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Natural science a'la
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel

 A more lengthy article in English that I published in the Challenge to bioethics from Asia
(5th Asian Bioethics Conference ABC5, Tsukuba Science City, Japan, 2004).

Haeckelian Legacy of Popularization - The Survival of the Fakest

Art Nouveau, Jugend and avant-garde naturalism

The colour drawings of the "Art form in Nature" (original; 1899-1904) were scanned by Dr. Kurt Stueber, a scholar in Jena:

Hitler used the German word for evolution (Entwicklung) repetativelyin his book. In fact, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the very title itself of Hitler's book ("My Struggle"), was influenced by Darwin's subtitle, "Struggle for Existence," and by the German advocate of evolution, Ernst Haeckel, who published a book, in 1905, entitled, Der Kampf um den Entwicklungs-Gedanken ("The Struggle over Evolutionary Thinking").


A) Another illustration of evolution from the 1874 edition of Ernst Haeckel's celebrated Anthropogenie or The Evolution of Man. B) The frontispiece drawing to the English edition of Evolution of Man (trans. 1903) presents a skull labelled "Australian Negro" as an intervening evolutionary stage between the "mediterranean" skull and those of the lower primates (from the 1891 ed. of the Anthropogenie). C-D) Drawings of mammalian brains (from the 5th ed. of The Evolution of Man, 1910). E) The appearance of the Pithecantropus alalus alias Pithecantropus erectus alias Homo erectus (before it was found by Eugene Dubois) (from the 1898 ed. of the Natürliche Schöpfungs-Geschicte). F) Arm and hand of three "anthropods" (from left: Chimpanzee, "Veddah of Ceylon (Homo veddalis)", "European (Homo mediterraneus)") (from the 5th ed. of The Evolution of Man, 1910). G) Allegedly the first drawn genealogical/phylogenetic tree. Note the Monera, the surviving (and fraudulent) link between inorganic and living matter on the foundations of the tree (from the 5th ed. of The Evolution of Man, 1910). H) Ernst Haeckel's semi-linear evolutionary tree of the Indo-Germanic and Aryan languages (from the 5th ed. of The Evolution of Man, 1910). I-J) Drawn faces of "anthropods" (from the 1898 ed. of the Natürliche Schöpfungs-Geschicte). K-L) Ears look more different than early embryos in Ernst Haeckel's drawings (from the 5th ed. of The Evolution of Man, 1910; ear number 13. was Swedish, but only "bushmen" (10) were not classified in the highest rank in this illustration). Anthopologists let the modifications of this theme to be recycled in the (western) textbooks less than 70 years, as the main social demand was diminished. Operation Barbarossa and the invasions for "Lebenstraume" could be interpreted also as a climax of imperialism in the absence of major German colonnies on other continents. Haeckel declared: "…the morphological differences between two generally recognized species - for example sheep and goats - are much less important than those… between a Hottentot and a man of the Teutonic race" (The History of Creation 1876, p. 434). "Woolly-haired" peoples were "incapable of a true inner culture or of a higher mental development" (1876, p. 310). Only among the Aryans was there that "symmetry of all parts, and that equal development, which we call the type of perfect human beauty" (1876, p. 321). "The mental life of savages rises little above that of the higher mammals, especially the apes, with which they are genealogically connected. Their whole interest is restricteed to the physiological functions of nutrition and reproduction, or the satisfaction of hunger and thirst in the crudest animal fashion… one can no more (or no less) speak of their reason than of that of the more intelligent animals." (The wonders of life 1905, p. 56-7). Finally, since "the lower races - such as the Veddahs or Australian Negroes - are psychologically nearer to the mammals - apes and dogs - than to the civilized European, we must, therefore, assign a totally different value to their lives. The views on the subject of European nations which have large colonies in the tropics, and have been in touch with the natives for centuries, are very realistic, and quite different from the ideas that prevail in Germany. Our idealistic notions… Hence we can explain many of the errors of the idealistic philosophy and many of the practical mistakes that have been made in the recently acquired German colonies." (1905, p. 390-1). Finns, as a northern example, were a "mongolian" race already in the early editions of the Anthropogenie.


Frontispiece from one of the esseys by Ernst Haeckel on the Monism. Recycled from the excellent article by George J. Stein (1988), Biological Science and the Roots of Nazism. American Scientist 76, 50-58


One the most recycled figures in the textbooks of the 20th century biology, compared to its empirical reproduction. A) Haeckel's view of a conserved state in the embryonic development of (from left to right) a fish, an amphibian (salamander), a reptile (turtle), a bird (chicken), and a selection of mammals (pig, cow, rabbit, human). Originally from E. Haeckel, Anthropogenie, oder Entwickelungsgeschicte des Menschen, Leipzig, 1874. B) A sample of the actual outlook of the corresponding embryos (the fish, the salamander, the turtle, the chicken, the rabbit and the human embryo). Adapted from the reproduction by Richardson MK, Hanken J, Gooneratne ML, Pieau C, Raynaud A, Selwood L & Wright GM (1997): There is no highly conserved embryonic stage in the vertebrates: implications for current theories of evolution and development. Anat Embryol 196, 91-106.


Haeckel’s drawings of the eating habit and reproductive cycle of an alleged Moneron (plural: "Monera") with a scientific name: "Protomyxa aurantiaca". Let the extent of the detail be the measure of the scientific honesty  fraud, as the Monera do not exist - and never did. Ernst Haeckel (1882) Naturlig Skapelsehistoria, s. 127. Öfversättning från originalets sjunde upplaga af A.F. Åkerberg. Stocholm. A.W.Björcks Förlag.

Lineaarisia sukupuita Ernst Haeckelin tapaan:
Naturlig Skapelsehistoria
Förkortad framställning af originalets tionde upplaga af Nils Holmgren,
Stockholm, Albert Bonniers Förlag, 1907.


Ernst Haeckel (1914), Gott-Natur (Theophysis). Studien über monistische Religion. Alfred Kröner Verlag in Leipzig (72 sivua).
Haeckel esittää myöhäisemmällä iällään julkaisemiensa filosofisempien teostensa väittämät suorina tieteellisinä johtopäätöksinä empiirisestä tutkimuksestansa.


An exception to the rule/Poikkeus sääntöön:
Die Radiolarien (1862)


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