SOME REMARKS ON
THE CURRENT STATE OF TEACHER EDUCATION
IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
by Friedrich Buchberger (1996)

Department of Teacher Education
University of Helsinki
OLE Publications 2

The OLE Publications series of the Helsinki University Department of Teacher
Education was launched in late 1995 in order to give a forum for teachers and
researchers to publish articles in English, French or German on themes and topics
connected to the OLE Project.

THE OLE PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE AT THE DEPARTMENT OF TEACHER EDUCATION (PHONE +358 9 191 28112, FAX +358 9 191 28114)

CONTENTS

1 TEACHER EDUCATION IN EUROPE--DIVERSITY VS. UNIFORMITY
1.1 Diversity--Some Examples
1.2 Common Patterns and Trends-Some Examples
2 DESCRIBING AND COMPARING SYSTEMS AND MODELS OF TEACHER EDUCATION:
SOME PROBLEMS
3 TEACHER EDUCATION IN RAPIDLY CHANGING CONTEXTS
3.1 Productive Unrest--Some Examples
3.2 Clusters of Motives and Forces
4 TEACHER EDUCATION AS AN OPEN AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM
5 SYSTEMS, STRUCTURES AND PROGRAMMES OF TEACHER EDUCATION
5.1 Some Basic Structures of Initial Teacher Education
5.2 Structures and Programmes of In-service Teacher Education
6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
REFERENCES

The Treaty of Maastricht (1991) as well as recent policy documents of the Commission of the European Communities (e.g. White Paper "Teaching and Learning" 1995; Green Paper on the European Dimension in Education, 1993; guidelines for the SOCRATES programme, 1995) explicitly describe aims, expectations and tasks for education in general and teacher education (TE) in particular. Within these documents the development of a European Dimension in (teacher) education and the optimal use of open and distance learning in (teacher) education are described as two areas of highest priority. The development of exchanges of information and experience on issues common to the (teacher) education systems of the member states of the European Union seems to be of high importance.

The ERASMUS project OLE (Open Learning and Distance Teaching in Teacher Education to Promote the European Dimension) coordinated by the Department of Teacher Education of the University of Helsinki (Prof. Seppo Tella ) aims at an integration of open and distance learning and measures to develop a European Dimension in initial teacher education (ITE). Based on texts produced by comparative educationists and using open and distance learning, student teachers as well as teacher educators

(a) should find ample opportunity to acquire thorough knowledge on (teacher) education systems of all member states of the European Union and

(b) be qualified to perform small-scale comparative studies on selected aspects of the (teacher) education systems in different European countries.

Publications such as "Structures of the Education and Initial Training Systems in the European Union" (EURYDICE 1995) or "Teacher Education in Europe: Evaluation and Perspectives" (Sander et al. 1996) provide good descriptions of education and TE systems in the European Union mainly on a structural level. Unfortunately comparative analyses of the education and teacher education systems in the European Union do not exist in a comparable quality.

The following text presents a description and analysis of structural, organizational and curricular issues of teacher education in the member states of the European Union in a comparative perspective. It may be seen as a basis for small-scale comparative studies on selected aspects of teacher education (e.g. descriptions and comparisons of teacher education for teachers of mathematics). The text will start with a description of similarities and differences of systems and models of Initial teacher education. In the second chapter some problems of descriptions and comparisons will be outlined. The third chapter will deal with problems of teacher education in rapidly changing societies. The concept of teacher education as an open system will be outlined in the fourth chapter. The final chapter will deal with more detailed descriptions of systems and programmes of teacher education.

1 Teacher Education in Europe-Diversity vs. Uniformity


To give a first impression of the current situation of teacher education in Europe, let me introduce this publication by one recent title of a book, by two quotations from well-known experts in the field and by a comment on the importance of teacher education frequently made by experts as well as (education) politicians:

(a) Focusing on the situation of teacher education in England and Wales Adams and Tulasiewicz (1995) have recently published a book with the title "The Crisis in Teacher Education: A European Concern"?
(b) "The teacher education systems are almost all undergoing change of some kind or other at this time, undirected in any international sense, but with some identifiably common trends emerging. It is a period of great fluidity, with many difficulties for those engaged in the work, but interesting too, and the factors responsible for change are tending to operate in similar, if not exactly the same directions." (Bone 1992, 61)
(c) "This special issue of the European Journal of Education is concerned with a component of educational systems (teacher education, added by F.B.) that, almost everywhere in Europe, is at the centre of controversy and uncertainty" (Eggleston 1991, 195).
(d) Publications dealing with teacher education in Europe (e.g. Lundgren 1986; Neave 1992; Vonk 1992) as well as speeches not only by education politicians (e.g. Mayor 1992; Ritzen 1992) frequently start by emphasizing the prominent role teachers and teacher education ought to play in our society and its development. But in most European countries the diverse and complex field of teacher education seems to be full of contradictions, tensions and paradoxes (cf. Judge 1990; Popkewitz 1993a), and one of them lies in the fact that the intentions expressed are not always succeeded by appropriate action. This applies to policies concerning teacher education as well as to teacher education itself. Although there is wide-spread agreement that improvements of teacher education in all its subsystems (initial teacher education, induction, in-service education) are imperative (cf. Karagözoglu 1993; OECD/CERI 1990, 1992), a host of both internal and external barriers (cf. Portmann 1993) seems to hamper necessary innovations and reforms. Thus teacher education cannot always fulfil the prominent role postulated.

However, teacher education in Europe may be called a huge enterprise. More than half a million student teachers receive their initial teacher education and training in more than one thousand institutions at which more than fifty thousand teacher educators and trainers are working. In-service education and training (INSET) has to be provided for more than five million teachers.

Teacher education in Europe is organized in systems and models of highly heterogeneous natures. There are big differences both (a) between the different European countries (e.g. the enormous differences of initial teacher education in the neighbouring countries of France and Switzerland; cf. Buchberger 1992a, as well as (b) within them (e.g. the different systems and models of initial teacher education of the sixteen Länder of Germany, Döbrich et al. 1992, or the more than 150 different systems and models of initial teacher education that may be observed in Switzerland; Badertscher 1993; Furrer & Wanzenried 1992).

Diversity seems to be a salient feature of teacher education (cf. Archer & Peck 1990; Peck 1993; Vaniscotte 1992), although at the same time teacher education may be characterized by some elements common to most of European countries, inter alia:

(a) There are some fundamental traditions which in many countries correspond to fundamental differences between the education of primary school teachers, lower and/or upper secondary school teachers and teachers for vocational, technical or commercial education (cf. "the historic European schism between primary and secondary schools and the teachers in them", Judge 1992, 1237).
(b) Some more recent leitmotifs (e.g. "professionalization", cf. Bourdoncle 1993, "quality", cf. Buchberger 1995) have had a strong influence on the development of most systems and models of Initial teacher education.
(c) Some curricular components seem common to most of the models of initial teacher education.
(d) Most systems and models of teacher education seem to follow static conceptions of Teacher Education or a so-called "rucksack-philosophy" (Buchberger 1993a), which stresses the importance of Initial teacher education and disregards the need for a continuous professional development of teachers as well as the importance of in-service education and training.
(e) In recent years trends towards convergence may be observed, which are mainly influenced by processes of a European integration, policies of the European Union or policies of OECD.
(f) Some similarities or mutualities existing among different systems and models of initial teacher education may be explained by influences some countries and their models of teacher education had on others in former days (e.g. the influence of the Austrian system of initial teacher education of the Hapsburg monarchy on middle and south-eastern European countries; the influence of the former Soviet Union on teacher education of countries of the former eastern bloc; Mitter 1984).

The different and complex systems and models of teacher education with their goals, contents, curricula and structures of organization might be seen as (more or less tightened) conglomerates consisting of components of very different origins. The following components can be found in most systems and models of teacher education:

(a) education studies/studies in educational sciences,
(b) academic/subject studies,
(c) studies in subject matter methodologies/subject didactics, and
(d) teaching practice (Buchberger 1993a,b).

A clear terminology has not been developed yet and these terms have different meanings in the different cultural contexts of Europe (cf. similar problems concerning the terms teacher education-teacher training). The importance given to these different components, the sometimes rather peculiar combinations of them (e.g. sequence, integration) and a set of interrelated features of an organizational as well as an institutional nature have led to this variety of systems and models of teacher education in Europe.

1.1 Diversity-Some Examples

This rich diversity may be demonstrated by giving the following eight examples which will focus on institutional and organizational features of initial teacher education:

(1) initial teacher education in most European countries is characterized by various segmentations existing between
(a) different types of teachers (e.g. pre-primary, primary, lower/upper secondary, vocational education, special education) and (b) the institutions at which (prospective) teachers receive Initialteacher education.

(2) The institutions of initial teacher education are placed at different stages of the education systems. Although there seem to exist many open questions as regards categorizations of the sector of tertiary/higher education both within and between the different European countries (cf. Burn 1992; Clark & Neave 1992; Dalichow 1992; Teichler 1993), the following differences may be outlined:

(a) Initial teacher education for the pre-school sector may take place at schools at upper secondary level (e.g. Austria, most eastern European countries), at colleges of initial teacher education (e.g. Belgium/ Flemish Community), at institutions of higher (vocational) education (e.g. The Netherlands) or at universities (e.g. Finland) (cf. Pascal et al. 1991).
(b) A similar division applies to initial teacher education for primary schools. In some countries (prospective) primary school teachers are educated at schools at the upper secondary level (e.g. Russian Federation, many eastern European countries, most cantons of Switzerland), at schools at the post-secondary level (e.g. the Austrian Pädagogische Akademie), at colleges of teacher education (e.g. the Danish Staatsseminarium), at institutions of higher (vocational) education (e.g. The Netherlands, Portugal), at universities of different natures (e.g. Spain on the one hand or Finland and Germany on another).
(c) While in all European countries initial teacher education for teachers of academic subjects at upper secondary level is located at universities, the situation of initial teacher education for teachers at vocational, technical, and economic schools ("an educational system within an educational system", cf. Neave 1992) may be characterized by a host of very different solutions at an institutional level.

(3) Institutions at which (prospective) teachers are educated have very different patterns of organization:
(a) In some countries initial teacher education for teachers for pre-schools and primary schools is organized in schools at upper secondary level.
(b) There exist colleges of teacher education as single-purpose institutions (e.g. Austria, Denmark).
(c) initial teacher education may be part of institutions of higher (vocational) education (e.g. The Netherlands).
(d) At university level different patterns may be observed: initial teacher education programmes may be organized in departments of teacher education run under the responsibility of faculties of education (e.g. Finland). There are also schools of education (e.g. Spain). Faculties of education may have responsibility for initial teacher education (e.g. Czech Republic). In fragmented structures responsibilities for initial teacher education are not always clear (cf. the situation at most German universities at which teachers receive the first theoretical part of their education). In some countries the responsibilities for initial teacher education are split up into different institutions: the university is responsible for a first and mainly theoretical part of initial teacher education; local school boards, pedagogical institutes and schools for a second and mainly "practical" part (e.g. the Austrian model for the education of (upper) secondary teachers, Buchberger & Gruber 1995; Germany, Döbrich et al. 1992). Different cultures of initial teacher education may be seen in close relationship with different organizational patterns outlined.

(4) The duration of initial teacher education varies from very short courses (e.g. initial teacher education for teachers in vocational, commercial and technical schools in most countries) up to programmes lasting five years and more (e.g. France, Germany, Spain).

(5) The programmes have different organization and structure:

(a) In concurrent models the different components of initial teacher education mentioned above have to be studied parallel to one another.
(b) In integrated models these components are not only offered at the same time, but in an integrated way mainly focusing on professionally relevant topics and integrating "theoretical" studies and "practical" studies. Many programmes for the education of primary school teachers follow a concurrent model and a trend towards integrated and/or modularized models may be observed (e.g. Scandinavian countries).
(c) In consecutive models (prospective) teachers have to first study academic disciplines/subjects (and sometimes the sciences of the teaching profession) followed by professional studies and teaching practice (e.g. the English Postgraduate Courses in Education). But it is worth mentioning that in other consecutive models professional studies are offered first followed by studies in the sciences of the teaching profession and by studies of academic disciplines/subjects (cf. the Zürich-model of ITE, Furrer & Wanzenried 1992). Most models of initial teacher education for teachers at (upper) secondary level are organized as consecutive ones.
(d) Modularized models of initial teacher education offer clearly defined modules and it is up to the student teacher to make decisions in which sequence s/he will take the different modules. Some Scandinavian countries increasingly offer models of this type (e.g. Sweden).
(e) A further distinction may be made between so-called "one-phased" and so-called "two-phased" models of initial teacher education.
· In one-phased models the successful completion of initial teacher education at institutions of teacher education permits the (prospective) teacher to apply for a post at schools.
· In two-phased models (prospective) teachers first have to complete (mainly) theoretical studies at institutions of teacher education ("first phase"). This "first phase" is followed by "practical studies" at schools and special courses dealing mainly with (subject) didactics (e.g. the German Vorbereitungsdienst or the Austrian Unterrichtspraktikum). Local school boards and local pedagogical institutes separated from the university are responsible for this "second phase". A successful assessment of the tasks (prospective) teachers have to fulfil during this "second phase" forms a necessary condition for getting the status as a fully-fledged teacher. This "two-phased model" as executed for example in Germany ends with a so-called second state examination/Staatsprüfung and may be seen as an indicator of the importance the state attributes to teachers and teaching (and their control).

(6) The curricula and contents of initial teacher education vary considerably. The amount of teaching practice reaches from almost zero up to more than fifty percent (cf. Schmidinger 1993). The same applies to studies in educational sciences, professional studies as well as to subject studies.

(7) Institutions of teacher education are either strictly controlled by the state (e.g. by national guidelines or in some countries even by relatively narrow syllabuses) or have a relatively high degree of autonomy.

(8) Institutions of initial teacher education may either have close links to schools, to the school system and to school improvement or they may be strictly separated from schools.

These institutional, organizational and curricular features outlined are only some of the many features in which systems and models of initial teacher education differ at an institutional and organizational level both within and between European countries-and institutional, organizational and curricular features are only three-and as some think not the most important (cf. Sander 1995) of the many integral components of the complex (social) system of teacher education.

1.2 Common Patterns and Trends-Some Examples

A host of problem-solving processes in each of the European countries has led to the rich diversity depicted above. Three sets of interrelated factors might have contributed to it and these in turn may be used to explain some of the similarities among teacher education in Europe and some common trends:

(1) This diversity outlined mainly reflects the fact that problem-solving processes in the development of systems and models of teacher education have taken place

(a) under certain circumstances,
(b) at certain times,
(c) in particular (national) contexts, and
(d) have been strongly influenced by political argument.

It might be argued that theoretical and research-based argument as well as rational system planning or the expertise of those involved in teacher education have not always played the most prominent roles in constructing and developing systems and models of teacher education-and many of the recent problems of teacher education may be explained by this fact. As regards the situation in England and Wales, Judge (1990, 11) argues that "teacher education in England and Wales is a product of history rather than of logic (although much has been achieved in the past twenty years to give it more shape and coherence)", and this statement seems to be valid for most other European systems and models of teacher education (cf. for reform practices of teacher education in eight OECD member states the comparative analyses edited by Popkewitz 1993, and his metaphor of a "social arena" and the various actors involved in it).

Close connections may be detected between

(a) the development of nation-states and their (national) identities, and
(b) the development of systems of education and teacher education

from the 18th century onwards. This applies especially to nations in continental Europe (e.g. France, Germany; cf. similar but recent developments in some new countries of the former eastern bloc, Schleicher 1993 or in Iceland, Proppé et al. 1993). Such links may be seen as one main reason for the development of (nationally) different structures of education/schooling and the many different systems and models of teacher education in Europe that correspond in most European countries very closely with structures of schooling.

(2) It is possible to point to some long-standing traditions which

(a) consist of a blend of not always consistent (and sometimes hidden) assumptions, beliefs and opinions on the professional role of teachers and the acquisition of professional expertise (cf. Joyce 1981; Kennedy 1990) and which
(b) have had a strong influence on the development of institutional as well as curricular patterns of initial teacher education.
Created in the nineteenth century such traditions may be made accountable for segmentations and divisions existing between different types of teacher education. They seem to be "rooted in patterns of schooling, specifically in the sharp distinction throughout the last century and well into this between public elementary education on the one hand and secondary education provided only for a privileged minority on the other" (Judge 1990, 11). Such traditions have had strong influence on the construction of systems and models of teacher education, and in many countries they still have even nowadays (cf. Judge 1990, 1992 and recent developments in former eastern European countries):

(a) Initial teacher education for teachers at primary level has been strongly influenced by a "seminaristic" or "école normale" -tradition. The focus of this tradition is on "practical" training (teaching practice, methodology) and devaluates the importance both of educational theory and academic/scientific knowledge. Categories like "ethos" or the "personality of teachers" ("Lehrerpersönlichkeit") form integral parts of this tradition. In rather rigid learning environments (prospective) teachers should learn to "model the master" and to acquire some basic skills of teaching (e.g. "apprenticeship" -model, "sitting next to Nelly"). At an organizational level this tradition is closely correlated with concurrent models of initial teacher education.
(b) An "academic" tradition emphasizes the high importance of theoretical/scientific knowledge. (Prospective) Teachers had to acquire scientific knowledge in academic disciplines (cf. the Humboldtian principle "Bildung durch Wissenschaft"). It is assumed that this scientific knowledge and the competences and attitudes learned during the processes of its acquisition would enable (prospective) teachers to perform the tasks of teaching and of education competently. The importance of educational theory, methodology and teaching practice is devaluated or neglected in this tradition. initial teacher education for teachers at (upper) secondary schools has been strongly influenced by this tradition.
(c) Other traditions may be detected in initial teacher education for teachers of "practical" subjects (e.g. music, sports), for teachers of vocational subjects or for teachers in special education.

(3) More recent leitmotifs (e.g. professionalization, integration, universitization) have played an important role in reforms and innovations of most systems and models of teacher education for more than thirty years.

All these factors outlined above have led to some broader and not always consistent patterns and trends detectable in many European countries (cf. Buchberger 1993a,b,c,d; Neave 1987, 1992; OECD 1989, 1990), but it is worth mentioning that these patterns and trends have been challenged in recent years by new leitmotifs (e.g. quality, rationalization, mobility):

(1) The duration of programmes of initial teacher education has gradually been prolonged:

(a) This applies especially to initial teacher education for teachers at pre-school/pre-primary level (cf. Pascal et al. 1991). In some countries (e.g. Germany) this sector is not a part of the school system and teacher education does not exist.
(b) The minimum duration of programmes for primary school teachers in countries of the European Union except Italy is now three years and in these countries initial teacher education now takes place in the post-secondary and/or higher education sector.
(c) Programmes of initial teacher education for teachers (of general subjects) at (upper) secondary level organized by universities last a minimum of four years in all European countries.

(2) (New) Systems of initial teacher educationhave been introduced in many countries for teachers for the sector of special education and for vocational education/vocational school system. The latter applies especially to initial teacher education for teachers for commercial schools, while problems with initial teacher education for teachers for technical schools persist in most countries. It may be worth mentioning that these problems have found relatively adequate solutions in countries of the former eastern bloc (e.g. highly developed systems of initial teacher education for vocational schools).

(3) The criteria for admission to initial teacher education have been tightened. In most countries applicants to initial teacher education for primary and secondary schools have to hold a qualified school leaving certificate of an upper secondary school which may be obtained after twelve years of schooling at the earliest.

(4) There is a trend towards incorporation of all initial teacher education into the higher education sector and its universitization, although the patterns differ. The following stages of development may be detected as regards initial teacher education for teachers of compulsory schools:

(a) Creation of schools at (upper) secondary level dealing with initial teacher education in the 18th and 19th century.
(b) Establishing separate institutions for initial teacher education at post-secondary level (e.g. Colleges of teacher education, Pädagogische Akademie, Seminarium).
(c) Linkages and/or incorporation of these separate institutions into the university sector (e.g. United Kingdom, Germany, Spain).
This trend towards incorporation of all initial teacher education into the higher education sector and its universitization does not only apply to institutional features. Research and development, two central elements in this process, are becoming more important. As a result, progress in building up a scientific knowledge base for teacher education and teaching may be expected (cf. Coolahan 1992b; Mialaret 1992; Mitter 1992b; Reynolds 1989).

(5) Many programmes of initial teacher education have received a higher amount of formalization, standardization and rationalization, although a lack of explicitly defined goals for the professional education of teachers seems to persist in many countries (cf. Kennedy 1990; Klafki 1988). More specific components (e.g. specialized studies for different domains of learning (e.g. reading, social studies) and/or subject studies (e.g. maths, foreign languages) have been infused into programmes of initial teacher education for teachers at primary level. The relationship between programmes of initial teacher education and (curricula of) schools have been tightened, which applies especially to initial teacher education for teachers at (upper) secondary level and to former decentralised systems of initial teacher education (e.g. England and Wales).

(6) Many programmes of initial teacher education now contain more professional elements. This means that both

(a) more studies in the sciences of the teaching profession (e.g. educational sciences, subject didactics/subject matter methodologies) and
(b) more practical components (e.g. supervised teaching practice)

have been infused into the programmes of initial teacher education. This applies especially to initial teacher education for teachers at (lower/upper) secondary level and in the sector of vocational education.
(7) In many countries segmentations between the education of different types of teachers and different institutions of teacher education have been reduced and the permeability between them has increased, but problems of initial teacher education for teachers at lower secondary level still persist (e.g. Germany, Döbrich et al. 1992; Portugal, Novoa 1993).

(8) In most countries the importance of in-service education and training and of continuous professional education has been recognized and (sometimes extensive) systems for in-service education and training have been established (cf. Blackburn & Moisan 1987; Eurydice 1995; Hoeben 1986).

It is debatable whether these broader trends and changed/changing patterns are

(a) only modifications following a "more of the same philosophy" (cf. OECD 1989, 1992; Wagner 1991) and preserving a "cult practice of teacher education" (cf. Houston 1990),
(b) reflect incremental change (cf. OECD 1990) and effective adaptations to changed tasks and expectations (cf. Neave 1987), or
(c) whether they do reflect substantial change in teacher education.

However, improvements and innovations of systems and models of teacher education seem to be indispensable (cf. OECD 1992). In times of rapidly changing contexts of education, schooling and teacher education, even preserving the existing quality calls for permanent reforms and improvements. If one intends to enhance the quality of education, of school systems and of teacher education both permanent improvements and substantial reforms become necessary conditions (cf. Buchberger & Seel 1985; OECD 1992).

2 Describing and Comparing Systems and Models of Teacher Education: Some Problems

In characterizing the situation of initial teacher education in Italy, Todeschini (1992, 187) has written that "(it) is not uncommon for Italy to appear as a country whose main peculiarity is to be full of peculiarities. Thus, to questions about teacher education and training, answers could be very simple and/or awfully complicated at the same time, or virtually impossible". As outlined in the preceding paragraphs much the same seems to apply to the situation of initial teacher education in Europe and descriptions as well as comparisons seem to be confronted with the problem mentioned by Todeschini.

Popkewitz and Pereyra (1993) cogently outline the many problems of comparative education in the field of teacher education (e.g. the necessity and neglect of "theoretical entities"), criticize current practices in this area and speak of "a missing and weak link" (ibid., 3). Then they define a set of criteria that should guide (scientific) comparative education in the field of teacher education. Following the distinction of a "Science of Comparative Education" and "International Reformative Reflection" developed by Schriewer (1992, 61) this overview on "Teacher Education in Europe" may be seen as a contribution to the latter. As a contribution to "International Reformative Reflection" it aims at

(a) defining the problem-space in a more open way and
(b) increasing problem-awareness by addressing some main issues of teacher education in Europe.

Nonetheless solutions to some fundamental problems of description and comparison ("which consists of interpreting and explaining; not just comparing", Popkewitz & Pereyra 1993, 6) have to be coped with:
The first problem consists of getting a reliable and valid data-base. This text is mainly based on

(a) descriptions of (systems and models of) higher education and teacher education contained in a number of encyclopedias (e.g. Clark & Neave 1992; Dunkin 1987),
(b) official documents, texts and reports produced by different ministries (e.g. COUNCIL OF EUROPE 1987a; IBE publications on developments in education in UNESCO member states),
(c) reports produced by EURYDICE (e.g. Boreland-Vinas 1991; Le Metais 1990, 1991),
(d) reports prepared by experts for different OECD projects (e.g. Askling & Jedeskog 1993),
(e) descriptions of and commentaries on Teacher Education in different countries produced by researchers and experts (e.g. contributions in the European Journal of teacher education, the "Guide to Institutions of teacher education in Europe", Buchberger 1992 or the proceedings of the conference "Teacher Education in Europe: Evaluation and Perspectives", Sander et al. 1996), and
(f) experiences the author could gather in participating in international projects in the field of teacher education and as a visiting professor as well as an external examiner of various universities).

Advantages as well as disadvantages and the relative quality of these sources are obvious. The analysis of different sources contributes to a high(-er) degree of reliability and validity.

The second problem concerns language. It seems that concepts and technical terms necessary to describe different elements and components in the field of (teacher) education have only been elaborated to a limited extent so far (e.g. terms to describe different curricular components of teacher education). At the same time identical notions have sometimes very different meanings in different cultural contexts of Europe (e.g. "professionalization" or "university"). The author is very well aware of the fact that this problem has not been solved adequately in this paper either.

The third problem relates to questions as to which levels of generality or specificity seem to be appropriate. Sometimes studies of systems and models of initial teacher education are restricted to descriptions of some structural variables (e.g. institutions, admission criteria, duration of initial teacher education, qualifications and access to the profession) and the authors make use of simplified diagrams to visualize them (e.g. Buchberger 1993; Neumeister 1987; Vaniscotte 1989). This approach may have some advantages as regards to the first orientation at a surface level, but descriptions of some structural variables and simplified diagrams cannot meet the rich diversity and complexity of teacher education in Europe. It seems to correspond to tendencies towards (over-)simplification and it may easily lead to inappropriate and misleading interpretations (cf. Judge 1990, 1229: "Patterns of schooling (and teacher education, added by F.B.), although comparable at a superficial level, often embody widely different concepts of the purposes of that schooling, and therefore of the nature of teaching in public schools"). For these reasons this approach will not be taken and a presentation of simplified diagrams will be avoided.

(4) A (short) article on "Teacher Education in Europe" has to restrict itself to a limited number of issues. Decisions have been made

(a) to focus on some general patterns and broader trends of the development of teacher education ("megatrends") and to give examples of the variety of patterns to be observed at an institutional and organizational level;
(b) current changes and challenges as well as forces behind them will be analyzed;
(c) by focusing on initial teacher education for teachers at primary and (lower/upper) secondary level some basic structures and main types of programmes will be described and analyzed.

This decision implies that (many) other important issues necessary for a comprehensive understanding of teacher education in the European Union cannot be discussed adequately (e.g. history of teacher education, mechanisms of social regulation, conceptions of the professional role of teachers, perceptions of teacher education by student teachers and teacher educators).

3 Teacher Education in Rapidly Changing Contexts

In the past few years teacher education (initial teacher education as well as induction and in-service education and training) has again become a field of hot debates (cf. OECD 1990). (Productive) Unrest has become apparent. Significant changes and sometimes drastic reforms of (teacher) education are in a preparation phase or have been introduced recently in some (European) OECD member states (e.g. France, Italy, England and Wales) and in many former Communist countries (e.g. Bulgaria, Valchev 1993; Russian Federation, Pivavarov 1990, Ministry of Education 1992; Ucraina, Lugovij 1992). Although the amount of problem awareness differs greatly both within and between the different European countries (cf. the analysis of Busch 1990 at a European level; Bayer et al. 1990 for the situation in Germany or Simola 1993 for the situation in Finland) and some education politicians as well as educationists and teacher educators seem to follow a strategy of "muddling through" or one of problem suppression, there are many signals that teacher education has come to a turning point and that (substantial) reforms are necessary.

3.1 Productive Unrest--Some Examples

Three selected examples of recent discussions and activities on teacher education will be presented briefly to underline this:

(1) Many educationists and politicians are convinced that far-reaching reforms of teacher education are imperative: Inspired by the concept of an "open professionalism" (cf. Laderriere 1990; Vonk 1991) activities in many countries aim at increasing the quality of teacher education by professionalizing it (cf. different meanings of this term in different cultural contexts, Bourdoncle 1993 for the French context, Atkinson 1993 for the British context, Kordon 1993 for the German context). Main components of a professionalized teacher education might be (1) academic/scientific/theoretical studies in the sciences of the teaching profession (e.g. educational sciences, pedagogy, educational psychology, educational sociology, didactics, subject didactics or subject matter methodology) and in educational research aiming at the development of (professional) problem-solving capacity, (2) coherent and supervised practical/clinical studies, and (3) the integration of studies in the sciences of the teaching profession and clinical studies (cf. Buchberger & Beernaert 1996).

The reform of teacher education in France with the introduction of Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres (I.U.F.M.) at the beginning of the nineties (cf. Blondel 1991; Zay 1992) or innovations in some Scandinavian countries (cf. Askling & Jedeskog 1993 or Kallos & Selander 1993 for Sweden, Grankvist 1992 or Hostmark Tarrou 1991 for Norway, Hämäläinen et al. or Hansen 1995 for Finland, Hansen & Proppé 1992 or Proppé 1995 for Iceland) work along this line. In "A Nation at Risk", the USA, similar developments can be observed in many institutions of higher education dealing with teacher education (cf. Holmes Commission 1986, 1990 and critical comments on it by Popkewitz 1993b).

At the same time and in sharp contrast both to traditional models of teacher education and to the approach of a professionalized teacher education outlined above, England and Wales have introduced other forms of teacher education (e.g. school-based teacher education, articled teacher scheme, licensed teacher scheme) oriented on a minimum-competency concept (Laderriere 1990; Vonk 1991). A recent English document submitted to EURYDICE names, inter alia, the following principles for reform of initial teacher education:

(a) a variety of different routes into teaching,
(b) schools should play a much larger part in ITE as full partners of higher education institutions,
(c) accreditation criteria for initial teacher training courses (cf. the use of training instead of education) should focus on competences of teaching (cf. Baker et al. 1993; Barton et al. 1993; Coopers & Lybrand 1995; Hellawell 1992).

Similar activities can be observed in some federal states of the USA with the introduction of alternative routes into teaching (cf. Stoddart & Floden 1990). Although greatly heterogeneous in nature these forms of teacher education may be characterized by

(a) their focus on "practical" training ("apprenticeship"),
(b) a disregard of (educational) theory and
(c) of (educational) research.

However, they have to be seen as a challenge as well as an attack against both traditional and professionalized forms of teacher education (cf. Butter et al. 1993; Hillgate Group 1989; Lawton 1990).

(2) OECD pays special attention to problems of teachers and teacher education (e.g. the projects and reports on "The Training of Teachers", "Schools and Quality", "The Teacher Today", "Quality in Teaching"). Main fields of interest are:

(a) quality and standards of teacher education,
(b) efficiency and effectiveness of teacher education,
(c) rationalization of (teacher) education,
(d) recruitment for teacher education and the teaching profession,
(e) the teaching profession and conditions of service,
(f) in-service education and training and the continuous professional education of teachers or
(g) cooperation of teacher education with schools and other social groups.

(3) Activities of the European Communities also have an impact on the development of teacher education:

(a) A change of the structures and organization of higher education in general and initial teacher education in particular seems to be necessary (cf. the "Memorandum on Higher Education in the European Community", 1991 and the reactions to it; Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften 1993).
(b) A European Dimension should be introduced into programmes of teacher education (cf. Beernaert et al. 1993; Commission of the European Communities 1993).
(c) The mobility of teachers has become an issue (Neave 1991) and the recommendations for the recognition of diplomas (cf. 89/48/EC and 92/51/ EC) have an influence on the structure and organization of teacher education not only within the European Communities (e.g. recent reforms of Teacher Education in Italy).
(d) Mobility programmes (e.g. ERASMUS) have brought new input into sometimes very rigid systems and models of teacher education (cf. Bruce 1989; Miller & Taylor 1992).
(e) Expert seminars aim at developing solutions for the main problems of teacher education (e.g. "Teacher Education and the University", Judge 1992; "Educational Research and Teacher Education", Coolahan 1992; "The Professionalization of Teachers and Teacher Education", Bourdoncle 1993; "Quality in Teacher Education", Buchberger & Byrne 1995).

3.2 Clusters of Motives and Forces

Three selected examples of recent activities and discussions on teacher education have been outlined above. What might be the reasons, motives and forces for these activities and discussions on teacher education? Six main and interrelated clusters of motives and forces which exercise an influence on the development of teacher education in most European countries will now be discussed in greater detail (cf. Buchberger 1993a; Naeve 1991, 1992; OECD 1990):

(1) In our rapidly changing and dynamic society schools and teachers are confronted with increased, changed and new tasks and expectations, which emerge e.g. from changed structures of family and labour, changes of values, knowledge explosion, new technologies, internationalisation or multiculturality. As a consequence e.g. a restructuring of

(a) the contents of teaching and learning,
(b) curricula,
(c) methods of teaching and learning or
(d) a redefinition of the structure of organization of schooling

are imperative. At the same time this calls for a redefinition of the professional tasks and roles of teachers and teacher education. (Traditional/antiquated) Role conceptions (e.g. teachers as knowledge transmitters) have become obsolete and there are many cogent arguments that they will have to be replaced (cf. Skilbeck 1992).

It is being maintained that schools and teachers cannot deal adequately with these increased, changed and new expectations and tasks. Teachers supposedly have a lack of pro-activity and competence in dealing with changed and rapidly changing conditions of schooling and education. Their (insufficient) education is seen as one main condition for this unfavourable situation, although it is worth mentioning that in some countries teachers and schools might have adapted in a more appropriate way to changes than programmes of initial teacher education did (cf. Judge 1990, 9: "A new urgency will thus be given to the antique problem of maintaining an effective relationship between the structures of teacher education and of schooling").

In reacting to this problem many countries have tightened the entry requirements for initial teacher education, have prolonged its duration, have transferred initial teacher education to the higher education sector, have made modifications of its curricula, or have established (sometimes extensive) systems of in-service education and training (e.g. Spain, Morgenstern De Finkel 1993). But it is debatable whether such policies are the adequate ones to solve the problems or whether substantial reforms with changed paradigms would be necessary (cf. Buchberger 1993a,b; Hargreaves 1990, 1994; Windeen & Grimmett 1995).

(2) In most member states of the European Union the political context and the political environment of school and teacher education are changing. Education, sometimes reduced to human resource development, is again winning a position as a political priority. Educational policy has become an integral part of broader (national) economic and social policies. It is argued that highly developed societies depend on an optimal development of the human potential of all its citizens. This calls for adequate investment in education and teacher education. There are the slogans "A Quality Education for All" or "High Quality Education and Training for All" (cf. Commission of the European Communities 1991, OECD 1992), but in (Western) European countries there is only broad agreement on the necessity of quality education, not on the number of citizens for whom quality education should be provided (cf. different policies in France, Germany or Scandinavian countries on the one hand and England and Wales on the other). In many countries this increased interest of (national) policy in education and human resource development corresponds with

(a) tendencies to rationalize and formalize teacher education,
(b) new structures of accountability, and
(c) a search for better quality of initial teacher education as well as in-service education and training and an increased (quality) control (cf. van Vught & van Westerheijden 1993).

(3) The past few years have seen changes in the perception as to which tasks the state, government and administration should fulfil. Traditional structures of decision-taking and administration have come under attack both in countries following a so-called centralised system and in countries following a so-called decentralised system (cf. the many problems connected with these far too simple concepts, Popkewitz 1993). Autonomy, democratization, devolution, deregulation as well as privatization and private initiative on the one hand or centralization on the other have become new formulae frequently used in many European countries. But these formulae have different meanings in different countries and cultural contexts. Autonomy, democratization or deregulation may be seen as a next and necessary step in the development of democratic societies in which an increasing number of citizens will have to take increasing responsibility. Neo-conservative and neo-liberal ideologies or a "New Right" (Elliott 1993) see these formulae as programmes of a different nature.

Although highly heterogeneous in nature these changes of perceptions have implications for teacher education, its organization, structure and curricula as well as for its administration, management and financing. Most European countries are nowadays following

(a) a policy of devolution and deregulation. The mechanisms of governance are changing from so-called "rule-directed models" to so-called "goal/objective/result-directed models";
(b) they reduce the responsibility and tasks of the (central) government/ administration to strategical planning and management;
(c) they give more autonomy to institutions of teacher education (e.g. Scandinavian countries, France, The Netherlands) as regards both their programmes and resources.

At the same time England and Wales have increased the responsibilities at a central level (cf. Elliott 1993; Lawton 1990). A trend towards convergence may be observed. Governments and Ministries (of Education) seem to take more responsibilities for the strategic planning of (teacher) education and fewer for administration and management, while at an institutional level responsibilities for the latter increase.

Economic thinking and economic rationality have an increasing influence even in the field of education and teacher education (cf. Wagner 1993). They seem to dominate policies on education in general and on teacher education in particular in some European countries. New forms of financing teacher education have been introduced in some countries (e.g. "lump-sum model" in The Netherlands) and institutions of teacher education have been made accountable for an optimal use of resources. teacher education-initial teacher education as well as in-service education and training-has become subject to market forces and an increased competition may be detected. In recent times this economic rationality, often reduced to fairly narrow criteria (e.g. problems with "performance indicators") has had strong influence on the development of systems and models of teacher education in some countries (e.g. England and Wales, The Netherlands) and might influence (teacher education) policies of other countries in the near future (e.g. similar developments in Belgium, Finland, Sweden).

(4) The position of the teaching profession in European countries (e.g. the big differences in status, salary or conditions of work, Commission of the European Communities 1988, OECD 1995) as well as the situation of the labour market for teachers exert a strong influence on teacher education (cf. Archer & Peck 1990; DSDE 1993; Le Metais 1990; Neave 1992; OECD 1989, 1990).

Some countries find themselves confronted with a shortage of teachers. This shortage may exist for all types of schools/teachers, only for some subjects (e.g. natural sciences, information technology, foreign languages) or only for particular types of schools (e.g. vocational, technical, commercial schools). Some experts predict a general shortage of teachers for the (near) future in most member states of the European Communities (cf. Neave 1992). This calls for discussions on recruitment policies as well as on new definitions of the professional role of teachers and their education. New groups will have to be attracted to the teaching profession. Other forms of differentiation of the teaching profession apart from traditional ones (e.g. initial teacher education received, seniority) might become necessary, at which criteria like
(a) different tasks (e.g. teaching-curriculum development-management-participation as cooperating teacher in initial teacher education or as mentor in induction),
(b) responsibilities (e.g. teacher-head of department) or
(c) subjects (e.g. social studies-foreign languages-information technology)

are being taken into account (cf. the critical statements of Neave 1992 on traditional forms of differentiation; Hargreaves 1990; Holmes Commission 1986).

Other countries (e.g. Greece, Ireland, Spain, most former Communist countries) are confronted with a surplus of teachers which frequently correlates with a very young teaching force. This calls for discussions on the selection of teachers. In addition these countries are confronted with the problem that all new tasks of school and education have to be achieved with a "greying profession", which means that systematic efforts in in-service education and training are necessary.

(5) Purpose, aims, structures and organization of the higher education sector are rapidly changing (cf. Clark & Neave 1992; Gellert 1993; Teichler 1988, 1993). And thus the following factors may be seen in close relation with these changes:

(a) Highly developed societies depend on the optimal development of all their human resources (cf. human capital theories). This calls for (academic) qualifications at the best level possible and higher education for a large number of people (cf. Commission of the European Communities 1995).
(b) In highly developed societies an increasing number of people has developed a strong need for higher education. These two factors may be made accountable both for an enormous expansion of the higher education sector in most European countries and for its diversification in some (e.g. colleges, polytechnics, institutions of higher vocational education/Fachhochschulen, universities, research institutes).
(c) In addition the speed of developments and technology implies that the higher education sector will have to take more responsibility for continuous education/training of a large number of people (Commission of the European Communities 1993, 1995).

These general developments of the higher education sector will affect teacher education in many ways: in its institutional location (cf. the discussions in many countries whether initial teacher education should be located at institutions of higher vocational education/Fachhochschulen or at universities; problems with the location of in-service education and training and continuous professional education of teachers), its organization, its curricula, and its student population.

(6) New results of conceptual and empirical research on teacher education may be seen as a sixth force in discussions on reforms of teacher education, although they often do not occupy the most prominent role (cf. the analysis by Popkewitz and Pereyra 1993 on the social regulation of reform of teacher education). There are many (new) insights, which should not be neglected in teacher education policies and in developing new solutions. These are, inter alia,

(a) the concept of a reflective practitioner (Schön 1983),
(b) the programme of action research (cf. Elliott 1993),
(c) the concept of reflective teacher education (Liston & Zeichner 1991),
(d) Shulman's (1987) studies on the knowledge base of teaching,
(e) research on the professional development of teachers (cf. Fullan & Hargreaves 1992; Kremer et al. 1993),
(f) studies on the professional expertise and its development (Dewe et al. 1992; Kennedy 1990),
(g) research on the effects of different models and techniques of teacher education (cf. Houston 1990) or
(h) the experiences of concrete reform projects (cf. Döbrich et al. 1981).

Research on teaching and teacher education indicates that in schools and in teacher education "powerful learning environments" should be created, i.e. situations that elicit in students active and constructive processes of knowledge and skill acquisition, and that offer ample opportunities for interaction, communication and cooperation. In addition, students should be stimulated to set their own goals, and be guided in taking more responsibility for their own learning activities and processes. In other words, in powerful learning environments students/student teachers progressively become agents of their own learning activities and processes (cf. Buchberger et al. 1994).

4 Teacher Education as an Open and Dynamic System

In principle there exists wide-spread agreement that teacher education has to be conceived as an open and dynamic system (cf. Buchberger 1993a,b; Churukian 1993; Hargreaves 1990; Holmes Commission 1986; OECD 1989, 1990; Petracek 1989; Vonk 1991) and that teacher education has to be a continuum starting with

(a) recruitment and consisting of the following closely related elements
(b) initial teacher education,
(c) induction,
(d) in-service education and training/continuous professional education and
(e) further education.

Teacher education has to support the professional development of teachers in all phases of their professional career. Despite this wide-spread agreement on dynamic conceptions of teacher education in principle, most systems and models of teacher education have been organized in accordance with static conceptions so far (cf. a so-called "rucksack-philosophy", Buchberger 1993a), where it is assumed that

(a) initial teacher education is able to equip (prospective) teachers with most/all competences that seem to be necessary for them to enable them to fulfil the tasks of the teaching profession throughout a professional career;
(b) that during (a sometimes relatively short period of) initial teacher education (prospective) teachers are able to acquire all the knowledge structures and attitudes that seem to be necessary for permanent professional learning and development;
(c) where coherent measures for an induction into the teaching profession are not taken, and where
(d) in-service education and training as well as further education might happen on a voluntary basis.

In most countries teacher education is split up into different and often unrelated subsystems:

(a) initial teacher education,
(b) (induction),
(c) in-service education and training,
(d) further education,
(e) research and development,
(f) school improvement.

Realizing teacher education as an open and dynamic system will have a host of implications which will sometimes involve a concept-breaking for teacher education and the teaching profession, inter alia,:

(1) It seems to be necessary to redefine the goals and tasks of each of the above subsystems and to define their contributions to the professional development of teachers more precisely.

(2) It is a widely accepted goal that teacher education has to support (prospective) teachers so that they can develop those abilities and attitudes that seem to be necessary to achieve the professional tasks of teachers competently, reflectively, and by taking into account theoretical knowledge. This calls for an exact analysis of the professional tasks of teachers, of qualifications necessary and an orientation of curricula of teacher education on tasks and qualifications analysed. It is debatable whether many models of initial teacher education, especially for secondary school teachers, can meet these requirements.

(3) To be able to act professionally in dynamic environments characterized by rapidly changing tasks, teachers need problem solving capacity. It is debatable whether (prospective) teachers may acquire problem solving capacity in those models of initial teacher education which focus on the transmission of knowledge products or on recipes for practice. It is usually important to be able to ask questions and to define problems and to have a repertoire of skills to solve problems (cf. Schön 1983). While many models of initial teacher education seem to be able to provide solutions for well defined professional tasks, there are doubts whether competence and readiness for defining problems and problem solving capacity may be acquired adequately. Competence for co-operation is another qualification that seems to be of high importance in highly developed information societies. But, how do models of initial teacher education provide learning experiences for the development of this competence, which is essential for each form of school improvement and professional learning? To achieve these goals, initial teacher education had to be oriented more on process-, problem- and project-oriented teaching/learning strategies and an inquiry-oriented culture had to replace a re-active one.

(4) Teachers need to have a broad repertoire of professional actions, which they can use in a flexible and justifiable way according to goals, tasks, students and situations. This calls for a broad academic/theoretical base as well as for coordinated teaching practice, where student teachers find learning situations which can promote the development of competent, reflective and theory-guided action.

(5) More attention will have to be given to the development of subject didactics/Fachdidaktik, which might become the science of the teaching profession. Subject didactics as science of the teaching profession has to deal with the following topics:

(a) educational aims and goals
(b) selection of contents
(c) teaching/learning strategies
(d) media
(e) relationships with other subject areas
(f) specific questions of teaching and learning in a learning domain/subject area.

(6) There is no lack of statements stressing the importance of teaching practice in teacher education. Research on this component of initial teacher education shows a host of unsolved and often suppressed problems (cf. Houston 1990). Many models of initial teacher education do not have a coordinated and supervised teaching practice component in their programmes. It seems as if outdated "apprenticeship models" (cf. their renaissance in England and Wales) or highly debatable models of learning to teach by experience dominated. Undifferentiated calls for more teaching practice in initial teacher education or a mere expansion of it needed further critical analysis.

It seems to be necessary to integrate teaching practice into models of initial teacher education. A highly developed network of training or model schools with specially trained co-operating teachers/mentors will have to play a prominent role (e.g. Austria, Finland). The concept of Professional Development Schools developed by the Holmes Commission (1990) might be an adequate solution to integrate teaching practice of student teachers, academic/theoretical studies and research and development in schools and initial teacher education.

(7) A systematic and coordinated induction into the professional cultures of schools might be called a blind spot of teacher education. Although research on induction clearly indicates that many positive effects of initial teacher education are "washed out" when young teachers enter into schools, this has not led to systematic efforts in most countries. Most schools all over Europe have not developed a "culture of induction" yet. Induction calls for the cooperation of initial teacher education and qualified teachers at schools, who have to receive special education and training to be able to take responsibility for this important task. Induction ("A missing link") might combine initial teacher education and in-service education and training and contribute to the improvement of all subsystems of teacher education (cf. recent developments in England and Wales).

(8) A close cooperation between institutions of teacher education and schools might be seen as a key element for establishing and maintaining professional (learning and development) cultures at schools. Highly qualified and specially trained teachers at schools have to be integrated into the teaching practice component of initial teacher education as well as into development/research projects done there. Teacher educators and educational researchers need opportunities so that they can be actively involved in innovative work done in schools. Partnerships between institutions of initial teacher education and schools have to be established (cf. the concept of professional development schools in the USA; Holmes Commission 1990). Institutions of teacher education might be developed into resource centres and integrate initial teacher education, in-service education and training and school improvement.

(9) In-service education and training will need more forms of school-based/school-focused activities in which teacher educators co-operate with the staff of a school for a longer period of time on relevant themes and where all parties involved intend to improve the school and its problem-solving capacity.

(10) In many countries in-service education and training is separated from initial teacher education and the further education of teachers on the one hand, and from school improvement and research on the other. It is frequently controlled by representatives of the school administration. It is debatable whether these solutions can adequately contribute to the professional development of teachers and whether they might be called professionalized. More (professional) control of in-service education and training by teachers themselves seems to be imperative (cf. developments in The Netherlands or in Sweden). In-service education and training, educational research and development, and school improvement have to be integrated and to be brought under more professional control.

(11) In many European countries there are heated discussions whether in-service education and training has to be voluntary or compulsory, and which incentives ought to be introduced for in-service education and training. The following solutions may be mentioned here:
(a) Teachers may have a right to attend in-service education and training for a certain amount of time (e.g. France).
(b) In another group of countries in-service education and training activities are part of the working time of teachers and participation may be compulsory (e.g. Italy).
(c) Different forms of educational leaves do exist.
(d) Other countries (e.g. Switzerland) have a mix of compulsory and voluntary in-service education and training.
(e) Participation in in-service education and training may foster the career of a teacher and increase her/ his professional status.

But, coherent strategies of staff development or human resource management are still missing.

(12) More attention will have to be paid to the further education of teachers. It could relate to such tasks of the teaching profession that so far have been absent in most models of initial teacher education (e.g. school management, curriculum development). In addition it will become necessary to equip teachers with those qualifications that seem to be necessary to deal adequately with new and rapidly changing tasks of the teaching profession (e.g. communication and information technology, multicultural education). But, the necessity of systematic as well as compulsory further education of teachers has been disregarded so far.

(13) A clear profile for teacher educators will have to be developed both for initial teacher education and in-service education and training. Although the quality and the effectiveness of teacher education largely depend on the competence and expertise of teacher educators there have only been limited efforts so far to professionalize this activity (cf. Lanier & Little 1986; Wilson 1990). Most teacher educators-professors and lecturers in the fields of education, subject didactics or the academic disciplines, mentors or cooperating teachers at schools responsible for teaching practice as well as teacher educators in the field of in-service education and training-have never received training in appropriate methods of teaching/cooperating/learning with adult learners and (professional) teachers, or on organizational learning and development (cf. Buchberger et al. 1994).

(14) In many European countries the relationship between teacher education and educational research needs to be redefined. Like in all other (and not only academic) professions a close relationship between (educational) research and development and the (teaching) profession seems to be indispensable. But in most European countries (cf. as a counter example Finland) institutions of teacher education are separated from educational research and they neither have responsibility nor adequate resources for it. initial teacher education as well as in-service education and training will have to find a clear profile for educational research and development and an active involvement of teachers in it. This might be seen as essential for the improvement of all forms of teacher education. But it cannot be denied that some systems and models of teacher education have different opinions on this (cf. developments in England and Wales).

The conception of teacher education as an open and dynamic system as outlined here challenges traditional conceptions with their static rationale and their segmentations, but it poses questions that will have to be answered, no matter what the actual development and improvement of teacher education might be like.

5 Systems, Structures and Programmes of Teacher Education

In her thorough description of initial teacher training systems of the twelve member states of the European Union Le Metais (1991, 1) restricts herself to "general regulations governing (teacher education for, added by F.B.) teachers of pupils of statutory school age and up to age 18+ in schools maintained or subsidized by the state. Teachers in nursery, technical or vocational schools and in special schools may hold different qualifications from, or in addition to, those employed in ordinary schools. Given the complexity of these differences, regulations specifically governing the training of these teachers have been excluded." On a country by country basis she presents descriptions structured under five headings:

(a) types of school,
(b) categories of teachers (most countries have more than one category of teachers, depending on the education received and/or on the type of school in which s/he may be employed),
(c) requirements for admission to teacher training,
(d) teacher training process (e.g. level, length and content of teacher education for each category of teacher),
(f) qualifications.

These limitations chosen may be interpreted as an indication of the many variables that have to be taken into account in comprehensive descriptions (and comparisons) of systems and structures of teacher education in Europe. Despite the facts that certain restrictions have been made and that Le Metais's descriptions have been prepared very carefully, the complexity and the rich diversity of systems of initial teacher education are reflected in them only to a certain extent. Studies comparable to that of Le Metais (e.g. Buchberger 1992; Vaniscotte 1989) seem to be confronted with similar problems. Differences in structures of education and types of school (cf. EURYDICE/CEDEFOP 1992), different categories of teachers (e.g. for different stages of school systems/age groups, types of school or for different subjects), and sometimes very particular types of initial teacher education for different categories of teachers may be made accountable for this. In addition, a host of exceptions make the situation even more complicated.

Although the author is very well aware of the problems outlined above some basic structures of systems of teacher education in European countries will be described below. These descriptions will focus on institutional and organizational features of teacher education (initial teacher education as well as in-service education and training) and additionally they will deal with some selected elements of programmes of teacher education for teachers at primary and secondary level.

5.1 Some Basic Structures of Initial Teacher Education

Various criteria may be used for categorizing systems and models of teacher education. Because of the close relationships between school systems, initial teacher education and categories of teachers, an approach frequently adopted for categorizations at an organizational and institutional level makes use of criteria such as

(a) stages of the educational system (pre-primary, primary, lower secondary, upper secondary) and/or
(b) types of school (e.g. compulsory-non-compulsory, comprehensive-non-comprehensive, focus of education: general-academic, vocational, special education).

Although problems connected with this approach are obvious (e.g. different meanings of the term upper secondary level, different age ranges of these levels), it has been adopted here to describe some basic structures of systems of initial teacher education.

(1) Taking the stages of primary level, lower secondary level and upper secondary level as criteria three main categories of systems of teacher education may be analyzed:

(a) A first category of systems integrates the initial education of teachers for comprehensive schools (primary and lower secondary level), and provides different forms of education for teachers at upper secondary level (e.g. Denmark, Foldberg & Stenlev 1992). The system of initial teacher education in Sweden (cf. Ahlström & Kallos 1995) may be grouped into this category too, although there exist two different forms of initial teacher education for teachers of comprehensive schools: one for grades 1­p;7 and another for grades 4­p;9 (cf. some recent developments to reintroduce separations between initial teacher education for teachers at primary and secondary level, Kallos & Selander 1993).
(b) In a second category of systems of Teacher Education different programmes are offered to (prospective) teachers at primary level and at (lower and upper) secondary level (e.g. England and Wales, Hellawell 1992; France, Zay 1992; Finland, Hansen 1995; Ireland, Coolahan 1992; Spain, Bordas & Montane 1992). The programmes which sometimes consist of some components common to both forms of initial teacher education are organized by institutions of higher education/universities. The duration of studies may be different (e.g. Finland, Spain) or the same (e.g. England and Wales, France).
(c) In a third category systems of initial teacher education consist of the following structure: programmes for (prospective) teachers at primary level, and different programmes for different types of school as well as types of teachers at lower secondary level, which train either for the lower secondary level or the lower and upper secondary level. Examples for this category are, inter alia, Belgium, Coppieters 1992; Germany, Döbrich et al. 1992; The Netherlands, Plate 1992.
(d) Other solutions may be found in countries like Norway (cf. Mörk 1992), Portugal (cf. Valente 1992) or former eastern European countries (cf. programmes for teachers of different stages of the education system run parallel at teacher training schools at upper secondary level, post-secondary level and university level; Poland, Bleszynska et al. 1992).
(e) Teacher education for special education may be provided in widely differing structures. In some countries (prospective) teachers for special education receive their education in programmes running parallel to the education of teachers at primary and (lower) secondary level (e.g. Austria, Buchberger 1992; Czech Republic, Cerna & Parizek 1992). Special education may be an integral part of the education of primary teachers and specialization studies are offered during these programmes (e.g. Finland). In a third group of models initial teacher education for special education is provided as a post-graduate/post-diploma programme for teachers (e.g. The Netherlands). Very specialized forms of training are provided to deal with different groups of the handicapped (e.g. the blind).
(f) Some systems of teacher education are characterized by highly developed structures and programmes for vocational education. Some countries provide initial teacher education for vocational subjects at lower secondary level (e.g. Belgium, The Netherlands). At upper secondary level three main structures may be detected: Some countries have introduced special programmes for teachers of "practical subjects" in the sector of vocational education (e.g. Austria, Germany, Czech Republic). Teachers for commercial schools at upper secondary level receive their education at higher education or university level (e.g. Germany), while initial teacher education for teachers of technical subjects seems not to have been developed in most western European countries yet (cf. the exceptions of France and The Netherlands or systems established in former communist countries).

(2) As regards institutions at which initial teacher education for teachers at primary level, lower secondary level and upper secondary level is provided, three main categories emerge:

(a) Some countries have incorporated all forms of teacher education mentioned above into the university sector (e.g. Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Spain). Despite this fact the programmes offered to (prospective) teachers for the different levels of the school system may vary not only in content and curricular structures, but in their duration. While the duration of studies is of equal length for (prospective) teachers at primary and secondary level in France, it differs in Finland, Germany or Spain (approximately one year of study).
(b) A second category insists on separation between the different institutions at which initial teacher education is provided for different types of teachers. Teachers for the primary level and some types of school at lower secondary level may be educated at schools at upper secondary level, at institutions at post-secondary level or at institutions of higher education, while teachers for other types of school at lower secondary level and at upper secondary level receive their initial teacher education at university level.
(c) In a third category teachers for different types of school may obtain their teaching certificates at institutions located at different stages of the educational system and of different status and it is up to the (prospective) teacher where s/he intends to study (e.g. Bulgaria, Valchev 1993; Poland, Bleszynska et al. 1992).

(3) Some similarities and main differences of programmes of initial teacher education have been outlined earlier. Let me add three short items of information:

(a) Many programmes of initial teacher education for teachers at primary level may be characterized by a high degree of rigidity. An overload of subjects and topics to be studied by (prospective) teachers seems to correspond with rather inflexible programmes and overcrowded schedules and to inhibit independent professional learning (cf. Bruce 1989). In re-action to this problem some systems of initial teacher education have reduced the number of subjects to be studied by (prospective) teachers at primary school, introduced different forms of specialization studies (for a limited amount of school subjects or learning domains), or have modularized the programmes. This applies especially to systems of initial teacher education in countries where primary school lasts five years or more (e.g. Scandinavian countries).
(b) Most systems of initial teacher education for teachers at (upper) secondary level follow a consecutive model. Although more studies in the sciences of the teaching profession and more teaching practice has been infused into these systems, substantial changes in their curricular structures have not been made. As regards the relationship between studies in academic disciplines at university and subjects to be taught at school the following may be observed: relationships have been tightened and curricula have been made more coherent. The most frequent number of disciplines that have to be studied (in relation to subjects of the curricula of schools) is two.
(c) In many models of initial teacher education especially for teachers at primary level components of educational research and development (e.g. participation in research and development projects, preparation of a (masters) thesis) seem to be underrepresented. The Finnish or French systems of initial teacher education, where (prospective) teachers are obliged to prepare a (masters) thesis may be taken as examples of how this component may be integrated into programmes of initial teacher education (cf. Coolahan 1992b).

5.2 Structures and Programmes of In-service Teacher Education

The recognition of the importance of permanent professional (as well as personal) learning and development of teachers and its relevance for school improvement may be seen as main reasons why all member states of the European Union and most other European countries have made increasing investments into in-service education and training and have established (sometimes extensive) systems for it since the late sixties. Although the goals defined for in-service education and training and the continuous professional education of teachers seem to be rather uniform across the different countries, in-service education and training is organized in systems and models of greatly heterogeneous natures (cf. EURYDICE 1995). These different systems might be seen as particular and complex mixtures of a set of variables, and seem to be a product of problem solving processes under particular conditions rather than a product of rational system planning or actions guided by theory. This nature of most systems of in-service education and training does not allow the making of simple descriptions and comparisons.
(1) A recent document submitted by Spanish education authorities to EURYDICE may be used as an example to demonstrate goals and objectives of in-service education and training as similar definitions may be detected in many other European countries (although priorities may differ widely). Over the period 1986/1990 Education Authority Teacher Training measures set out to achieve the following goals:

(a) to help to improve the school, seen as the primary permanent training nucleus, whose members are engaged in a common educational project;
(b) to provide teaching staff with professional resources that foster skills closely related with their teaching practice and to respond to the needs of the educational system and the profession;
(c) to create and foster teacher participation in the design, development and interchange of experiences within the context of training plans;
(d) to promote the updating of teachers' scientific and educational knowledge;
(e) to provide specialized training for teaching staff in areas where such specializations are lacking;
(f) to re-train teaching staff (vocational education);
(g) to devote special attention to the training of trainers.

In-service education and training activities planned for the 1993/94 academic year will revolve around the following guidelines:

(a) Prioritization of training for implementation of a new reform;
(b) consolidation of training structures and rationalization of in-service education and training networks;
(c) improvement in the quality of training;
(d) upgrading of the supply of activities carried out through co-operative agreement.
(2) Some important variables which account for the differences between systems of in-service education and training in different countries will now be outlined mainly in the form of questions:

(a) Who are the providers of programmes of in-service education and training? Most countries have established particular institutes for In-service Education and Training separated from institutions of initial teacher education (although this separation is increasingly seen as problematic). The regional institutes for in-service education and training in Italy (IRRSAE) and in the Länder of Germany or the teacher centres in Spain are some cases in point. Other providers may be universities (e.g. England and Wales, France), institutions of Initial Teacher Education (e.g. Iceland, Ireland, The Netherlands), teacher associations and trade unions or private organizations. Is there sufficient coordination between the organisations providing teacher education in general and in-service education and training in particular? Is in-service education and training coordinated with school improvement and curriculum reform? Does some form of competition exist between different providers (e.g. England and Wales, The Netherlands)?
(b) Who provides the resources for in-service education and training? Is it central authorities (e.g. Ministry of Education, Austria), local authorities (e.g. Germany), municipalities (e.g. Ireland) or private organizations (e.g. some projects in England and Wales)? Which contributions do teachers themselves have to make? Is it a mix of sources?
(c) Who has control over content and organization of in-service education and training? Are decisions taken on a central level or the level of schools? What role do central authorities, the inspectorate, institutions of in-service education and training, teachers or parents have to play, which one teacher associations and trade unions or communities, industry and commerce?
(d) What are the conditions for teachers to participate? Is participation a duty or a right for teachers, is it compulsory or voluntary? Although some countries have introduced some form of compulsory in-service education and training (e.g. Finland, Sweden, most cantons of Switzerland) the introduction of coherent and systematic in-service education and training that is compulsory has not really been achieved so far. When does in-service education and training have to take place (e.g. during teaching time, school time, holidays)? Who has to cover the costs for the programmes and travelling/accommodation (the state, local education authorities, municipalities, schools, teachers themselves)? Does participation in in-service education and training affect the career of teachers (e.g. Ireland, Spain)?
(e) Which types of in-service education and training activities are available? Is it mainly short courses of sometimes heterogeneous natures? Are there coherent programmes at a local level and/or school-focused/school-based programmes (e.g. The Netherlands, Switzerland)? Are there coherent national programmes of in-service education and training aiming at supporting curricular reforms (e.g. the five-year programme for the reform of primary education in Italy or the French programmes for introducing new information technology)? Do teachers have the opportunity to partake in programmes at universities or colleges to acquire new qualifications and diplomas (e.g. many eastern European countries)? Do opportunities exist for sabbatical leaves, inter alia, for programmes in foreign countries?

Such differences reflect, inter alia:
(a) the importance given to an educational system, its quality and permanent improvement in the educational, social and economic policies of a country;
(b) different conceptions of the role and the status of teachers;
(c) the importance given to a competent and committed teaching force and its conditions of service;
(d) economic conditions of a country.

(3) A lot of literature is available that deals with in-service education and training and the professional development of teachers theoretically and that presents examples of good practice in different (European) countries. Thus this literature permits making some generalizations as to conditions of effective in-service education and training (e.g. Fullan & Hargreaves 1992; Kremer-Hayon et al. 1993, publications on the International School Improvement Project/ISIP of OECD). But, these cannot simply be applied to different (national) systems of in-service education and training or transferred from one context to another. It is possible to talk of seven clusters of conditions of effective in-service education and training:

(a) It is trivial to state that effective in-service education and training calls for a well-developed infrastructure that is organized on principles of modern organization theory. But the reality in many European countries clearly indicates that there are many problems and that basic requirements are not always fulfilled. There is a lack of resources, and responsibilities are not always clear. In a comprehensive study on the situation of in-service education and training in the (former) twelve member states of the European Union Blackburn and Moissan (1987) have spotted many advantages in a system consisting of (1) well resourced institutions at a local/regional level with some permanent staff for organization, administration and information, and with teacher educators. (2) Under these conditions in-service education and training can be provided for around 2000­p;3000 teachers; (3) these local institutions (and networks) ought to be coordinated within networks on a larger scale that cater for some fifty thousand teachers; (4) additionally networks at school level or even within schools have to be established and some experts emphasize the prominent role head teachers ought to have in establishing these networks.
(b) The existence of a professional (learning and development) culture in schools might be seen as an important condition of effective in-service education and training. It might contribute to the development of a "corporate identity" of schools oriented on the concept of the "problem solving school". The development of professional cultures depends very much on two factors. initial teacher education that is highly professionalized is one of them. Appropriate conditions for the professional work of teachers form another (e.g. problems in England and Wales, Greece, Portugal). In addition these cultures need support by school authorities, parents, communities, and other external agencies (e.g. industry). So far only limited attention has been paid to the development of professional cultures within the different systems of education, while this is something common in successful companies outside the education sector.
(c) In-service education and training has to be integrated into the improvement of particular schools and their staff development (cf. recent developments in England and Wales). This means a change of the focus of in-service education and training activities from the individual teacher to the school. The recognition of this has led to an increase of school-focused and school-based in-service education and training in many countries. This does not apply yet to coherent programmes of staff development in most countries.
(d) Goals, tasks and methods of in-service education and training frequently are characterized by a lack of clarity and coherence. More coherence seems to be necessary in (1) the strategic planning of in-service education and training at a national level; (2) the same applies to planning at a local level and (3) the level of particular programmes. An increased coherence and clarity might be seen as basic requirements for modularized programmes of in-service education and training that correlate with greater effectiveness (cf. programmes of the Open University in the United Kingdom). It is worth mentioning that the evaluation of in-service education and training in relation to defined goals is still a blind spot of many systems of in-service education and training.
(e) In planning in-service education and training it seems to be necessary to keep a balance between the different interests of central education authorities, local education authorities, communities, economy, parents and teachers. It is essential that teachers themselves should be actively and responsively involved in planning in-service education and training and that they should be respected as professional partners in decision making by all partners mentioned above.
(f) In-service education and training has to fulfil many tasks that are not always complementary. This calls for different programmes for the different goals of in-service education and training, inter alia, the transmission of information, training, attitude change, personal development, the acquisition of new qualifications, curriculum development, school development or organization development. Coherent strategies are necessary to coordinate different programmes.
(g) In-service education and training that focuses on concrete problems and projects seems to be very effective. Teachers (of a school or a small network of schools) cooperate (supported by external teacher educators) over a longer period of time on a project and/or try to solve professional problems. Professional teachers are engaged in collaborative problem solving-one of the magic formulae frequently used to explain the prosperity of successful companies or of countries of the far east (e.g. the principle of "kaizen"). School-focused/school-based in-service education and training as well as organization development might be seen as samples of this approach to effective in-service education and training. The establishment of "quality circles" in schools and the education system might contribute very positively to further improvements.

6 Concluding Remarks

This text has described some general patterns and broader trends of the development of teacher education in Europe, presented examples of the rich diversity of patterns to be observed at institutional and organizational levels, and analyzed current changes and challenges as well as forces behind them. A rich diversity seems to be a salient feature of teacher education in Europe, although at the same time teacher education may be characterized by some elements common to most of the European countries.

More or less cogent arguments might be formulated in support of all of the different systems and models of teacher education outlined above­p;and indeed they have been found by those responsible for these solutions. But there is a lack of research on the effects and efficiency of these systems and models in relation to formulated goals and it seems that teacher education has not always been subject to rational system planning.

Many experts think that education and human resource development are megatrends of recent days and the near future. They argue that the prosperity of highly developed societies will depend very much on an optimal development of all its human resources. To achieve this, extensive investment into education will be a must. It will be imperative to invest better and more into the initial teacher education as well as in-service education and training. On the one hand it will be necessary to evaluate very precisely what has been achieved so far and what the real effectiveness of actions taken and the efficiency of investments made are; on the other hand substantial reforms and improvements will be necessary that use the knowledge as well as the technology available to a better degree than in the past.

Nowadays some European countries seem to be confronted with economic problems and budgetary constraints. This might be a temptation for some (education) politicians to take a strategy of muddling through, to reduce investment in education or to take some form of problem suppression to deal with the problems mentioned above where pro-active action is imperative. But, did ministers of education of OECD countries not say that "the challenges of the 21st century will not be met in a spirit of more of the same" and that the "OECD societies must transform themselves into learning societies" (OECD 1992)?

It has been the intention of this text to sketch the problem space and its main elements that systems and models of teacher education in Europe as well as policies on teacher education are confronted with and to present some input for problem solving, which can only take place under certain circumstances and in particular social contexts. In developing and constructing new solutions for teacher education, teacher educators and teachers as well as decision makers in many European countries have often been highly re-active (cf. Coolahan 1991). It is to be hoped that this article might provide some input for more pro-active action in order to improve teacher education.

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Note

This text is a revised version of the following two articles:

Buchberger, F. 1994. Teacher Education in Europe-Diversity versus Uniformity. In Galton, M. & Moon, B. (eds.) Handbook of Teacher Training in Europe. London: Fulton.

and

Buchberger, F. & Beernaert, Y. European Systems of Higher Education in Teacher Education. Some Remarks on the Current State of Teacher Education Studies in the Member States of the European Union. In Sander, T. et al. (ed.) Teacher Education in Europe: Evaluation and Perspectives. Umeå. (In press)



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