# Rolling resistance of bicycle tires

Measuring Crr is technically difficult, so one should always keep an critical mind when judging Crr measurement results. The results gathered on this page have all been measured on different surfaces with different methods, so the results are not necesseraly directly comparable. The results have mostly been gathered in one place to give some pointers about the relative rolling resistance merits of different tires and not to claim absolute values for Crr. Here is a link to some recent measurements of Crr.
```From hpv-owner@zippy.sonoma.EDU  Wed Jul 21 10:22:36 1993
From: "Ronald Glatz, Vienna"
To: hpv@sonoma.edu
Date: Wed, 21 Jul 1993 19:22:43 CET
Message-Id:
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII
Content-Length: 4361
Subject: Tires

Hi,

since there is some talk about tires you might be interested in data that I
came across in the German Bicycle/HPV magazine "Pro Velo". The article is
written by somebody from the Oldenburg University's bicycle research group
(does anybody know if they can be reached via Internet?).

They tested quite a few different tires at different pressures and found that
rolling resistance decreased with tire diameter and tire width for otherwise
identical tires. The lowest rolling drag could be achieved with the handmade
Rinkowsky belt tires (as opposed to tires with diagonal cords).

Tire size is given in mm (nominal tire width and rim bead diameter). We really
should avoid to use the old "inch" tire sizes because they are pretty
meaningless. For instance there are at least three different 26" tires
available and at least two different 20" sizes. In Europe many people call the
700C (622 mm) size 28" -- which means that a 27" (630 mm) is bigger than a 28".

BTW, is 406 mm the standard BMX size?

The following data give the coefficient of rolling resistance (multiply by
10e-5) for various tires at different pressures (100kPa=1Bar=14.5psi, i.e.
700kPa=~100psi).

Pressure
Tire                                     300kPa 500kPa 700kPa Width Size
----                                     ------ ------ ------ ----- ----
Schwalbe Standard GW. HS159 47-305                  394           47   305

Rinkowski Typ 1 47-406                       219    160           47   406
Rinkowski Typ 2 47-406                       261    195           47   406
Continental Nylon S 47-406                   392                  47   406
ACS RL-Edge 47-406                                  394           47   406
Avocet Fasgrip Freestyle 47-406                     394           47   406
Tioga Competition Steg  47-406                      394           47   406
Tioga Competition Stollen 47-406                    419           47   406
Schwalbe Standard GW HS 159 47-406           455                  47   406
Schwalbe City Jet 32-406                            568    467    32   406
Schwalbe Standard GW HS 188 47-406           526                  47   406
Schwalbe Standard SK HS 188 47-406           685                  47   406

Michelin Standard  28-440                           534           28   440

Conti Tour de Sol 32-451                            446    360    32   451
Hudyn HPV 32-451                                    446    360    32   451

Schwalbe Standard GW HS 159 47-507           408                  47   507

Continental Avenue 47-559                           267*          47   559
Schwalbe Standard GW HS 159 47-559           332                  47   559
Continental Supercross 50-559                696    643*          50   559

Continental Top Touring Skinwall 32-622             278           32   622
Vredestein Runner 25-622                            312           25   622
Vredestein Monte Carlo 37-622                       319           37   622
Schwalbe Blizzard HS190 25-622               573    389    321    25   622
Schwalbe Standard GW HS 159 47-622           336                  47   622
Continental Top Touring  weiss 37-622        448    341           37   622
Schwalbe Blizzard HS190 22-622                      432    342    22   622
Avocet Slick 28-622                          596    402    349    28   622
Continental Supersport 28-622                       351           28   622
Schwalbe City Jet HS257 47-622               446    351           47   622
Avocet Slick 32-622                          513    361           32   622
Schwalbe City Jet HS257 37-622               522    362           37   622
Avocet Slick 20-622                                 477    376    20   622
Semperit Long Life 28-622                           393           28   622
Schwalbe Hurricane 44-622                           397           44   622
Schwalbe Blizzard HS190 18-622                      496    405    18   622
Schwalbe Marathon 32-622                            474           32   622
Panaracer Tour Guard 25-622                         537           25   622

--Ron.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Ronald Glatz                      E-Mail: glatz@ps1.iaee.tuwien.ac.at
Techn. Univ. Vienna/Austria       CIS:    100064,27
Tel: +43 1 58801 3988             Fax:    +43 1 505 26 66

* = 450 kPa
The relative error on the measurements is < 2%.
Thomas Senkel, Plädoyer fur einen guten Reifen, ProVelo 32 (1993)

Cycling Plus ?/199x

The following table is taken from a roll out test made by the english
magazine Cycling Plus. The tested tires were road tires for mountain
bikes. This table shows only the relative rolling resistance of these
tires. The article did not tell how the percentage given as a merit of
rolling resistance actually was computed, but I guess it is just the
roll out distance relative to a reference tire.

The accuracy of this test was probably rather low, since all tested
tires fall in only three different categories.

The table is a bit more interesting, when one notes that the Continental
Avenue Semislick is found in the C+ data and in the Pro Velo table.

Brand & Model			Size	Weight / g	Rolling resistance
-------------			----	----------	------------------
Specialized Turbo		559-22	202		95 %
Nokia City Runner		559-34	534		90 %
Ritchey Crossbites		559-29	281		90 %
Continental Avenue Semislick	559-41	528		85 %	= 0,00267
Nokia Rollspeed Trek		559-34	551		85 %
Michelin Idilis			559-40	540		85 %
Avocet City Fasgrip		559-33	458		85 %
Michelin Overland		559-41	544		85 %
Avocet Cross			559-29	428		85 %

Tekniikan Maailma 15/92

The finnish magazine Tekniikan Maailma did also perform a roll out test
to compare the rolling resistance of mountain bike tires (559 mm). Note
that there is one studded winter tire in the table. The results are
sorted by increasing tire pressure and by decreasing roll out distance.

Brand & Model		Size	Weight / g	p/kPa		Distance
-------------		-----	----------	-----		--------
Nokia Mount & City	559-48	755		300		28,2 m
Nokia Mount & Ground	559-48	795		300		27,8 m
Ritchey Megabite Z-Max	559-53	705		300		26,4 m
Mitsuboshi Hilltop 5100	559-50	640		300		25,6 m
Onza Porc's II Racin.	559-53	710		300		25,2 m
Mitsuboshi Hilltop 1300	559-50	660		300		24,1 m
Nokia Mount & Ground/W	559-48	955		300		22,5 m studded!
Panaracer Smoke Lite C.	559-48	495		300		21,8 m
Panaracer Smoke Magnum	559-56	730		300		21,3 m
Joe Murray Propulsion	559-51	650		300		21,0 m
Panaracer Hi-Road S	559-44	540		300		20,1 m
SemperitTop Traction	559-48	720		300		15,0 m

Nokia Mount & City	559-48	755		400		31,8 m

Panaracer Hi-Road S	559-44	540		450		25,7 m
```