the Information Age, where an increasing volume of data is constantly being generated by users on digital networks. This brings new opportunities to study human-nature interactions rapidly, cost-efficiently and at unprecedented spatio-temporal scales. Digital conservation is a new sub-field of conservation science where Big Data harvested from the Internet is being analyzed to help reverse the biodiversity crisis. My research focuses on exploring how data shared on social media platforms can be used to understand people´s preferences, activities, and perceptions of nature and nature-based experiences when visiting protected areas, as well as potential threats to biodiversity. My presentation will provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges of using social media to understand human-nature interactions, and how it can be used to inform protected area management and conservation decision-making from local to global scale.

27.9. The role of values in sustainability transformations, presenter Andra Horcea-Milcu

Sustainability science increasingly acknowledges that the new forms of collaborative generation of knowledge need to engage with normative and value-related issues, as sustainability is a normative concept.Co-production approaches for sustainability transformation seem to allow growing space to the importance of assigned, relational, and held values. Although there is a relative agreement in the transdisciplinary sustainability research on factoring in the importance of values for sustainability transformation, these framings remain silent about the ways values actually underpin and ‘work’ in collaborative settings for sustainability transformation. Specifically, the linkages between values and knowledge are often overlooked in these processes.

The importance of values opens the co-creational research modes of sustainability science to numerous inquiries such as: i) What are the values held by the various stakeholder groups in relation to complex sustainability challenges such as biodiversity conservation?; ii) How do values underpin knowledge co-production processes?; iii) How to deliberately foster transformation through co-creation processes (acting as levers) intervening at the level of values (acting as leverage points)?

This presentation aims to open perspectives on values as both a driver and outcome of co-production of knowledge for sustainability transformation. I will critically reflect on recent contributions for re-thinking the relationship between values and knowledge for sustainability transformation. I will then suggest potential ways to account for the under-considered value dimensions of co-production such as mapping individuals’ values landscapes as a baseline for the process of knowledge co-production.

Bio: Andra-Ioana Horcea-Milcu is a postdoctoral researcher in the Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science. With a background in exploring social-ecological systems and experience in place-based transdisciplinary research, she is interested in leveraging the transformative potential of knowledge co-creation in real-world contexts. Her main focus is on the role of held and assigned values in underpinning such knowledge. Through her boundary work, she aspires to contribute to managing the science/society/policy interface, and to reframing sustainability in terms of core human values.

11.10. Values in Integrated Assessment Modelling, presenter Henrik Thorén

Questions pertaining to the assessment of the social and economic implications of climate change as well as what an ‘optimal’ mitigation pathway might look like are typically addressed in contemporary climate impact research by deploying different kinds of integrated models such as so-called integrated assessment models (IAMs). These models, and the overarching approach that is based on using them, flows from the idea that coupling sub-models (modules) that represent different sub-systems traditionally associated with different disciplines provide us with otherwise unattainable insights into how the larger interconnected system works.

But the models have been controversial and critics worry that uncertainties are magnified, rather than ameliorated, in the coupling process and obscured by model complexity. This, it is argued, renders the models prone to questionable value influences.

In this talk I will give an introduction to these models and the way that they are used at the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research based on interviews I have carried out there. The overarching purpose is to provide a better understanding of the possibilities and limits of these models, the arguments that have been marshalled against their use, and the appropriate role of values in climate impact modelling.

Bio: Henrik Thorén is a postdoctoral researcher at HELSUS, with a doctoral degree in theoretical philosophy. Thorén's research project "Values in Model Integration for Sustainability: Principles, Practices, and Problems" tackles pressing environmental problems by recruiting the knowledge and expertise from researchers from a wide range of disciplines belonging to both natural and social sciences, with a goal of finding pathways towards more sustainable resource use.

25.10. Redefining urban aesthetics with the concept of Aesthetic Sustainability, presenter Sanna Lehtinen

Contemporary urban environments comprise both lasting and fairly stable elements as well as those that change continuously: change is an inevitable part of urban life. Different aspects of city life evolve with a different tempo: urban nature has its cycles, inhabitants their rhythms and building materials and styles different lifespans, for example. However, the experienced quality of various types of urban environments has not traditionally been at the forefront of understanding how cities evolve through time. This becomes an especially important issue, when future imaginaries are projected onto existing urban structures and when decisions about the details of urban futures are made.

This talk aims at bringing environmental and urban aesthetics into the discussion about the possible directions of urban futures. The focus is on introducing the notion of aesthetic sustainability as a tool to understand better how urban futures unfold experientially and aesthetic values of urban environments develop with time. The concept has background in design theory, more specifically relating to sustainable usage and product design, but it has not so far been used in order to study large scale urban living environments. The concept can prove to be a valuable supporting tool in urban sustainability transformations based on how it captures the experiential side of the physical and temporal dimensions of cities.

Bio: Sanna Lehtinen is a postdoctoral researcher at HELSUS with a focus on developing the concept of aesthetic sustainability to support urban sustainability transformations. Her research interests revolve around philosophical and applied environmental aesthetics, the experiential sphere of urban life, urban futures, and philosophy of technology.

8.11. Organic animal farms and farmland bird abundance in Boreal region, presenter Iryna Herzon

Agriculture is a primary driver of biodiversity loss worldwide, and several expensive public schemes are being implemented around the world to improve farming landscapes as a habitat for wildlife. The largest in terms of cover and expense is the agri-environment-climate schemes (AES) of the European Union. AES compensate farmers for reducing land-use intensity and maintaining or introducing biodiversity-rich habitats. Benefits of AES vary by measure, region and taxonomic group considered.

We assess the country-wide impact of several AES measures on bird abundance using citizen science data on birds and detailed information on AES take up from across Finland. The results demonstrated a significantly positive impact of just one AES - that of organic animal husbandry on abundance of all farmland associated birds. This effect was particularly strong for insectivorous species, species that are associated to farmyards and long-distance migrants. No other AES correlated with bird diversity.

These findings highlight the potential positive impact that some compensatory measures may have on wildlife. But also indicate that most AES may have insufficient cover or introduce a relatively minor management change to the normal land use practices. Traditional animal husbandry is based on grazing of animals and restriction on external inputs, similarly to what is stipulated under organic production contract. It may represent an effective management tool for restoring or maintaining threatened species and ecosystems in rural areas of the EU, while providing high-quality protein in quantities compatible with sustainable diets. Further experimental research should disentangle which of the organic practices is most beneficial, grazing of animals, presence of pastures or avoidance of agrochemicals.

Dr. Iryna Herzon is a university lecturer in agroecology. She works in the field of sustainable agriculture, with the emphasis on ecology and social acceptability of conservation on in farmland. Most of her work is multidisciplinary, bridging disciplines across ecology, agronomy, social sciences, and economics.

22.11. Artificial Intelligence for sustainable smart cities, presenter Laura Ruotsalainen

Autonomous traffic on ground and in air is anticipated to improve safety and quality of life in cities as well as to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. Although many cities have already started testing the use of autonomous vehicles in transportation, massive research and development efforts are needed until we are ready for autonomous traffic. Artificial intelligence provides means for forming accurate and reliable spatiotemporal data and for using it in development of sustainable smart cities.

Laura Ruotsalainen is an Associate Professor of Spatiotemporal Data Analysis for Sustainability Science at the Department of Computer Science. Her research looks at spatiotemporal data to develop methods for creating accurate and reliable navigation data for the benefit of sustainability science, especially for the development of sustainable smart cities.

HELSUS brown bag lunches spring 2019

The effect of urban planning on cities’ breathability – urban climate perspective, presenter Leena Järvi

Cities act as hotspots for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, increased air temperatures and air pollutant concentrations. All these have major effects on global and local climate including human health and well-being. However, with successful urban planning the exchange of GHG, heat and air pollutants between the urban surface and the atmosphere can be optimised thus improving the conditions of life. In Helsinki, the local urban climate including the surface-exchanges of  GHG, heat and air pollutants have been directly measured for several years over different urban land covers (semi-urban and dense city-centre) allowing to examine the spatial and temporal changes of the emissions and the urban activities they are originating. Traffic is the major controller for carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions and concentrations whereas the built-up land cover fraction is mainly responsible for increased heat emissions and furthermore air temperatures. Following the observations we can track people’s activity and how different interventions can affect the breathability of the city. At the same time with measurements, a wide-range of meteorological modelling capabilities allow to examine the most optimal urban planning choices in order to minimise the unwanted emissions and those hotspots that most affect human well-being. Examples on how we can reduce carbon dioxide and heat emissions and how we can increase ventilation and air quality in street canyons will be given.

The role of law in adaptive environmental governance? Presenter Niko Soininen

For a number of years now, the top challenge for environmental governance has been to figure out what kind of policy mix would be best equipped to deal with complex environmental challenges, such as climate change, loss of biodiversity, and water quality. As Hardin famously illustrated, common pool resources attract short-sighted behavior often leading to a collapse of the resource and ecosystem services provided by it. Moreover, the management of common pool resources is riddled with social-ecological complexities and scientific uncertainties.

Adaptive governance theories have emerged to tackle this challenge. Adaptive governance means “a range of interactions between actors, networks, organizations, and institutions emerging in pursuit of a desired state for social-ecological systems.” (Chaffin, Gosnell & Cosens 2014) One typical feature of adaptive governance is to facilitate institutional designs that support experimentation and learning among public managers and private operators in solving complex environmental problems. This sounds exciting but requires rethinking the role of law in governance. Using EU-Finnish water law as an example, the presentation discusses some of the most pressing failures of current water legislation and engages with some practical applications of the adaptive governance theory as potential solutions to these problems.

Authoritarian Environmentalism: Propaganda or Reality, presenter Viktor Pál

Since the early 2000s, authoritarianism has risen as an increasingly powerful global phenomenon. This shift has environmental implications: authoritarian leaders seek to recast the relationship between society and the government in various aspects of public life, including environmental policy. When historians of technology or the environment have investigated the environmental consequences of authoritarian regimes, they have frequently argued that authoritarian regimes have been unable to produce positive environmental results or adjust successfully to global structural change, if they have shown any concern for the environment at all. Put another way, the scholarly consensus holds that authoritarian regimes on both the left and the right generally have demonstrated an anti-environmentalist bias, and when opposed by environmentalist social movements, have succeeded in silencing those voices.

The edited volume “Environmental Politics and Policy under Authoritarian Regimes: Myth and Reality” (co-edited by Stephen Brain and Viktor Pál,  New York: Routledge, 2018) explores the theme of environmental politics and authoritarian regimes on both the right and the left. The authors argue that in instances when environmentalist policies offer the possibility of bolstering a country’s domestic (nationalist) appeal or its international prestige, authoritarian regimes can endorse and have endorsed environmental protective measures. The collection of essays analyzes environmentalist initiatives pursued by authoritarian regimes, and provides explanations for both the successes and failures of such regimes, looking at a range of case studies from a number of countries, including Brazil, China, Poland, and Zimbabwe. The volume contributes to the scholarly debate about the social and political preconditions necessary for effective environmental protection.

Environmental and Sustainability Education in Finnish schools: current situation and some future prospects, presenter Sirpa Tani

Sustainability education has its roots in the tradition of environmental education and environmental awakening of the 1960s. The UN defined goals for the environmental education for the first time in 1975. In 1985, environmental education was included in the Finnish core curriculum as one of the basic aims of education. In the 2004 curriculum, the concept of environmental education was replaced by the aim of ‘responsibility for the environment, well-being and a sustainable future’. The main idea was to include environmental and sustainability education to all school subjects as one of the crosscutting themes, not as a separate entity that would be taught detached from the other contents of the courses. In the current curriculum from 2014, ‘sustainability’ is included in the underlying values of education as well as in the transversal competences, which should be implemented in the aims and contents of all the school subjects. In this presentation, a preliminary analysis of the status of environmental and sustainability approaches in the curriculum will be presented and some of the main challenges of their implementation in teaching will be discussed.

Urban agriculture boom in Cuba: Towards food sovereignty, presenter Reynaldo Jiménez Guethón

Urban agriculture has boomed in Cuba after the collapse of the communist bloc in 1989, which cut Cuba off from food imports, fertilizers and fuel. Urban gardening was a new local and autochthonous response to acute food shortage and malnutrition caused by the severe economic crisis. Currently, urban agriculture is considered fundamental for food sovereignty, which has become a key goal in Cuba's agrarian policy, since it constitutes an alternative to a food system that used to rely on foreign imports of both food and expensive technology. Urban agriculture is considered to be an effective solution to increase the availability of agricultural products to the population. The diversification of crops for family self-sufficiency and the efficient use of soils are priorities for Urban, Suburban and Family Agriculture. Various technological innovations, organic farming methods, and ecological knowledge are being applied in urban agriculture. It is also an important source of employment and income generation.

The Myth of Privatising Nature, presenter Franklin Obeng-Odoom

The proposition that nature must be privatised in order to save it was central to the analytical framework of mainstream economics until the rise of the Bloomington School of institutional economics. Led by Elinor Ostrom, its advocates and critics alike claim that it successfully created a scientific revolution by displacing the dominant notion of a ‘tragedy of the commons’, a breakthrough that led to the award of a Nobel Prize in economics. In practice, it is questionable whether Elinor Ostrom fundamentally challenged the conventional wisdom. Instead, she enhanced it, and, hence, her Nobel Prize consummated the Conventional Wisdom. Progressive thinkers have tried to go beyond this stasis, but have only succeeded in creating a ‘Western Consensus’. Analytically problematic, this alternative misunderstands the dynamic relationships between fundamental cause and effect. Its insidious colonial value system makes it ethically bankrupt, while its political strategy is weak because its vision and approach to analysis are fundamentally misaligned. Neither the Conventional Wisdom nor the Western Consensus can provide a framework for sustainability, whether understood as social, economic, or ecological.

Sustainability and chal­lenges of in­tergen­er­a­tional justice, presenter Simo Kyllönen

Sustainability as a long-term issue invites us to think it in terms of justice between generations. Famously concepts, such as sustainable development, have been defined by referring to a notion of intergenerational justice: the needs of the present generation should be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Still, the idea of intergenerational justice is contested and philosophically challenged, since it seems to evade some of our core ideas and concepts of justice. For instance, most of our existing concepts of justice require at least a hypothetical kind of reciprocity between the “members” of justice. Typically it is also though that when someone does injustice, she does it to some particular person(s). But in the relation between present and future people there seems be no reciprocity at all. Rather the relation is radically asymmetric one, in which future generations are entirely dependent on the goodwill of the earlier ones. Indeed, the future people are dependent on earlier ones for their sheer existence. The earlier people have also power to affect who particular persons in the future will come to exist. In this presentation, I will give an overview about the challenges of intergenerational justice and suggest a plausible way to address them. My suggestion defends a so-called sufficientarian idea of justice, according to which, the main idea of justice is neither to maximise the aggregate (intergenerational) wellbeing nor to equalise it, but rather to guarantee that people now and in the future have enough what they ought to have for a decent life. Finally it is argued that as far as sustainability invites any concept of intergenerational justice, the sufficientarian one is the most defensible.

Re-thinking Sustainable Development as a Global Concept, presenter Charles Gore

Sustainable development means many different things to different people and this paper focuses on one dimension of this chaotic diversity, namely, whether it is conceptualized as a national concept or a global concept.  Using the analytical framework which I have developed to consider how the idea of poverty went global in the 1970s, I examine the historical trajectory of the concept of sustainable development. The paper argues that sustainable development was originally conceptualized as a global concept but over time, it has been reconceptualised as a national challenge which should be pursued in all countries. The latter perspective now dominates policy thinking. An epistemic shift from thinking sustainable development as a national concept to thinking it as a global concept is an essential element of a transition to a sustainable world. Such a re-thinking sustainable development as a global concept does not have to start from scratch but can be done by recovering the original global conceptualization of sustainable development and re-invigorating it with the new understandings of global physical, economic and social processes which we now have.

Reflections on indigeneity, resilience and contemporary colonialism, presenter Heidi Sinevaara-Niskanen

Rapid and unpredictable global changes have engendered a political ethos of resilience. In the midst of calls for preparedness, international politics has re-discovered the (allegedly) innate qualities of indigenous peoples that enable them to adapt to and accommodate change. The peoples’ exemplary resilience has been deemed empowering, not only for themselves, but for the planet as a whole.

My presentation engages in a critical discussion on indigeneity, colonialism and resilience and is based on the joint research with researcher Marjo Lindroth, University of Lapland (Lindroth and Sinevaara-Niskanen, 2016; 2018; forthcoming). As we argue, the seemingly well-meaning and benign political celebration of resilient indigeneity continues marginalization and othering, practices that are often considered to belong to the colonial past. With reference to contemporary political initiatives of the United Nations and the Arctic Council, we illustrate the ways in which the political focus on and desire for indigenous resilience continue the age-old expectation that indigenous peoples will adapt, endure and persevere. Resilience enables colonial practices to persist; it is yet another façade allowing those in power to continue to order time and to ignore the relevance of the past and current injuries indigenous peoples have endured.