Disciplines

The Faculty of Law employs some 140 teachers and researchers. It is administratively organised into disciplines, and members of the teaching and research staff may work under several of them. In addition to disciplines, the Faculty also has research units.

Since the abolition of departments in the Faculty of Law in 2010 further emphasis has been given to disciplines. Most of the disciplines are traditional, but new ones may also emerge. Many disciplines, such as procedural law and administrative law, have the same name as the equivalent branch of law in the statute book. However, the discipline of administrative law refers to academic teaching and research in that area. The Bachelor of Laws degree programme includes a wide range of examinations in compulsory disciplines and optional studies in other disciplines.

In addition to substantive legal disciplines, the Faculty carries out teaching and research in general jurisprudential studies, such as legal history, the sociology of law, law and economics and general jurisprudence. Here the term 'discipline' refers primarily to research methodology rather than to a specific branch of law: for example research in legal history employs the methods of legal history, and correspondingly, such research may focus on any legal phenomena.

Each discipline has its own staff, including a coordinator, who must be either a professor or a university lecturer with the qualifications of a docent. Doctoral students pursue postgraduate studies in a specific major subject, which must be one of the disciplines offered.

Administrative law is the branch of the legal order that applies to public administration. Fundamental rules of administrative law govern the duties, activities, structure and status of public administration. As a branch of law, it has three main tasks: 1) to protect private individuals and companies from public power, 2) to strike a balance between administrative authorities and private parties, and 3) to ensure people's opportunities to influence and control public administration. Moreover, European administrative law now constitutes an important element.

Teaching in administrative law encompasses such issues as the legal status of individuals and communities vis-à-vis public administration, the status, tasks and supervision of public administration, relationships under administrative law as well as the basis of legal protection. The key principles and provisions of this branch of law relate to the rights and duties of individuals, the activities, administrative procedures and administrative judicial procedures of central government and municipalities as well as legislation on the openness of government activities.

Public administration may be studied and analysed from various points of view. Broadly described, the perspective adopted in administrative law is a formal legal one. Research in administrative law is concerned especially with the legal rules, principles and relationships which fall under administrative law as a part of the legal order. Core research tasks include the systematisation and interpretation of the rules of administrative law at both national and European levels.

Commercial law is a wide and heterogeneous field. It is mainly concerned with companies and their legal relationships. In terms of teaching, commercial law is divided into four areas: 1) company law, 2) intellectual property law, 3) market law and 4) consumer law. Company law is mainly interested in the right to exercise a trade and business activities. Intellectual property law is concerned with intellectual property rights such as copyright and patents. Market law entails security market law, which is concerned with the exchange of stock and other securities, competition law as well as other questions pertaining to the mutual relationships of entrepreneurs. Consumer law focuses on issues pertaining to the legal relationship between consumers and entrepreneurs, as well as legal provisions on the protection of consumer rights.

Commercial law is not limited to domestic legal norms. Teaching aims to familiarise students with the basic legal norms (national legislation, case law, European legislation, international agreements and basic literature), as well as to hone their skills in resolving cases in the field and increase their awareness of the ethical and social consequences of different matters in order for them to critically evaluate both relevant legal norms and their own activity in practical cases in the field.

Communication and information law focuses on legislation and decision making relating to the various forms, means, content and methods of communication as well as the production, processing, transfer and use of information. Research in communication and information law identifies, examines, analyses and systematises the content and applications of communication and information legislation as well as identifies and resolves problems caused by parallel, overlapping or conflicting regulations. The issues involved in communication and information law have various European and global dimensions.

Communication law focuses on legislation and decision making relating to the content and delivery of communication. Legal research in communication law is problem based and crosses traditional boundaries between legal branches by examining the content, application and intersection of rules affecting various means of communication as well as the purpose and options of legislation. In practice, the issues explored may include the tension between freedom of expression and privacy in various forms of communication, the relationship between an employee's freedom of expression and the duty of loyalty, the definition of liability for various forms of mass communication and social media, the limitation of freedom of expression through legislation in commercial communication, and the effect of competition law or the freedom to conduct business on the regulation of TV and radio broadcasting.

Information law focuses on legislation and decision making relating to information and its processing. Research in information law examines the rights and responsibilities involved in obtaining, using, disclosing, publishing and otherwise processing information. Information law investigates issues related to the application and restriction of the principle of public access, the processing and protection of personal data, the content framework of communication, and data security. Information law also studies legislation applying to the technical and methodological base of information and communication.

Comparative law involves the comparative study of various legal systems or their components in order to attain knowledge of the differences and similarities of the legal orders examined. The objective is to increase understanding of other legal orders and cultures and to build on previous knowledge of the domestic legal order. Teaching in comparative law focuses on the basics of comparative law and legal linguistics as well as the methods of comparative law. Optional studies analyse the Europeanisation of law from the perspective of comparative law and provide tools for understanding non-European legal systems, such as Chinese and Islamic law.

Constitutional law concentrates, on the one hand, on fundamental and human rights, and, on the other hand, on the duties, competence, selection and decision-making processes of the highest organs of government.

Attention is also focused on the effects of European integration and globalisation on the constitution, the constitutionalisation of the European Union as well as fundamental and human rights within the context of European integration.

Teaching aims to provide students with a basic understanding of the fundamental concepts and general doctrines of constitutional law, fundamental and human rights, the duties and competence of the highest organs of government as well as the effects of European integration and globalisation on the constitution of Finland. These same themes are also at the core of research in constitutional law.

Criminal law is the branch of law that deals with crime, punishment and the legal norms relating to their consequences. Criminal law belongs to the scope of public law, as it involves the use of public force on individuals. Besides the control system of criminal law, attention is focused on other sanctions, such as administrative fines in competition law and security market law. Criminal law has close contacts with criminal procedure law, which deals with the procedural provisions relevant to pre-trial investigation, indictment and criminal proceedings.

The core of criminal law is its general part, in other words, the general theory of criminal law, which is divided into two sub-areas: 1) the general preconditions of criminal liability, exemption from liability and forms of liability, and 2) criminal sanctions and their implementation. The special part of criminal law defines various types of crimes, in other words, classifies them according to their essential elements.

The scope of criminal law has widened due to the Europeanisation and globalisation of law. Consequently, the sub-areas of criminal law nowadays include European criminal law in connection with European law and international criminal law in connection with international law.

Criminal law is not only a branch of law but also a field of scholarship. Criminal law, and more broadly, the criminal sciences cover criminal legislation in the narrow sense of the term, the history of criminal law and comparative criminal law, criminology, criminal policy, forensic science as well as central elements of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry. In many countries, research in criminal procedure is included among the above-listed umbrella concepts.

The usefulness of interaction between the various fields of criminal law and criminology cannot be over-exaggerated. Criminal law has traditionally made attempts to complement legal knowledge with research results based on empirical methods in the social and behavioural sciences, in other words, in criminology. Of special significance is research in scientific criminal policy which directly serves decision-making in criminal policy, especially the drafting of criminal legislation.

Environmental law is a branch of law that regulates the human behaviour in relation to environment. The purpose of environmental law is to prevent and minimize the harmful effects of human activities to the nature and human health. The core tasks of the law branch are to regulate environmental liability, pollution control and nature protection as well as to prevent and solve the conflicts concerning the utilization of land and water areas and natural resources.

Environmental law is a broad and internationally orientated field of law. It covers regulation from local to global issues. For instance, public law based responsibilities concerning the remediation of the contaminated land areas can be resolved leaning mainly on the national environmental legislation while the measures of adapting the climate change require also the knowledge and capacity of applying the EU and other international environmental law. Also, the studies concerning innovations of the environmental policy instruments demand comparative approach and international cooperation.

Teaching and research in the discipline of European law focus on the structure and content of the EU legal order and its relationship to domestic and international law. The discipline covers all provisions in the area of European law, particularly the EU treaties and legislation deriving from them, the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union as well as human rights provisions.

Key elements of teaching in European law relate to general European law and internal market and competition law. General European law focuses on EU standards, the EU's institutional set-up, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the types of cases brought before it as well as the application of European law within member states. The approach is contextual, outlining the general history of European integration. Internal market law emphasises the free movement of goods, people, services and capital. Teaching in European law also addresses such issues as government subsidies, public procurement and the basics of EU competition law and explores the EU's commitment to fundamental and human rights, for example, through an analysis of Court of Justice decisions. Further EU integration has led to the incorporation of elements of European law into traditionally national branches of law, especially after the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force; developments in criminal law and asylum law under the former third pillar are excellent examples.

As a research theme, European law may be approached from the perspectives of jurisprudence, legal history, legal theory or comparative law. The Faculty's jurisprudential research and teaching in European law are firmly based on a contextual framework and various interpretive matrices.

We run a research seminar series on European law. You can join the mailing list by sending an email to Samuli Miettinen (samuli.miettinen [at] helsinki.fi). A separate research seminar linked to ECHA may also be of interest: Contact Emilia Korkea-aho (emilia.korkea-aho [at] helsinki.fi)for details.

Family and inheritance law, a subfield of private law, investigates legal provisions and principles concerning the family. Family and inheritance law focuses on two key areas, on property law, on the one hand, and personal rights, or the law of persons, on the other hand.

Family property law investigates the property relationships of family members and how these are regulated through various legal measures. Special attention is paid to provisions on marital property and inheritance which define the relationships between married couples and domestic partners as well as determine the property relations between a decedent's survivors. The significance of the general provisions and principles of private law are highlighted in decisions concerning the legal status of domestic partners and couples in unregistered partnerships. Guardianship law as a special field of family property law examines the principles of statutory representation, incapacity and representation based on guardianship. Family property law is closely linked to inheritance and gift taxation. In recent years, teaching on these two forms of taxation has been increasingly integrated with teaching in the field of family property law.

The dimension of personal rights within family law emerges clearly when status relationships within family law are investigated. Among other things, teaching and research deal with the legal provisions concerning the contracting and dissolution of marriage, the characteristics of domestic partnerships and unregistered partnerships as well as the legal provisions concerning first and last names. Also, of central importance is the legal relationship between child and parent, which includes issues such as guardianship and its content, the child's right to be heard in various processes, the child's residence, child support and the child's right to parental contact. The regulation of status relationships under family law has close contacts with procedural law and social law.

Central government and other public bodies need financial resources to perform their functions. Most of their income comes from taxes. Accordingly, core components of financial law include tax rules, but financial law also comprises issues relating to public payments and public economic law.

Tax law is a branch of public law. Taxation, however, is usually based on circumstances within the scope of civil law, while many private-law arrangements hinge on their tax implications.

Previously, international tax law was not supranational, but rather a part of the domestic legal order. The situation has since changed particularly in the EU countries, and tax conventions also have connections with international law.

Research in public economic law focuses on central government finances and municipal finances. The issues explored relate to public spending (e.g., budget) and its monitoring (e.g., auditing). Public economic law is closely connected to constitutional law and administrative law and, as pertains to public procurement issues, has strong links to competition legislation, which primarily falls under private law.

The pertinence of gender to various rights and the exercising of said rights has been recognised since the 1800s when women's rights movements strove to secure equal rights for women and men. Finland was the first country in the world to grant its citizens universal right to vote and stand for election in 1906. Other crucial universal rights that women sought at the time included married women's rights, the right to custody of a child, the right to work and equal pay, as well as equal legal protection.

Gender issues became an academic discipline in the 1980s in the wake of second-wave feminism. Equal rights were largely established in legislation, but factual equality had not yet been attained. Women's wages continued to lag behind, career prospects were hampered by the "glass ceiling" and violence against women remained a persistent issue.

These issues were investigated in the discipline of feminist legal studies (naisoikeus in Finnish, kvinnorätt in the Nordic countries), which aimed to highlight legal problems related to women, issues related to the practical realisation of legal rights and to analyse the social consequences of the problems and their connection to the social sciences. In the Nordic countries such research focuses on equality in the workplace, social rights and the reconciliation of work and family life. At the University of Helsinki, Professor Kevät Nousiainen led several research projects in gender and law that examined equality policy and factual equality.

At the turn of the 2000s gender studies have become more theoretical, focusing on gender as a concept. Women's studies have been criticised for not recognising the 'multiplicity' of women, such as ethnic or sexual minorities or women's varying roles in terms of work and reproduction. Theoretically it has been concluded that gender as a biological or social category is not universal, but it is challenged by both gender minorities and new roles and ways to reproduce masculinity or femininity. Critical men's studies began addressing questions pertaining to masculinity and its (re)construction in social practices. For these reasons, the discipline of women's studies is nowadays referred to as gender studies and, within the scope of jurisprudence, gender and law. Gender is seen to be reproduced in social interaction and practices, and law is a significant social practice that constitutes gender.

International law consists of the rules and principles dealing with the conduct of States and of international organizations in their relations with one another and increasingly also in their relations with private individuals, minority groups and transnational companies. In today's globalising and interdependent world, an increasing number of international agreements and rules are being made to regulate a wide variety of cross-border issues such as pollution and organised crime, banking and transportation, protection of human rights, arms control and migration. Corresponding to this development, the scope of international law has greatly expanded and the discipline has gradually divided into various sub-disciplines – human rights law, international trade law, international investment law, international environmental law and humanitarian law, to name just few – each of which has its own rules, principles and institutions. Another corollary of this is that international law is no longer only the concern of diplomats, politicians and judges, but also of corporate and family lawyers, human rights activists, environmental campaigners and various other human groups that defend and criticize various kinds of social privileges and disadvantages through international law.

International law has a strong tradition in Finland. The teaching and research carried out at the University of Helsinki is known for its critical and interdisciplinary orientation that goes beyond conventional interpretation and systematization of international legal rules.

The discipline offers cutting-edge teaching in numerous subject areas and encourages students to engage in developing a critical approach to and an awareness of the consequences of law and legal education in general. The international law staff congratulates new law students and welcomes them to participate in international law courses: especially we welcome students who question the very foundations of our thinking and teaching!

Labour law and the related social legislation make up about a sixth of all Finnish legislation. Labour law has its normative foundation not only in legislation, but also on collective agreements and individual employment contracts. The principles of collective agreements are often decided in tripartite national income policy agreements, which frequently also include agreements on the development of income security and social services for citizens. Labour law also comprises legislation focusing on gender equality and general prohibitions of discrimination. The social significance and legal scope of labour law have steadily increased since the Second World War. Issues concerning labour and social law engage a multitude of labour-market lawyers, advocates, public servants and other experts in the field.

Besides individual and collective labour law, teaching and research at the Faculty of Law, University of Helsinki, cover issues related to employment, the working environment, equality and the social security of employees. As one of the two professors in labour law is more focused on the core area of labour law and the other professor on employment and social security issues, students have the opportunity to study in depth topical issues in the various sub-areas of labour law from intermediate studies on and then to specialise by way of advanced and supplementary studies.

Law and economics studies the legal system with methods derived from economics. It seeks, for example, to answer the following questions:

How should economic arguments be taken into consideration when applying legislation to practice?

How well does the legal system work in terms of economic efficiency, and how should it be changed?

How do legislation and its amendments affect the work of economic actors?

Law and economics aims to understand the contents of legislation and assess the efficacy and practicality of the operation of legal institutions.

It focuses on legislation pertaining to entrepreneurship and the financial market, competition, environmental and intellectual property law as well as the economic analysis of contracts, damages, discrimination and crime.

Contract law

Contract law belongs under the scope of private law and deals with the general foundations of the law of persons, general contract law as well as specific types of contracts such as transactions involving movables or international commerce.

The central topics of the field include the drafting of contracts, the requirements of binding contracts, the consequences of contract breaches and the validity, invalidity and interpretation of contracts. Also standard contracts and the sale of movables are among the key areas of the field.

The purpose of the discipline is to provide students with a systematic picture of contract law regulations, the general doctrines of the field as well as the significance of contracts. Contract law aims to specify for students the central concepts and theories of the field and to sketch out the system of contract law. Moreover, the objective of contract law is to train students to recognise and evaluate contractual problems and to solve and provide arguments for simple legal cases.

General law of obligations

General law of obligations is a branch of private law that deals with tort law, credit and payment instruments, insurance law and other issues associated with the general law of obligations.

The topics under focus include debt and interest, expiration of debt as well as liability for unjust enrichment. Other significant topics of the discipline include liability under the Tort Liability Act and other non-contractual liability, the main points of insurance law as well as credit relations and credit instruments.

The objective of the general law of obligations is to provide students with a systematic overview of regulation under the general law of obligations and the most important doctrines of tort, insurance and credit law. In addition, the discipline aims to provide students with the ability to define the central concepts of the law of obligations and to foresee their practical implications, to summarise the key theories as well as recognise and evaluate contractual problems.

As a discipline, legal history is situated intriguingly between jurisprudence and the historical sciences. Legal history is interested in legal phenomena such as legal norms, legal institutions, case law, legal thinking and jurisprudence. However, its methodology and research approach stem from the historical and, partly, social sciences. Legal changes (or the lack thereof) are analysed by linking legal phenomena to their social and cultural context.

Teaching in legal history examines legal change from antiquity to modern times, but research (theses and dissertations in particular) mainly focus on the modern world and its problems. Legal history enables us to know and understand the changes we are going through.

It is the creation of contexts - perceiving the temporal and spatial dimensions of law – that renders legal history particularly important for today's lawyers as well. In a rapidly changing world with an increasingly wide range of legal sources, identifying, perceiving and resolving legal problems in a justifiable way require prior competence that "contextual sciences" like legal history can provide.

The Faculty of Law has traditionally offered extensive, diverse and high quality education in legal history. We can also boast that we are one of the leading centres of teaching, research and research training in legal history not just in the Nordic countries, but in Europe generally.

As a subject, the aim of legal theory is to provide a comprehensive view of the theoretical and philosophical foundations of legal thinking, of its context in terms of the history of ideas, as well as of the methodological prerequisites of legal scholarship. Legal theory is inherently interdisciplinary which is reflected in the themes of teaching and the chosen perspectives, as well. The subject covers, amongst other things, questions concerning, amongst other things, the interrelations between law, politics and morality, the possibilities and preconditions of social justice, the theory of legal interpretation, and the theory of law as a social practice.

The difference between legal theory and theoretically oriented 'black letter' law is that while the latter analyses and constructs the general doctrines of a given substantive area of law, legal theory focuses on general doctrines, models, concepts and principles that apply to all areas of law.

In addition to the non-elective undergraduate module and exam, legal theory is responsible for the methodological training of undergraduate students (LLM) preparing for their dissertations. In relation to postgraduate degrees (LLLic, LLD), legal theory provides the teaching of the general part of postgraduate studies (General Theory of the Science and Theory of Jurisprudence, Seminar in the Field of Legal Theories and Methodology, Seminars in Legal Theory). In addition, several members of the research staff in legal theory take actively part in the teaching that the Faculty provides in English for international and exchange students.

Research in legal theory is often cross-disciplinary, and this is also reflected in the themes of teaching. Research covers a wide range of subjects. In addition to theoretical basic research in law, thematic areas include critical legal positivism, constitutional theory, legal phenomenology and hermeneutics, the ethics of legal interpretation, legal deconstruction, the theory of justice, the philosophical premises of legislation, law as a cultural phenomenon, law in literature and the arts, and the justification of law.

Medical and bio law is a heterogeneous and cross-disciplinary field. It is a fairly recent addition to the curriculum and offered as an optional subject. Regular instruction has been provided since 1997. Medical law is concerned with legal issues pertaining to healthcare workers, medicine and health care. Particular attention is paid to the treatment relationship between doctor and patient (patients' rights) as well as the legal status of medical research subjects. However, legal issues pertaining to the health care system in a welfare state (health law) are also closely linked to the discipline. Thus medical law is closely connected to both law of persons (civil law) and social law (public law).

Bio law is concerned with the legal regulation of the use of biotechnology. This definition encompasses legal issues ranging from the use of animals, plants and genetically modified organisms to the use of human tissue, cells and genetic material as well as human embryos. Therefore bio law is particularly closely interlinked with environmental and medical law. Teaching focuses on the latter, particularly legal issues pertaining to medical biotechnology applications (genetic engineering and reproductive medicine).

Legal norms and principles examined in medical and bio law are closely connected with the corresponding ethical norms for professionals and other forms of soft law. European and international norms are core legal sources in the field. Of particular importance is the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine, originally signed in Oviedo in 1997. It elaborates some of the principles enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights and entered into force internationally in 1999 and in Finland on 1 March 2010.

Private international law explores cross-border legal relationships. The discipline investigates core legal issues pertaining to international communication, such as the criteria for resolving conflicts of law arising under contracts. Teaching and research in private international law comprise various areas, such as the international law of obligations, international family and inheritance law, international property law and international civil procedure law. Other issues examined relate to personal legal status as well as the theory, concepts and methods of private international law. In recent years, several major changes affecting private international law have taken place in the EU, and many far-reaching reforms are expected. As a result, research and teaching in the discipline now also analyse the Europeanisation of private law and private international law as well as the effects of this process on the legal systems of the member states.

Procedural law (prosessioikeus, processrätt, Prozessrecht) encompasses the practices of due process. The provisions of procedural law respond to the following questions: how, where, when and by whom must action be taken when an impartial expert organ is needed in a criminal or civil case to take an authoritative decision on the application of material criminal law or private law in an individual real-life conflict, and in such a manner that the decision (judgement) is implementable by the means of force available to the authorities (enforcement of penalties and seizure of property, as well as other enforcement proceedings).

The traditional, or litigation-based procedural law can be divided into civil and criminal proceedings. Administrative proceedings related to public-law conflicts also fall under procedural law, but for historical reasons they do not belong within the scope of the discipline of procedural law, which, nevertheless, includes insolvency law with its various sub-areas (debt adjustments of private persons, restructurings of businesses, bankruptcies and enforcement). These also include a great deal of court-supervised legal processes where liabilities for debt are investigated and determined while continuously safeguarding legal protection.

Procedural law emphasises the protection of the right to a fair trial, in the spirit of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights). Clinging to procedural formalities is foreign to procedural law, although it is bound to include a fair amount of detailed regulation.

Insolvency law seeks a balance between the liquidation and rehabilitation of the debtor. A new problem related to insolvency is cross-border insolvency, which, in the wake of European integration, has emerged as a central research topic. Recently research has centred especially on an approach known as judicial conflict management, which aims to merge traditional jurisdiction (in other words, the focus of interest of general procedural law) with what is known as alternative dispute resolution (which, for its part, is the focus of multidisciplinary research on conflict theory). In these fields Finnish research is at the top of Nordic research. Also, the research conducted within insolvency law has received international recognition, as international assessments have ranked it to be a representative of "extremely high international standards".

Property law is a major branch of civil law. Teaching and research in property law examine various forms of transaction. The topics investigated include the general tenets of property law, such as its core concepts, principles, theories and institutions. The major issues range from tangible and intangible assets (especially transactions involving them) to dynamic protection and, in particular, property transactions and the property records system.

Teaching and research in property law examine the right of ownership as a property right, other rights in rem, property records systems and the related general recording principles, various transaction arrangements (particularly from the perspectives of bankruptcy and seizure of property), recovery, various forms of financing and the use of property as collateral. Modern research in property law is characterised by marketisation, productisation, informatisation and internationalisation. The internationalisation of financing and collateral arrangements, in particular, poses new challenges to research in property law.

Property law issues are relevant to banking and financial services as well as the transaction of goods and crucially important for various financial arrangements and transactions. The issues explored are thus pertinent to almost all sectors of the economy. Not surprisingly, the discipline is one of the most popular choices for optional and advanced studies in the Faculty.

The sociology of law is a multidisciplinary area of research situated between jurisprudence and social sciences. Sociology of law can be defined as a research approach interested in the interrelationships of legal practices, institutions, doctrines and the related social contexts. In other words, it studies law from the perspective of the social sciences using research methods from that field.

Sociology of law develops general theories explaining social processes related to law and conducts empirical studies and analyses on the interrelationships of legal and social factors. It aims to uncover the causes and effects of various phenomena. Legal sociology research is usually not limited to effective legislation, but it encompasses various unofficial practices and procedures outside the official legal machinery. Sociology of law is typically not limited to legal concepts or legal ways to perceive the world. Sociology of law is close to legal policy, criminology and criminal policy research. Often it is difficult to distinguish between the research areas.

Sports law focuses on legal issues related to sports. It is not a distinct field of law, for the problems dealt with in sports law primarily overlap with the traditional fields of law.

The principles of sports law mainly concern the self-regulation of sports and the limits of its autonomy. The juridification of sports largely resulting from the professionalisation and commercialisation of sports is connected to the increasing legal regulation at work throughout society.

The increased juridification of sports is also part of the modernisation of law. Whereas the foundation of sports organised by civic movements lies in the autonomy of associations, the foundation of professional sports lies in the legal regulation of business. When these two spheres meet, legal problems arise that can only be resolved with the contributions of several fields of law.