Birds of Kangasala, Finland (61° 20´–61° 35´ N 23° 55´–24° 20´ E)

Based on observations by Tapani Salminen <tasalmin@cc.helsinki.fi> since 1974

With English, Finnish, and scientific names; English or and Finnish eli refer to an alternate name, and English and and Finnish ja to a different name for female.

Occurrence codes for all of Finland appear in square brackets; [6] to [1] means abundant to very rare breeder, [0] regular non-breeder (source: Tapio Solonen, Suomen linnusto, Helsinki: Lintutieto, 1985).

Special thanks to Erkki O. Mäkelä and Robert A. Thiel for help in compiling the list.

  1. red-throated diver / kaakkuri (Gavia stellata)
    frequent migratory breeder [2]
  2. black-throated diver / kuikka (Gavia arctica)
    abundant migratory breeder [3]
  3. great crested grebe / silkkiuikku (Podiceps cristatus)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  4. red-necked grebe / härkälintu (Podiceps grisegena)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  5. Slavonian grebe or horned grebe / mustakurkku-uikku (Podiceps auritus)
    extinct migratory breeder [3]
  6. cormorant / merimetso (Phalacrocorax carbo)
    frequent during migration [0]
  7. bittern / kaulushaikara (Botaurus stellaris)
    frequent migratory breeder [1]
  8. grey heron / harmaahaikara (Ardea cinerea)
    frequent during migration [1]
  9. mute swan / kyhmyjoutsen (Cygnus olor)
    occasional during migration [2]
  10. Bewick’s swan or tundra swan / pikkujoutsen (Cygnus columbianus)
    occasional during migration [0]
  11. whooper swan / joutsen eli laulujoutsen (Cygnus cygnus)
    abundant during migration [2]
  12. bean goose / metsähanhi (Anser fabalis)
    abundant during migration [3]
  13. pink-footed goose / lyhytnokkahanhi (Anser brachyrhynchus)
    occasional during migration [0]
  14. white-fronted goose / tundrahanhi (Anser albifrons)
    frequent during migration [0]
  15. greylag goose / merihanhi (Anser anser)
    frequent during migration [2]
  16. Canada goose / kanadanhanhi (Branta canadensis)
    frequent during migration [1]
  17. barnacle goose / valkoposkihanhi (Branta leucopsis)
    frequent during migration [0]
  18. Brent goose / sepelhanhi (Branta bernicla)
    frequent during migration [0]
  19. wigeon / haapana (Anas penelope)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  20. gadwall / harmaasorsa (Anas strepera)
    occasional during migration [1]
  21. teal / tavi (Anas crecca)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  22. mallard / sinisorsa eli heinäsorsa (Anas platyrhynchos)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  23. pintail / jouhisorsa (Anas acuta)
    abundant during migration [4]
  24. garganey / heinätavi (Anas querquedula)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  25. shoveler / lapasorsa (Anas clypeata)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  26. pochard / punasotka (Aythya ferina)
    abundant migratory breeder [3]
  27. tufted duck / tukkasotka (Aythya fuligula)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  28. scaup / lapasotka (Aythya marila)
    abundant during migration [3]
  29. eider / haahka (Somateria mollissima)
    occasional during migration [4]
  30. Steller’s eider / allihaahka (Polysticta stelleri)
    occasional during migration [0]
  31. long-tailed duck or oldsquaw / alli (Clangula hyemalis)
    abundant during migration [3]
  32. common scoter / mustalintu eli meriteeri (Melanitta nigra)
    abundant during migration [2]
  33. velvet scoter / pilkkasiipi (Melanitta fusca)
    abundant during migration [4]
  34. goldeneye / telkkä (Bucephala clangula)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  35. smew / uivelo (Mergus albellus)
    abundant during migration [2]
  36. red-breasted merganser / tukkakoskelo eli pikkukoskelo (Mergus serrator)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  37. goosander / isokoskelo (Mergus merganser)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  38. honey buzzard / mehiläishaukka (Pernis apivorus)
    abundant migratory breeder [3]
  39. white-tailed eagle / merikotka (Haliaeetus albicilla)
    frequent during migration [1]
  40. marsh harrier / ruskosuohaukka (Circus aeruginosus)
    frequent during migration [2]
  41. hen harrier / sinisuohaukka (Circus cyaneus)
    abundant during migration [3]
  42. goshawk / kanahaukka (Accipiter gentilis)
    abundant local breeder [3]
  43. sparrowhawk / varpushaukka (Accipiter nisus)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [4]
  44. buzzard / hiirihaukka (Buteo buteo)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  45. rough-legged buzzard / piekana (Buteo lagopus)
    abundant during migration [3]
  46. spotted eagle / kiljukotka eli isokiljukotka (Aquila clanga)
    occasional during migration [1]
  47. golden eagle / kotka eli maakotka (Aquila chrysaetos)
    frequent during migration [2]
  48. osprey / sääksi eli kalasääski (Pandion haliaetus)
    frequent migratory breeder [2]
  49. kestrel / tuulihaukka eli poutahaukka (Falco tinnunculus)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  50. red-footed falcon / punajalkahaukka (Falco vespertinus)
    occasional during migration [0]
  51. merlin / ampuhaukka (Falco columbarius)
    occasional migratory breeder frequent during migration and occasional during winter [3]
  52. hobby / nuolihaukka (Falco subbuteo)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  53. peregrine / muuttohaukka eli jalohaukka (Falco peregrinus)
    frequent during migration [1]
  54. hazel grouse / pyy (Bonasa bonasia)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  55. black grouse / teeri (Tetrao tetrix)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  56. capercaillie / metso ja koppelo (Tetrao urogallus)
    frequent local breeder [5]
  57. partridge / peltopyy (Perdix perdix)
    extinct local breeder [3]
  58. quail / viiriäinen (Coturnix coturnix)
    occasional migratory breeder [1]
  59. pheasant / fasaani (Phasianus colchicus)
    abundant local breeder [4]
  60. water rail / luhtakana (Rallus aquaticus)
    occasional migratory breeder [2]
  61. spotted crake / luhtahuitti (Porzana porzana)
    frequent migratory breeder [2]
  62. little crake / pikkuhuitti (Porzana parva)
    occasional during migration [0]
  63. corn crake / ruisrääkkä eli ruislintu (Crex crex)
    frequent migratory breeder [2]
  64. moorhen / liejukana (Gallinula chloropus)
    occasional during migration [2]
  65. coot / nokikana (Fulica atra)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  66. crane / kurki (Grus grus)
    occasional migratory breeder abundant during migration [3]
  67. oystercatcher / meriharakka (Haematopus ostralegus)
    frequent during migration [3]
  68. lesser ringer plover / pikkutylli (Charadrius dubius)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  69. ringer plover / tylli (Charadrius hiaticula)
    frequent during migration [4]
  70. golden plover / kapustarinta (Pluvialis apricaria)
    abundant during migration [4]
  71. grey plover / tundrakurmitsa (Pluvialis squatarola)
    frequent during migration [0]
  72. lapwing or peewit or green plover / töyhtöhyyppä (Vanellus vanellus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  73. little stint / pikkusirri (Calidris minuta)
    occasional during migration [0]
  74. Temminck’s stint / lapinsirri (Calidris temminckii)
    frequent during migration [3]
  75. dunlin / suosirri (Calidris alpina)
    frequent during migration [3]
  76. ruff and reeve / suokukko (Philomachus pugnax)
    abundant during migration [5]
  77. jack snipe / jänkäkurppa (Lymnocryptes minimus)
    frequent during migration [4]
  78. snipe / taivaanvuohi (Gallinago gallinago)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  79. great snipe / heinäkurppa (Gallinago media)
    occasional during migration [1]
  80. woodcock / lehtokurppa (Scolopax rusticola)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  81. black-tailed godwit / mustapyrstökuiri (Limosa limosa)
    occasional during migration [1]
  82. whimbrel / pikkukuovi (Numenius phaeopus)
    frequent during migration [4]
  83. curlew / kuovi eli isokuovi (Numenius arquata)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  84. spotted redshank / mustaviklo (Tringa erythropus)
    frequent during migration [4]
  85. redshank / punajalkaviklo (Tringa totanus)
    occasional migratory breeder frequent during migration [4]
  86. marsh sandpiper / lampiviklo (Tringa stagnatilis)
    occasional during migration [0]
  87. greenshank / valkoviklo (Tringa nebularia)
    abundant during migration [4]
  88. green sandpiper / metsäviklo (Tringa ochropus)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  89. wood sandpiper / liro (Tringa glareola)
    occasional migratory breeder abundant during migration [5]
  90. common sandpiper / rantasipi (Actitis hypoleucos)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  91. turnstone / karikukko (Arenaria interpres)
    occasional during migration [3]
  92. red-necked phalarope / vesipääsky (Pharopus lobatus)
    frequent during migration [3]
  93. pomarine skua / leveäpyrstökihu (Stercorarius pomarinus)
    occasional during migration [1]
  94. Arctic skua / merikihu (Stercorarius parasiticus)
    frequent during migration [2]
  95. little gull / pikkulokki (Larus minutus)
    occasional migratory breeder abundant during migration [3]
  96. black-headed gull / naurulokki (Larus ridibundus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  97. common gull / kalalokki (Larus canus)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  98. lesser black-backed gull / selkälokki (Larus fuscus)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  99. herring gull / harmaalokki (Larus argentatus)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  100. great black-backed gull / merilokki (Larus marinus)
    frequent during migration [3]
  101. Caspian tern / räyskä (Sterna caspia)
    occasional during migration [3]
  102. common tern / kalatiira (Sterna hirundo)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  103. black tern / mustatiira (Chlidonias niger)
    occasional during migration [1]
  104. domestic pigeon or feral dove / kesykyyhky (Columba livia)
    frequent local breeder [4]
  105. stock dove / uuttukyyhky (Columba oenas)
    frequent during migration [3]
  106. wood pigeon / sepelkyyhky eli metsäkyyhky (Columba palumbus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  107. collared dove / turkinkyyhky (Streptopelia decaocto)
    occasional migratory breeder [2]
  108. turtle dove / turturikyyhky (Streptopelia turtur)
    occasional during migration [1]
  109. cuckoo / käki (Cuculus canorus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  110. eagle owl / huuhkaja (Bubo bubo)
    frequent local breeder [3]
  111. hawk owl / hiiripöllö (Surnia ulula)
    occasional during winter [3]
  112. pygmy owl / varpuspöllö (Glaucidium passerinum)
    frequent local breeder [3]
  113. tawny owl / lehtopöllö (Strix aluco)
    abundant local breeder [3]
  114. Ural owl / viirupöllö (Strix uralensis)
    frequent local breeder [3]
  115. great grey owl / lapinpöllö (Strix nebulosa)
    occasional during winter [3]
  116. long-eared owl / sarvipöllö (Asio otus)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [3]
  117. short-eared owl or marsh owl / suopöllö (Asio flammeus)
    frequent during migration [3]
  118. Tengmalm’s owl / helmipöllö (Aegolius funereus)
    abundant local breeder [4]
  119. nightjar / kehrääjä (Caprimulgus europaeus)
    frequent migratory breeder [4]
  120. swift / tervapääsky (Apus apus)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  121. kingfisher / kuningaskalastaja (Alcedo atthis)
    occasional during migration [1]
  122. wryneck / käenpiika (Jynx torquilla)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  123. grey-headed woodpecker / harmaapäätikka (Picus canus)
    occasional local breeder [3]
  124. black woodpecker / palokärki (Dryocopus martius)
    frequent local breeder [3]
  125. great spotted woodpecker / käpytikka eli isotikka (Dendrocopos major)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  126. white-backed woodpecker / valkoselkätikka (Dendrocopos leucotos)
    occasional during winter [1]
  127. lesser spotted woodpecker / pikkutikka (Dendrocopos minor)
    frequent local breeder [4]
  128. three-toed woodpecker / pohjantikka (Picoides tridactylus)
    frequent local breeder [4]
  129. woodlark / kangaskiuru (Lullula arborea)
    occasional during migration [3]
  130. skylark / kiuru eli leivo (Alauda arvensis)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  131. horned lark or shore lark / tunturikiuru (Eremophila alpestris)
    occasional during migration [2]
  132. sand martin or bank swallow / törmäpääsky (Riparia riparia)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  133. swallow or barn swallow / haarapääsky (Hirundo rustica)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  134. house martin / räystäspääsky (Delichon urbica)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  135. tree pipit / metsäkirvinen (Anthus trivialis)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  136. meadow pipit / niittykirvinen (Anthus pratensis)
    occasional migratory breeder abundant during migration [5]
  137. red-throated pipit / lapinkirvinen (Anthus cervinus)
    frequent during migration [4]
  138. yellow wagtail / keltavästäräkki (Motacilla flava)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  139. grey wagtail / virtavästäräkki eli vuorivästäräkki (Motacilla cinerea)
    occasional during migration [1]
  140. pied wagtail / västäräkki (Motacilla alba)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  141. waxwing / tilhi (Bombycilla garrulus)
    abundant during migration and occasional during winter [4]
  142. dipper / koskikara (Cinclus cinclus)
    frequent during winter [2]
  143. wren / peukaloinen (Troglodytes troglodytes)
    frequent migratory breeder [4]
  144. dunnock or hedge accentor / rautiainen (Prunella modularis)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  145. robin / punarinta (Erithacus rubecula)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  146. thrush nightingale / satakieli (Luscinia luscinia)
    abundant migratory breeder [4]
  147. bluethroat / sinirinta (Luscinia svecica)
    frequent during migration [4]
  148. redstart / leppälintu (Phoenicurus phoenicurus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  149. whinchat / pensastasku (Saxicola rubetra)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  150. wheatear / kivitasku (Oenanthe oenanthe)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  151. blackbird / mustarastas (Turdus merula)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [5]
  152. fieldfare / räkättirastas (Turdus pilaris)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [6]
  153. song thrush / laulurastas (Turdus philomelos)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  154. redwing / punakylkirastas (Turdus iliacus)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  155. mistle thrush / kulorastas (Turdus viscivorus)
    frequent migratory breeder [4]
  156. grasshopper warbler / pensassirkkalintu (Locustella naevia)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  157. river warbler / viitasirkkalintu (Locustella fluviatilis)
    frequent migratory breeder [1]
  158. Savi’s warbler / ruokosirkkalintu (Locustella luscinioides)
    occasional migratory breeder [0]
  159. sedge warbler / ruokokerttunen (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  160. Blyth’s reed warbler / viitakerttunen (Acrocephalus dumetorum)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  161. marsh warbler / luhtakerttunen (Acrocephalus palustris)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  162. reed warbler / rytikerttunen (Acrocephalus scirpaceus)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  163. great reed warbler / rastaskerttunen (Acrocephalus arundinaceus)
    occasional migratory breeder [1]
  164. icterine warbler / kultarinta (Hippolais icterina)
    frequent migratory breeder [4]
  165. lesser whitethroat / hernekerttu (Sylvia curruca)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  166. whitethroat / pensaskerttu (Sylvia communis)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  167. garden warbler / lehtokerttu (Sylvia borin)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  168. blackcap / mustapääkerttu (Sylvia atricapilla)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [5]
  169. greenish warbler / idänuunilintu (Phylloscopus trochiloides)
    occasional migratory breeder [3]
  170. wood warbler / sirittäjä (Phylloscopus sibilatrix)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  171. chiffchaff / tiltaltti eli tynnyrilintu (Phylloscopus collybita)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  172. willow warbler / pajulintu eli uunilintu (Phylloscopus trochilus)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  173. goldcrest / hippiäinen (Regulus regulus)
    abundant local breeder [6]
  174. spotted flycatcher / harmaasieppo (Muscicapa striata)
    abundant migratory breeder [6]
  175. red-breasted flycatcher / pikkusieppo (Ficedula parva)
    occasional migratory breeder [3]
  176. pied flycatcher / kirjosieppo (Ficedula hypoleuca)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  177. long-tailed tit / pyrstötiainen (Aegithalos caudatus)
    frequent migratory breeder occasional during winter [3]
  178. willow tit / hömötiainen (Parus montanus)
    abundant local breeder [6]
  179. Siberian tit / lapintiainen (Parus cinctus)
    occasional during winter [4]
  180. crested tit / töyhtötiainen (Parus cristatus)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  181. coal tit / kuusitiainen (Parus ater)
    abundant local breeder [4]
  182. blue tit / sinitiainen (Parus caeruleus)
    abundant local breeder [4]
  183. great tit / talitiainen (Parus major)
    abundant local breeder [6]
  184. nuthatch or wood nuthatch / pähkinänakkeli (Sitta europaea)
    occasional during winter [0]
  185. treecreeper / puukiipijä (Certhia familiaris)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  186. golden oriole / kuhankeittäjä (Oriolus oriolus)
    frequent migratory breeder [3]
  187. red-backed shrike / pikkulepinkäinen (Lanius collurio)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  188. lesser grey shrike / mustaotsalepinkäinen (Lanius minor)
    occasional during migration [0]
  189. great grey shrike / lapinharakka eli isolepinkäinen (Lanius excubitor)
    frequent during migration [4]
  190. jay / närhi (Garrulus glandarius)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  191. magpie / harakka (Pica pica)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  192. nutcracker / pähkinähakki (Nucifraga caryocatactes)
    occasional migratory breeder frequent during migration and occasional during winter [3]
  193. jackdaw / naakka (Corvus monedula)
    abundant local breeder [4]
  194. rook / mustavaris (Corvus frugilegus)
    frequent during migration [2]
  195. crow / varis (Corvus corone)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  196. raven / korppi eli kaarne (Corvus corax)
    frequent local breeder [3]
  197. starling / kottarainen (Sturnus vulgaris)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  198. house sparrow / varpunen (Passer domesticus)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  199. tree sparrow / pikkuvarpunen (Passer montanus)
    frequent local breeder [3]
  200. chaffinch / peippo (Fringilla coelebs)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [6]
  201. brambling / järripeippo (Fringilla montifringilla)
    occasional migratory breeder abundant during migration and occasional during winter [6]
  202. greenfinch / viherpeippo (Carduelis chloris)
    abundant local breeder [4]
  203. goldfinch / tikli (Carduelis carduelis)
    occasional migratory breeder frequent during migration [3]
  204. siskin / vihervarpunen (Carduelis spinus)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [5]
  205. linnet / hemppo (Carduelis cannabina)
    abundant migratory breeder occasional during winter [4]
  206. redpoll / urpiainen (Carduelis flammea)
    occasional migratory breeder abundant during migration and occasional during winter [5]
  207. two-barred crossbill / kirjosiipikäpylintu (Loxia leucoptera)
    occasional during migration [2]
  208. crossbill / pikkukäpylintu (Loxia curvirostra)
    abundant local breeder [4]
  209. parrot crossbill / isokäpylintu (Loxia pytyopsittacus)
    frequent local breeder [4]
  210. rosefinch or scarlet rosefinch / punavarpunen (Carpodacus erythrinus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]
  211. pine grosbeak / taviokuurna (Pinicola enucleator)
    frequent during migration and occasional during winter [4]
  212. bullfinch / punatulkku (Pyrrhula pyrrhula)
    abundant local breeder [5]
  213. hawfinch / nokkavarpunen (Coccothraustes coccothraustes)
    occasional during migration [2]
  214. Lapland bunting or longspur / lapinsirkku (Calcarius lapponicus)
    abundant during migration [5]
  215. snow bunting / pulmunen (Plectrophenax nivalis)
    abundant during migration [3]
  216. yellowhammer / keltasirkku (Emberiza citrinella)
    abundant local breeder [6]
  217. ortolan bunting / peltosirkku (Emberiza hortulana)
    extinct migratory breeder [5]
  218. rustic bunting / pohjansirkku (Emberiza rustica)
    frequent migratory breeder [5]
  219. reed bunting / pajusirkku (Emberiza schoeniclus)
    abundant migratory breeder [5]