Tuomas Ojanen
European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 649532
1 July 2015–30 June 2019

The members of the legal team in the MS will investigate the legal, in particular constitutional, pre-conditions for deeper fiscal and monetary integration that might have an impact on the development of positions in all 28 MS. This exercise is undertaken from the negotiation phase of the Maastricht Treaty to date.

The Choice for Europe after Maastricht
EMU Choices

Taina Pihlajarinne
Academy of Finland

Online distribution of content (e.g. books, music, films) fails to meet its full potential in terms of availability and pricing of content. The objective of the project is to identify and address problems in the legal framework that governs contracting practices in the EU concerning online content distribution. A special attention is given to the EU digital single market strategy proposals. Problematic issues are identified by analysing contracting practices and examine them from the perspectives of contract, competition, copyright and consumer law. Additionally, we address theoretical issues of regulating content markets, which may be executed as more abstract analysis of impacts of different legal solutions.

Massimo Fichera
Academy of Finland
1 September 2016–31 August 2021

The project aims to assess the evolution of the European Union as a polity in the aftermath of the several crises that have affected its structure and functioning (financial and economic crisis, refugee crisis, rule of law crisis, Brexit etc.). Is it still acceptable to define the EU as a polity and can we still employ the language of EU constitutionalism?

Project´s pages in Researchgate

Ellen Eftestøl-Wilhelmsson
Faculty of Law, Member of ReNEW (Reimagining Norden in an Evolving World) research hub
2010 (member of ReNew since 2018)

The INTERTRAN Research Group is an interdisciplinary research group for sustainable law and business. The group’s central idea is to contribute to sustainable development while maintaining a strong focus on a sustainable circular economy, international transport and global value chains. Particular attention is paid to the role of transport in sustainable development, but also other aspects of sustainable business are of interest.

Sustainable law and business

Taina Pihlajarinne
Helsingin Sanomat Foundation

The project explores core regulative challenges of news automation in the era of artificial intelligence (AI). Use of algorithms and machine learning changes news production in ways that affect journalistic practices and, by raising new issues, challenges the current legislation. The project examines the need to revisit traditional copyright doctrines, such as authorship, as well as regulatory mechanisms to secure incentives to produce news on the market. Additionally, the project analyzes liability for damages caused by machine-generated content as well as theoretical aspects of AI and agency. The project identifies legal issues that could hinder responsible use of AI-based applications in news production and develops guidance for developers, media companies, and policymakers on how to tackle those issues.

Samuli Hurri
University of Helsinki funds

The project is on the effects of the structures of legal language on the moral constitution of individuals. Materials are human rights cases.

Right and wrong

Taina Pihlajarinne
University of Helsinki, Three-year research grants

The project aims at assessing and solving legal challenges relating to digitalization of content production and online content distribution. These themes include, for instance, the problems relating to position of  ISPs as well as new kinds of digital services and platforms for distributing content. The project concentrates on copyright as well as competition law problems. It considers the aspect of fragmentation and Europeanization of these areas of law, analyzing possible and desirable legal reactions to the quick digitalization process. Underpinning the discussion is the fact that legal development is unable to keep up with the new technologies and the problems relating to them. Underdevelopment of law may harm incentives to innovate and develop technologies, and also result in situations where, for instance, rights of the market participants and end-users are unclear or insufficiently protected. Thus, market entrance of new innovative companies, introduction of new products and services, and different end-users’ abilities to access these novelties are in danger. Research is essential for avoiding the outcomes mentioned.

Susanna Lindroos-Hovinheimo
University of Helsinki funds

In addition to providing a better understanding of the legal definition of privacy, the project aims to reveal politically charged conceptions of privacy. Privacy and personal data protection are issues where constant political, economic and moral battles are being fought. Strong interests are displayed by industry lobbyists and human rights activists alike. Increased protection of privacy is today a value worth fighting for, and against. This research project engages in a critical deconstruction of the principles of privacy protection as they appear in law. This way, it will be able to provide a better understanding of the sociological and political underpinnings of privacy regulation.

Reconfiguring Privacy – A Study of the Political Foundations of Privacy Regulation

Päivi Leino-Sandberg
European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research & Innovation programme

With a focus on strengthening the EU’s legitimacy through democracy and the rule of law, RECONNECT seeks to build a new narrative for Europe, enabling the EU to become more attuned to the expectations of its citizens. Firstly, RECONNECT will focus on the impact of potential inconsistencies arising between the EU Treaty principles of democracy and the rule of law, and the ways these are interpreted and applied across the EU. Secondly, RECONNECT aims to understand and explain citizens’ perceptions of democracy and the rule of law, thereby assessing to which extent they align with or diverge from EU principles and practices. By placing citizens at the heart of its research and in order to address these mismatches, RECONNECT will formulate policy recommendations, develop communication strategies and propose Treaty changes, with the aim of enhancing the EU’s legitimacy.


Päivi Leino-Sandberg
Academy of Finland

The EU Treaties create a clear presumption for transparency and access to information which is assumed to lead to increased citizen participation. In reality, opposition seems to exist. The project aims to break down the practices assigned to ‘transparency’, in particular in regard to ‘participation’ and ‘efficiency’ in the EU. It will critically investigate the promise invested in transparency both on theoretical (what does the nexus between transparency and participation imply?) and practical level (does it work as it should? Is it changing?).