UNESCO RED BOOK ON ENDANGERED LANGUAGES: EUROPE

by Tapani Salminen <tasalmin@cc.helsinki.fi>

© Tapani Salminen <tasalmin@cc.helsinki.fi> 1993--1999. All rights reserved. The report may be used for private study purposes, and for that use stored in electronic form. No part of the report may be printed, reproduced, or transmitted in any form without the prior consent of the author.

Please read the background information and use the indexes for easier access.

South Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: Sweden: Idre area in Dalarna Province, Härjedalen, Jämtland, and Ĺsele Lappmark; Norway: Trondelag Province and southern Nordland Province

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Ume Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: Sweden: Lycksele Lappmark and a part of Pite Lappmark; formerly also adjacent Norway

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT [in Sweden; EXTINCT in Norway]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Pite Sámi

  1. Variant(s): Arjeplog Sámi; (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: Sweden: most parts of Pite Lappmark; formerly also adjacent Norway

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT [in Sweden; EXTINCT in Norway]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Lule Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: Sweden: Lule Lappmark; Norway: northern Nordland Province

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

North Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: Sweden: Torne Lappmark; Norway: most parts of Troms and Finnmark provinces; Finland: Utsjoki and Enontekiö counties, western Inari County, and Vuotso region of Sodankylä County; formerly extended to Petsamo area in Murmansk Province of the Russian Federation

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic); dialects: Torne Sámi, (East and West) Finnmark Sámi, Sea Sámi

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in Sweden, Norway and Finland; EXTINCT in the Russian Federation]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Inari Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: Finland: central Inari County of Lapland Province

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Kemi Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: last spoken in Sodankylä and Kuolajärvi (Salla) counties of Lapland Province of Finland where became extinct in the 19th century; formerly in more southerly areas as far as Kuusamo County

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Skolt Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (in Finnish) koltta; (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: Finland: Sevettijärvi area in Inari County of Lapland Province, mainly by people evacuated from former Finnish territory of Petsamo; the Russian Federation: earlier westernmost Murmansk Province, now translocated in Lovozero, central Murmansk Province; formerly also easternmost Finnmark Province of Norway

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED [in Finland; NEARLY EXTINCT in the Russian Federation; EXTINCT in Norway]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Akkala Sámi

  1. Variant(s): Babino Sámi; (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: earlier west-central Murmansk Province, now translocated in Lovozero, central Murmansk Province

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Kildin Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: earlier many locations in central Murmansk Province, now concentrated in Lovozero

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Ter Sámi

  1. Variant(s): (for Sámi) also spelled Sami, Saami; Lappish (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: earlier eastern Murmansk Province, now translocated in Lovozero, central Murmansk Province

  3. Relationships: /Sámi/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Livonian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Latvia: along the northern coast of Curonia in the northwest, but also scattered elsewhere; formerly also in the historical province of Livonia east of the Gulf of Riga

  3. Relationships: /Finnic/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Votian

  1. Variant(s): (in Russian) vodskij [jazyk], (in Estonian) vadja, (in Finnish) vatja

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: a few small inland pockets south of the Gulf of Finland in Kingisepp County in westernmost St. Petersburg Province

  3. Relationships: /Finnic/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Ingrian

  1. Variant(s): (in Russian) izhorskij [jazyk], (in Estonian) isuri, (in Finnish) inkeroinen

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: three small areas on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland in St. Petersburg Province: (i) cape of (in Finnish) Hevaa in the Kovashi River area in Lomonosov County, (ii) cape of Soykin (Soikkola) in Kingisepp County, and (iii) cape of Kurkola in the lower Luga River area in the same county; a fourth area was formerly along the Oredezh River in Gatchina County

  3. Relationships: /Finnic/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Karelian (proper)

  1. Variant(s): (in Karelian and Finnish) Karjala

  2. Geographical location: spoken in several separate areas: Finland: (i) by people evacuated from former Finnish territories north of the Ladoga Sea, mainly Kuopio Province but also scattered elsewhere in the country, and (ii) two border villages in Suomussalmi County of Oulu Province; the Russian Federation: (i) central and northern Karelian Republic, (ii) small pockets in the vicinity of Tikhvin and Novgorod, and (iii) central Tver' Province and adjacent Dyorzha and Ves'egonsk areas

  3. Relationships: /Finnic/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in the Russian Federation; SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED in Finland]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Olonetsian

  1. Variant(s): (in Olonetsian) livvi, (in Russian) livvikovskij [jazyk], (in Finnish) aunus

  2. Geographical location: Finland: by people evacuated from former Finnish territories north of the Ladoga Sea, mainly in Kuopio Province but also scattered elsewhere in the country; the Russian Federation: in southwestern Karelian Republic northeast of the Ladoga Sea

  3. Relationships: /Finnic/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in the Russian Federation; SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED in Finland]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Ludian

  1. Variant(s): (in Ludian) liüdi, (in Russian) ljudikovskij [jazyk], (in Finnish) lyydi

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: along a narrow strip streching from north to south in southern Karelian Republic

  3. Relationships: /Finnic/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Vepsian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: (i) Northern Vepsian in a small area in Prionega County, southeastern Karelian Republic, (ii) Central Vepsian in a larger area across the boundary of St. Petersburg and Vologda provinces (Podporozh'e and Boksitogorsk counties of the former, and Vytegra and Babaevo counties of the latter), and (iii) Southern Vepsian in Efimovskiy County in southeastern St. Petersburg Province

  3. Relationships: /Finnic/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Erzya

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: mainly in eastern Mordvin Republic but also small pockets in the northwest and south; also several areas in Nizhniy-Novgorod, Samara, Saratov and Orenburg provinces, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan

  3. Relationships: /Mordvin/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Moksha

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: mainly in western Mordvin Republic, extending to Ryazan' and Penza provinces; also in pockets in Tatarstan and Orenburg Province

  3. Relationships: /Mordvin/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Western Mari

  1. Variant(s): (for Mari) Cheremis (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: westernmost parts of Mari Republic and parts of Vyatka and Nizhniy-Novgorod provinces

  3. Relationships: /Mari/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993 [updated 31 Dec 1995]

Eastern Mari

  1. Variant(s): (for Mari) Cheremis (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: central and eastern parts of Mari Republic and parts of Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Udmurt Republic, and Ekaterinburg, Perm' and Orenburg provinces

  3. Relationships: /Mari/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993 [updated 31 Dec 1995]

Udmurt

  1. Variant(s): Votyak (derogatory)

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Udmurt Republic, extending to Tatarstan, Mari Republic, Bashkortostan, and Vyatka and Perm' provinces

  3. Relationships: /Permian/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Permyak

  1. Variant(s): Komi-Permyak

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Komi-Permyak District of Perm' Province, extending to Vyatka Province; a separate group is located in the Yaz'va Valley in northeastern Perm' Province

  3. Relationships: /Komi/Permian/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Komi (proper)

  1. Variant(s): Zyryan (derogatory), Komi-Zyryan

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Komi Republic, and parts of Nenets District of Arkhangel'sk Province, Yamal Nenets District of Tyumen' Province, and Murmansk Province

  3. Relationships: /Komi/Permian/Finno-Ugrian (Uralic)

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Polabian

  1. Variant(s): Elbe Slavonic

  2. Geographical location: in the Elbe River basin in northeastern Germany until extinction approx. 1750

  3. Relationships: /Lechitic/West Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Slovincian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: parishes of Schmolsin and Garde in Pomerania in present-day Poland, until extinction approx. 1900

  3. Relationships: /Kashubian/Lechitic/West Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: Slovincian is so closely related to Kashubian that it must be regarded as its dialect, but it is conventionally treated separately

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993 [updated 18 Aug 1999]

Kashubian (proper)

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Poland: dispersed in an area west and northwest of Gdansk (Wejherowo, Lebork, Bytowo, Pock, Kartuzy, Koscierzyna, and Chojnice districts)

  3. Relationships: /Kashubian/Lechitic/West Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Lower Sorbian

  1. Variant(s): (for Sorbian) Lusatian, Wendish

  2. Geographical location: Germany: lower Lausitz area around Cottbus

  3. Relationships: /Sorbian/West Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Upper Sorbian

  1. Variant(s): (for Sorbian) Lusatian, Wendish

  2. Geographical location: Germany: upper Lausitz area around Bautzen

  3. Relationships: /Sorbian/West Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Rusyn

  1. Variant(s): Ruthenian, Carpatho-Ruthenian

  2. Geographical location: Slovakia: Preshov region; the Ukraine: Transcarpathia and northern Bukovina; possibly also in southern Bukovina of Romania

  3. Relationships: /South East Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in the Ukraine; SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED in Slovakia]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: Ethnic Rusyns in Vojvodina, Serbia, speak Slovak and not Rusyn.

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

(Old) Prussian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: in the 13th century, coastal areas of the Baltic from Niemen to the west of Vistula; in the 16th century, only in Samland and Kurische Nehrung; became extinct in the 17th century

  3. Relationships: /West Baltic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Western Frisian

  1. Variant(s): (in Frisian) frysk, (in Netherlandic) fries

  2. Geographical location: the Netherlands: Friesland province

  3. Relationships: /Frisian/West Germanic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Eastern Frisian

  1. Variant(s): Saterland Frisian

  2. Geographical location: Germany: towns of Strücklingen, Ramsloh, and Scharrel in Saterland area west of Oldenburg

  3. Relationships: /Frisian/West Germanic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Northern Frisian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Germany: western coast of Schleswig north of Husum and adjacent islands of Föhr, Amrum, Sylt, Helgoland, and the Halligen Islands; formerly extended to the island of Wangerooge and adjacent Denmark

  3. Relationships: /Frisian/West Germanic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED [in Germany; EXTINCT in Denmark]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Cimbrian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: towns of Giazza (Glietzen, Ljetzen), Roana (Rabam), and Lusern in Sette and Tredici Communi (Sieben and Dreizehn Gemeinde) south of Trent Province, possibly extending to adjacent Venetia Province

  3. Relationships: /West Germanic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: there is some confusion about the genetic position of Cimbrian: while usually regarded as an aberrant form of Bavarian, there have been claims of its direct affiliation to Langobardian

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Norn

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: last spoken in the Shetland Islands where became extinct in approx. 1880; known also from the Orkney Islands; formerly in larger areas of Scotland

  3. Relationships: /North Germanic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Gothic

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: last spoken in Crimea, the Ukraine, where became extinct in the 18th century; earlier spoken in large areas in southern and eastern Europe

  3. Relationships: /East Germanic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Irish Gaelic

  1. Variant(s): (only) Gaelic, Irish, Erse

  2. Geographical location: the Republic of Ireland: four principal areas in the west, two in Donegal County, one each in Galway and Kerry counties, plus eight small pockets, also in Mayo, Cork, and Waterford counties; formerly also in Northern Ireland

  3. Relationships: /Goidelic/Celtic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in the Republic of Ireland; EXTINCT in Northern Ireland]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: The official cencus figures include many English speakers who have learned Irish at school.

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Manx Gaelic

  1. Variant(s): Manx

  2. Geographical location: Isle of Man until the death of the last speaker in 1974

  3. Relationships: /Goidelic/Celtic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: There are people living in the Isle of Man who have studied Manx as a foreign language, but who wish to be called speakers of Manx.

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Scottish Gaelic

  1. Variant(s): (only) Gaelic

  2. Geographical location: Scotland: rural areas of the Western Isles (Lewis, Harris, North Uist, South Uist, Barra) and Skye, and a few locations in the rest of the Inner Isles and the Highland mainland (mainly Sutherland, Ross-Cromarty, Inverness, and Argyll counties)

  3. Relationships: /Goidelic/Celtic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Welsh

  1. Variant(s): (in Welsh) Cymraeg

  2. Geographical location: Wales: most northern and western parts, plus a small extension to England around Oswestry; early last century almost all of Wales, and also Merseyside and larger areas of Shropshire, England

  3. Relationships: /Brythonic/Celtic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in Wales; SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED in England]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Cornish

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Cornwall, England, until the death of the last speaker, which probably took place in 1777

  3. Relationships: /Brythonic/Celtic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: reports of modern speakers of Cornish actually refer to people who have studied an artificial language based on Cornish, called 'Cornic' by Price (1984)

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Breton

  1. Variant(s): (in Breton) Brezhoneg

  2. Geographical location: France: western Brittany, and scattered in eastern Brittany

  3. Relationships: /Brythonic/Celtic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Asturian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Spain: historical province of Asturias

  3. Relationships: /Ibero-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Leonese

  1. Variant(s): known as Mirandese in Portugal

  2. Geographical location: Spain: historical province of León, extending to the northeastern corner of Portugal

  3. Relationships: /Ibero-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: Extremeńo in Extremadura is sometimes regarded as a co-dialect

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993 [updated 21 Dec 1999]

Aragonese

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Spain: historical province of Aragón, and parts of Navarra

  3. Relationships: /Ibero-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: Navarrese is a co-dialect of Aragonese

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Mozarabic

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: southern Spain until extinction in early Modern Ages

  3. Relationships: /Ibero-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Gascon

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: France: historical province of Gascogne (southwestern France), though actively used in the Béarn region (Pyrénées) only; Spain: the Aran Valley in the Pyrenees

  3. Relationships: /Occitano-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in Spain; SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED in France]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Languedocien

  1. Variant(s): Lengadoucian, Occitan (obsolete)

  2. Geographical location: France: most parts of the historical provinces of Guyenne and Languedoc (in an area from Bordeaux in northwest to Montpellier in southeast, from Toulouse in southwest to Rodez in northeast)

  3. Relationships: /Occitan/Occitano-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Auvergnat

  1. Variant(s): Auvernhas

  2. Geographical location: France: historical province of Auvergne, the departments of Cantal (except Aurillac region), Haute-Loire, and Puy-de-Dóme

  3. Relationships: /Occitan/Occitano-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Limousin

  1. Variant(s): Lemosin

  2. Geographical location: France: mainly historical province of Limousin, the departments of Charente (partly), Creuse, Corréze, Dordogne (except sothern part) and Haute-Vienne

  3. Relationships: /Occitan/Occitano-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Provençal

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: France: the historical province of Provence as well as south of Dauphiné and the Nimes region in Languedoc; Italy: upper valleys of Piedmont (Val Mairo, Val Varacho, Val d'Esturo, Entraigas, Limoun, Vinai, Pignerol, Sestriero)

  3. Relationships: /Occitan/Occitano-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1995

Walloon

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Belgium: most of Wallonia, i.e. the provinces of Liege (cities: Liege, Verviers, Malmedy), Namur (Namur, Dinant), Brabant wallon (Louvain-la-Neuve, Nivelles), Luxembourg (Neufchâteau, Bastogne) except the regions of Virton (Lorrain [French]) and Arlon (Letzebuergesch) and, finally, the province of Hainaut (Charleroi, La Louvičre) except the area from Tournai to Mons (where Picard [French] is spoken); France: in the north of the departement des Ardennes (town of Givet); Luxembourg: formerly two or three villages (Doncols, Sonlez)

  3. Relationships: /Gallo-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED [in Belgium; SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED in France; EXTINCT in Luxembourg]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1995 [updated 20 Dec 1999]

Francoprovençal

  1. Variant(s): Franco-Provençal

  2. Geographical location: France: historical provinces of Savoie and Lyonnais, north of Dauphiné, parts of Bourgogne and Franche-Comté; Italy: Vallé d'Aosta extending to Piemonte; Switzerland: most of Suisse romande

  3. Relationships: /Gallo-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: POTENTIALLY ENDANGERED [in Italy; ENDANGERED in France and Switzerland]

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1995 [updated 22 Sept 1999 thanks to the help of Gabor Sandi]

Romansch

  1. Variant(s): Rhaetian, (in German often) Bündnerromanisch

  2. Geographical location: Switzerland: Graubünden (Rhaetia), mainly in Surselva, Seumeir, and Unterengadin

  3. Relationships: /Rhaeto-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Ladin

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: in several valleys of the Dolomites in Bolzano Province (South Tyrol), extending to Trento and Belluno provinces

  3. Relationships: /Rhaeto-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Friulian

  1. Variant(s): (in Friulian) Furlan

  2. Geographical location: Italy: Udine Province, extending to Gorizia and Venezia provinces

  3. Relationships: /Rhaeto-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Gallurese Sardinian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: northeastern Sardinia

  3. Relationships: /Sardinian/Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources: see Logudorese Sardinian

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Logudorese Sardinian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: central Sardinia

  3. Relationships: /Sardinian/Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Campidanese Sardinian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: southern Sardinia

  3. Relationships: /Sardinian/Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources: see Logudorese Sardinian

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Sassarese Sardinian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: northwestern Sardinia

  3. Relationships: /Sardinian/Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources: see Logudorese Sardinian

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Istriot

  1. Variant(s): Istro-Romance

  2. Geographical location: Croatia: western coast of the Istrian Peninsula, now only in towns of Rovinj (Rovigno) and Vodnjan (Dignano)

  3. Relationships: /Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: the genetic classification of Istriot is not settled: it is often regarded as an early, i.e. pre-Venetian, off-shot from Italy, but others held that it is a separate branch of Romance or see connections with Friulian or Dalmatian

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Dalmatian

  1. Variant(s): Ragusan

  2. Geographical location: Croatia: along the coast of Dalmatia, last spoken in Krk (Veglia) where became extinct in 1898, formerly also in Zarar (Zada) and Dubrovnik (Ragusa)

  3. Relationships: /Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Istro-Romanian

  1. Variant(s): Istrio-Romanian

  2. Geographical location: Croatia: one village, ^Zejane, in the northeast of the Istrian Peninsula, and a few villages south of it

  3. Relationships: /Eastern/Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: The high number of speakers assigned to Istro-Romanian in the Ethnologue and, consequently, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics actually refers to Italian (Venetian) speakers in former Yugoslavia. The third Romance idiom on the Istrian Peninsula, Istriot, is also often confused with Istro-Romanian.

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Aromunian

  1. Variant(s): Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian, Aromanian

  2. Geographical location: two larger areas, one in central Thessaly, Greece, another in central Albania, and several small pockets in Greek Macedonia, Republic of Macedonia, and southwestern Bulgaria

  3. Relationships: /Eastern/Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Meglenitic

  1. Variant(s): Megleno-Romanian

  2. Geographical location: Greece and (the Republic of) Macedonia, a few villages on both sides of the border in the Meglena River valley north of Thessaloniki

  3. Relationships: /Eastern/Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Tsakonian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Greece: around Kastanitas, Sitena, Leonidi, and Prastos in eastern Peloponnesus

  3. Relationships: /Greek/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Chuvash

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Chuvash Republic, extending to Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, and Samara, Simbirsk, and Saratov provinces

  3. Relationships: /Turkic

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Karaim

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: originally Crimea, the Ukraine, where small communities may remain near Evpatoriya; since early times translocated in Trakai (Troki) and a few other places in Lithuania; also around the west Ukrainian cities of Luck and Galich.

  3. Relationships: /Kipchak/Common Turkic

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Bashkir

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Bashkortostan, extending to Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Orenburg, Samara and Saratov provinces, and Tatarstan

  3. Relationships: /Kipchak/Common Turkic

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Crimean Tatar

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: the Ukraine: Crimea, though most speakers were deported to various places, mainly to Central Asia, after the Second World War: only a small number has remained in Crimea or has returned there; Bulgaria: southern Dobruja area, extending to Romania

  3. Relationships: /Kipchak/Common Turkic

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: five Turkic languages are known to have been spoken in Crimea, viz Crimean Tatar, Krimchak, Karaim, Nogai, and Turkish; two of them, Crimean Tatar and Nogai, are also spoken in Dobruja; a lot of confusion exists in general literature

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Nogai

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: large areas across the boundary of southern Russia and northern Caucasia; the Ukraine: Crimea, though most speakers were deported to various places, mainly to Central Asia, after the Second World War; Romania, Dobruja area

  3. Relationships: /Kipchak/Common Turkic

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: cf. Crimean Tatar

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Gagauz

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: (i) a relatively compact area in southern Moldova (Bessarabia), extending to the Ukraine; (ii) Maritime Gagauz: the coastal region around Varna in Bulgaria, extending to Romania; (iii) Macedonian Gagauz: in southeastern Macedonia (probably referring to the Republic of Macedonia); (iv) Surguch: in the region of Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; (v) Gajal: in the region of Deli Orman, Bulgaria; (iii)--(v) are collectively known as Balkan Gagauz (or subsumed under 'Balkan Turkic')

  3. Relationships: /Oguz/Common Turkic

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Kalmyk

  1. Variant(s): Kalmuck

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Kalmyk Republic, with extentions to Astrakhan, Rostov, and Volgograd provinces and Stavropol' Region; related dialects under the label 'Oirat' are spoken in Central Asia and Mongolia

  3. Relationships: /Mongol

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Cypriot Arabic

  1. Variant(s): Cypriot Maronite Arabic

  2. Geographical location: Cyprus: a few villages in the north

  3. Relationships: /Arabic/Semitic

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Basque

  1. Variant(s): (in Basque) Euskara

  2. Geographical location: Spain: Basque Country including Navarra; France: department of Pyrénées Atlantiques

  3. Relationships: isolate

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Romani

  1. Variant(s): Rom; Gypsy (obsolete)

  2. Geographical location: dispersed in many European countries, most densely in east central and eastern Europe and in the Balkans; seven Romani idioms are still spoken: (1) Vlach in Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, the Ukraine, Yugoslavia, and neighbouring countries; (2) Balkan Romani in Bulgaria, Greece, Moldova, Macedonia, Romania, Turkey, the Ukraine, and Yugoslavia; (3) Welsh Romani in Wales; (4) Finnish Romani in Finland; (5) Sinte in Austria, Croatia, Czechia, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia; (6) Carpathian Romani in Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and the Ukraine; (7) Baltic Romani in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine; cf. Remarks

  3. Relationships: /Central Indo-Aryan/Indo-Iranian/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: A group of widely divergent idioms, whose speakers live in small, often nomadic communities scattered amongst larger groups. Many speakers were murdered by Germans during the Second World War. Scandinavian, English, Iberian, and Greek variants of Romani appear to be extinct but their lexical resources serve to form special idioms based on local languages, i.e. Rotwelsch (Scandinavian Traveller languages), Angloromani, Hispanoromani, Hellenoromani. There are also secret or in-group languages of nomadic groups like Polari and Shelta (Cant) in the British Isles, Quinqui in Spain, and Yeniche in central Europe.

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Yiddish

  1. Variant(s): Judeo-German

  2. Geographical location: many areas of eastern and east central Europe, earlier also central Europe, now more compactly only a few places in Belarus and the Ukraine, and in Jewish Autonomous Province (capital Birobidzhan) in eastern Siberia in the Russian Federation; most speakers now live in North America and Israel

  3. Relationships: a Jewish Germanic language

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: the traditional language of Ashkenazi Jews; many speakers were murdered by Germans during the Second World War

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Ladino

  1. Variant(s): Judeo-Spanish, Judezmo, Dzhudezmo, Haketía

  2. Geographical location: since the Middle Ages, in dispersed communities mainly in Greece and Turkey (mainly Macedonia and Thrace), but also elsewhere in the Balkans, and in Morocco; now spoken in a few locations in Turkey, and in Israel

  3. Relationships: a Jewish Ibero-Romance language

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: the traditional language of Sephardic Jews

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Shuadit

  1. Variant(s): Judeo-Provençal

  2. Geographical location: originally scattered among Provençal speakers

  3. Relationships: a Jewish Occitano-Romance language

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: many speakers were murdered by Germans during the Second World War

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Zarphatic

  1. Variant(s): Judeo-French

  2. Geographical location: originally scattered among French speakers

  3. Relationships: a Jewish Gallo-Romance language

  4. Present state of the language: EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: many speakers were murdered by Germans during the Second World War

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Italkian

  1. Variant(s): Judeo-Italian

  2. Geographical location: Italy, mainly in urban areas in Rome and in central and northern Italy; also in Corfu, Greece

  3. Relationships: a Jewish Italo-Romance language

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993 [updated 18 Aug 1999 thanks to the help of Seth Jerchower]

Yevanic

  1. Variant(s): Judeo-Greek

  2. Geographical location: originally scattered among Greek speakers; most of the remaining speakers in Israel

  3. Relationships: a Jewish Hellenic language

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: many speakers were murdered by Germans during the Second World War

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Krimchak

  1. Variant(s): Judeo-Crimean Tatar

  2. Geographical location: originally among Crimean Tatar (q.v.) speakers, but now scattered in various places of deportation, mainly in Central Asia

  3. Relationships: a Jewish Turkic language

  4. Present state of the language: NEARLY EXTINCT

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks:

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Burgenland Croatian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Austria: Burgenland

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Croatian/South Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: Burgenland Croatian is said to differ extensively from Croatian proper, intelligibility being difficult

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Molise Croatian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: villages of Montemitro, San Felice del Molise, and Acquaviva-Collecroce in southern Molise, and possibly elsewhere in southern Italy

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Croatian/South Slavonic/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: derives from the language of 15th and 16th century refugees

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Algherese Catalan

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: town of Alghero in northwest Sardinia

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Catalan/Occitano-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: an old immigrant community

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Channel Island French

  1. Variant(s): Channel Island Norman French

  2. Geographical location: Jersey; Guernsey and Dependencies

  3. Relationships: a distinct, archaic dialect of French/Gallo-Romance/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: isolated from mainland Norman French

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Arvanitika Albanian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Greece: in rural areas mainly in Attica

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Tosk Albanian/Albanian/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: old immigrant communities surrounded by Greek speaking areas

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Arbëreshë Albanian

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: several pockets in Avellino, Potenza, Taranto, Cosenza, Catanzaro, and Palermo provinces

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Tosk Albanian/Albanian/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: derives from the language of 15th and 16th century refugees

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Italiot Greek

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: Italy: two pockets in Taranto Province, possibly also in Reggio di Calabria

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Attic Greek/Greek/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: spoken in ancient Greek colonies

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Pontic Greek

  1. Variant(s):

  2. Geographical location: originally Turkey: along the Black Sea coast; most have emigrated to Greece since the First World War

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Attic Greek/Greek/Indo-European

  4. Present state of the language: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: originally spoken in ancient Greek colonies

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 31 Dec 1993

Trukhmen

  1. Variant(s): Caucasian Turkmen

  2. Geographical location: the Russian Federation: Stavropol' Region and Astrakhan Province

  3. Relationships: a diaspora dialect of Turkmen

  4. Present state of the language: ENDANGERED

  5. Sources:

  6. Remarks: more information about Trukhmen forthcoming

  7. Compiler: Tapani Salminen, Helsinki, 23 Feb. 1996