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Maratonit Suomessa

Marathons in Finland

HCM-Helsinki-City-Marathon

 

http://www.helsinkicitymarathon.fi/fi/index.html

Suomen suurimman maratonin näyttämönä toimii Helsingin merellinen maisema. 

Lauantaina 15. elokuuta 2009 juostaan 29. Helsinki City Marathon. 

Suomen suurimman maratontapahtuman lähtölaukaus kajahtaa Olympiastadionin läheisyydessä, Mäntymäentiellä, kello 15.00.

Helsingin maratonreitille merkittävän leiman antavat meri ja puistot.

Lähes puolet reitistä kulkee seuraten Itämeren rantaviivaa, ja hienojen puistojen läpi kulkeva reitti takaa unohtumattoman maratonkokemuksen. Maratonreitillä juoksija kohtaa osan historiallista ja kauneinta Helsinkiä: Finlandia-talo, Eduskunta-talo, Lauttasaari, Kaivopuisto ja Esplanadi muodostavat osan kilpailureitin ympäristöstä.

TULOKSET: http://www.helsinkicitymarathon.fi/fi/tulokset.html

http://www.marathon.fi/ilmo2/results_show.php?serie=HCM_0_100&hcmyear=2009&hcmid=1&base=results_hcm2008

'

VUODEN 2010 MARATONIT SUOMESSA

6.1 10.30 Tykköön Loppiaismaraton, Jämijärvi
9.1 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 1/10, Helsinki
16.1 8.30 73.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
23.1 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 2/10, Helsinki
30.1 8.30 74.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
  12.00 E24, Espoo
31.1 0.00-24.00 Kotirataultra 50km
6.2 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 3/10, Helsinki
13.2 8.30 75.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
14.2 11.00 Rinkimaraton, Uusikaupunki
20.2 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 4/10, Helsinki
21.2 11.00 Heiskan Maraton, Hämeenkyrö
27.2 11.00 Artic Ice Marathon, Kemi
  12.00 XIV Hassen Tervasaari-maratooni, Helsinki
28.2 0.00-24.00 Kotirataultra 50km
6.3 10.30 Pohjalainen Hallimaraton ja Puoliska, Botniahalli Mustasaari
  12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 5/10, Helsinki
13.3 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 6/10, Helsinki
20.3 8.30 76.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
27.3 11.00 Toholammin Talvimaraton, Toholampi
  12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 7/10, Helsinki
3.4 8.30 77.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
10.4 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 8/10, Helsinki
17.4 8.30 78.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
18.4 11.30 VII Masku Maraton, Masku
24.4 10.00 Hiekkaharjun 6h ja Maraton, Vantaa
  11.00 XVI Tuusulanjärvi Maraton
  12.00 XXV Kyrönjoki-Maraton, Ylistaro
30.4 8.30 79.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
1.5 8.30 80.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
  11.00 16.Paavo Kuosmanen Maraton, Pudasjärvi
2.5 11.00 4.Summassaari Maraton, Saarijärvi
8.5 8.30 81.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
  10.00 XXVII Joensuu Maraton, Joensuu
13.5 8.30 82.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
14-15.5 18.00 Ponnenjärvi Non-Stop 24h, Töysä
15.5 12.00 Yyteri-maraton , Pori 
  12.00 XXXVIII Seinämaraton, Seinäjoki 
16.5 11.00 Virttaanharjun Maraton
22.5 11.00 3.Akaa Maratooni, Akaa
  12.00 XXVII Västilän Maraton, Längelmäki
  12.00 Terwamaraton, Oulu
29.5 8.30 83.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
5.6 10.00 VIII Navitas Maraton, Varkaus
6.6 11.00 84.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
12.6 15.00 IX Aavasaksan AurinkoMaraton, Ylitornio
  16.30 19.Suvi-Ilta, Forssa
  17.00 Joulupukin Napapiirimaraton, Rovaniemi
  19.00 39.100km Suomi-juoksu ja maraton, Perniö
19.6 15.00 Alajärvi Maraton
  8.30 85.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
25.6 9.00 86.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
2.7 20.00 XXII Varpaisjärven Yömaraton
3.7 11.00 VIII Pielavesi City Maraton, Pielavesi
  12.00 Kipinä Maraton, Nivala
  13.00 19.Paavo Nurmi Marathon, Turku
  13.00 IV Lakeus Maraton, Nurmo
  15.00 VIII Mikkelin Maraton, Mikkeli
  15.00 XI Rovaniemi Maraton, Rovaniemi Ounasvaara
10.7 9.00 Kivitippu Ultra, Lappajärvi
  9.00 87.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
  11.00 Kuhmolainen Maraton, Kuhmo
17.7 11.00 3 Kaupungin Maraton, Närpiö-Kaskinen-Kristiinankaupunki
  11.00 Lieksa Maraton, Lieksa
  15.00 XXV Kaupunkimaraton, Hämeenlinna
23.7 15.00 34. Jakob-Marathon, Pietarsaari
24.7 9.00 88.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
  17.00 Teno-Maraton, Utsjoki
31.7 9.00 89.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi
  12.00 Kemijokimaraton, Keminmaa
  14.00 Kuusaan Maraton, Haapajärvi
31.7-1.8   Kaustinen 6h/24h, Kaustinen
8.8 12.00 Reiskan Maraton, Pyhtää, Stockfors Patruunatalo
14.8 12.00 XXII Kempele-Maraton, Kempele
  15.00 30.Helsinki City Marathon, Helsinki
21.8 8.00 Masokistin Unelma, Helsinki
  10.00 Venetsialaismaraton, Kokkola
  11.00 XIII Suupohjan Maraton, Karijoki-Kristiinankaupunki
29.8 10.00 Varala-maraton, Tampere
  10.00 XV Porvoon Maraton, Porvoo
  11.30 1.Orimattilan Maraton, Orimattila
4.9 11.00 Kuopio Maraton,  Rauhalahti Kuopio
  13.00 XXVI Vaasa-Vasa Marathon, Vaasa
11.9 12.00 XXVII Ruskamaraton. Kittilä Levi
  12.00 XIV Maisematiemaraton, Urjala-Huittinen
  12.00 Mun Maraton, Sauvo
  13.00 IV Finlandia Marathon, Jyväskylä
12.9 11.00 Espoon Rantamaraton, Espoo
18.9 9.00 Ossin Unelma ½vrk juoksu ja Maraton, Nurmo
  12.00 Hassen Lohdutusmaratooni, Helsinki
25.9 10.30 XXIX Kullervo-Maraton, Joutseno
  12.00 Kiiminki Maraton, Kiiminki
2.10 12.00 III Itämeren Maraton, Hanko
  12.00 Hassen lokamaratooni, Helsinki
3.10 10.00 Vaajakosken maastoultra 60km, Vaajakoski
9.10 10.00 V Vaarojen Marathon, Koli
  12.00 Kauniston Maraton, Haapajärvi Kaunisto 
10.10 10.00 X Salo Maraton, Salo
  10.30 Osmon Supermaraton,Pieksämäki 
  11.00 XVII Vantaan Maraton, Tikkurila
16.10 11.00 VI Kankaanpää Maraton, Kankaanpää
23.10 9.00 Wihan Kilometrit, Tampere
31.10 8.30 XXIX Åland Marathon, Maarianhamina
6.11 11.00 36.Rautaveden Maraton, Sastamala
20.11 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 9/10, Helsinki
27.11 12.00 Hassen Tervasaari-hölkkämaraton 10/10, Helsinki
28.11 10.00 21.Lanzarote Marathon, Lanzarote.
4.12 9.00 UPM Ultra, Pietarsaari
6.12 9.00 XXX Itsenäisyysmaraton, Kuopio
12.12 11.00 Pomarkun Maraton, Pomarkku

http://www.nic.fi/~tiki/maratoni10.htm

Helsinki City Marathonin mitaleissa on vuodesta 1984 lähtien esitelty merkittäviä rakennuksia tai muita kohteita reitin varrelta.

 

1981 - 1983

 

1985 Finlandiatalo

 

1987 Kaupungintalo

 

1989 Suomenlinna

 

1991 Helsingin Wanha Kauppahalli

 

1993 Tamminiemi

 

1995 Suomen Kansallisooppera

 

1997 Presidentinlinna

 

1999 Tilkan sotilassairaala

 

2001 Katolinen kirkko

 

2003 Helsingin kauppakorkeakoulu

 

2005 Koostekuva

 

2007 Nykytaiteen museo Kiasma

1984 Helsingin Tuomiokirkko

 

1986 Eduskuntatalo

 

1988 Suomen Kansallismuseo

 

1990 Uspenskin katedraali

 

1992 Kaupunginmuseo

 

1994 Olympiastadion

 

1996 Helsingin kaupungin puutarha

 

1998 Helsingin jäähalli

 

2000 Helsingin kaupunkimaisema

 

2002 Eläinmuseo

 

2004 Lastenlinna-sairaala

 

2006 Teknillinen korkeakoulu

 

2008 Uimastadion


PS. 15.8.2009 oli Lauri-pojan ensimmäinen maratoni, juoksukärryissä tosin.
Yllättävän kova dagsvärkki, melkein zipattiin, mutta onneksi nivelet paukkuivat eri aikoihin ettei noussut seinä vastaan.
Juoksukärryistä tyhjeni takarengas alkuryysiksessä tienkanttiin ja aika pian lakattiin pumppailemasta sitä...
Mirkka oli varustanut Pojan sellaisilla pillimehulatinkeilla, että pissapaikkoja sai haeskella.
Kengät ja sukat lenteli ja kanssamatkaajille sai kertoa autimista kun Laurin riemulla ei ollut rajaa väen hurratessa ja rummuttaessa.

Oli Veripalvelun lahjoittajienvärväyspaita päällä ja puuristi kaulassa. Tunti jäätiin haaveajasta, 4:55.

Pojan mitalissa on kai kuvattuna Linnunlaulun talot Alvarin pytingin vastarannalla.

Maaliin tultiin Anna olkapäillä, mitä juontaja kuulutteli kansallekin.

http://www.helsinki.fi/~pjojala/autismi-asperger.htm

 

http://www.nic.fi/~tiki/maratoni09.htm

2009

 

6.1

10.00

Tykköön Loppiaismaraton, Jämijärvi

10.1

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 1/10, Helsinki

17.1

8.30

48.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

24.1

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 2/10, Helsinki

25.1

0.00-24.00

Kotirataultra 50km

31.1

9.00

49.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

 

12.00

E24, Espoo

7.2

8.30

50.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

8.2

11.00

Heiskan Maraton, Hämeenkyrö

 

11.00

Rinkimaraton, Uusikaupunki

14.2

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 3/10, Helsinki

21.2

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-maratooni, Helsinki

22.2

0.00-24.00

Kotirataultra 50km

28.2

11.00

Artic Ice Marathon, Kemi

 

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 4/10, Helsinki

1.3

10.30

Pohjalainen Hallimaraton ja Puoliska, Botniahalli Mustasaari

7.3

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 5/10, Helsinki

15.3

8.30

51.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

21.3

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 6/10, Helsinki

28.3

11.00

Toholammin Talvimaraton, Toholampi

 

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 7/10, Helsinki

4.4

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 8/10, Helsinki

12.4

8.30

52.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

18.4

8.30

53.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

19.4

12.00

VI Masku Maraton, Masku

25.4

12.00

XXIV Kyrönjoki-Maraton, Ylistaro

26.4

11.00

Kymen Sanomat Maraton, Hamina

30.4

8.30

54.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

1.5

11.00

3.Summassaari Maraton, Saarijärvi

2.5

8.30

55.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

 

11.00

15.Paavo Kuosmanen Maraton, Pudasjärvi

9.5

11.00

XXVI Joensuu Maraton, Joensuu

 

12.00

XXXVII Seinämaraton, Seinäjoki 

16.5

12.00

Yyteri-maraton , Pori 

17.5

8.30

56.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

23.5

11.00

XV Tuusulanjärvi Maraton

 

12.00

XXVI Västilän Maraton, Längelmäki

 

12.00

Terwamaraton, Oulu

24.5

11.00

2.Akaa Maratooni, Akaa

 

11.00

Virttaanharjun Maraton

31.5

11.00

57.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

6.6

10.00

VII Navitas Maraton, Varkaus

 

15.00

VIII Aavasaksan AurinkoMaraton, Ylitornio

 

19.00

38.100km Suomi-juoksu ja maraton, Perniö

13.6

14.00

32. Julma-Juhan maraton, Piippola

 

16.30

18.Suvi-Ilta, Forssa

19.6

9.00

58.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

27.6

11.00

VII Pielavesi City Maraton, Pielavesi

 

13.00

18.Paavo Nurmi Marathon, Turku

 

15.00

VII Mikkelin Maraton, Mikkeli

 

15.00

Alajärvi Maraton

 

17.00

Joulupukin Napapiirimaraton, Rovaniemi

3.7

20.00

XXI Varpaisjärven Yömaraton

4.7

12.00

Kipinä Maraton, Nivala

 

15.00

III Lakeus Maraton, Nurmo

5.7

9.00

59.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

11.7

9.00

60.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

 

11.00

3 Kaupungin Maraton, Närpiö-Kaskinen-Kristiinankaupunki

 

15.00

X Rovaniemi Maraton, Rovaniemi Ounasvaara

12.7

13.00

Kälviän Tarmon 100-vuotisjuhlamaraton, Kälviä

18.7

9.00

61.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

19.7

11.00

Lieksa Maraton, Lieksa

24.7

15.00

33. Jakob-Marathon, Pietarsaari

25.7

15.00

XXIV Kaupunkimaraton, Hämeenlinna

1.8

12.00

Kemijokimaraton, Keminmaa

 

14.00

Kuusaan Maraton, Haapajärvi

1-2.8

14.00

24h ja 6h Juoksu, Kaustinen

2.8

8.30

62.Paloheinämaraton, Helsinki. tiedustelut  anders.colliander@pp.inet.fi

8.8

 

Veteraanien MM-Maraton, Lahti

15.8

12.00

XXI Kempele-Maraton, Kempele

 

15.00

XXIX Helsinki City Marathon, Helsinki

22.8

8.00

Masokistin Unelma, Helsinki

 

10.00

Venetsialaismaraton, Kokkola

 

11.00

XII Suupohjan Maraton, Piolahti-Karijoki

 

12.00

Reiskan Maraton, Pyhtää, Stockfors Patruunatalo

29.8

9.00

Ossin Unelma ½vrk juoksu, Nurmo

 

13.00

Popmaraton, Sotkamo

30.8

10.00

XIV Porvoon Maraton, Porvoo

 

10.00

Varalan 100v.Juhlamaraton, Tampere

5.9

11.00

Kuopio Maraton,  Rauhalahti Kuopio

 

12.00

XXVI Ruskamaraton. Kittilä Levi

 

13.00

IX Salo Maraton, Salo

 

13.00

XXV Vaasa-Vasa Marathon, Vaasa

12.9

12.00

Kivitippu Ultra, Lappajärvi Tästä esite (5MT)

 

12.00

XIII Maisematiemaraton, Urjala-Huittinen

 

13.00

III Finlandia Marathon, Jyväskylä

19.9

10.00

VIII Hyypän Laakso-Maraton, Kauhajoki 

 

12.00

Kärkimaraton, Ylivieska

20.9

11.00

Espoon Rantamaraton, Espoo

26.9

10.30

XXVIII Kullervo-Maraton, Joutseno

 

12.00

Kiiminki Maraton, Kiiminki

 

12.00

Hassen Lohdutusmaratooni, Helsinki

3.10

12.00

Kauniston Maraton, Haapajärvi Kaunisto 

 

12.00

II Itämeren Maraton, Hanko

4.10

10.00

Vaajakosken maastoultra 60km, Vaajakoski

10.10

12.00

Hassen lokamaratooni, Helsinki

 

10.00

IV Vaarojen Marathon, Koli

11.10

10.30

Osmon Supermaraton,Veteraanien-SM Pieksämäki 

 

11.00

XVI Vantaan Maraton, Tikkurila

17.10

11.00

V Kankaanpää Maraton, Kankaanpää

24.10

9.00

Wihan Kilometrit, Tampere

25.10

8.30

XXVIII Åland Marathon, Maarianhamina

31.10

11.00

35.Rautaveden Maraton, Sastamala

7.11

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 9/10, Helsinki

21.11

12.00

Hassen Tervasaari-Hölkkämaraton 10/10, Helsinki

28.11

10.00

20.Lanzarote Marathon, Lanzarote. Tästä matkaesite!

6.12

9.00

XXIX Itsenäisyysmaraton, Kuopio

12.12

11.00

Pomarkun Maraton, Pomarkku

 

Maratonajan ennustaminen alimatkojen tulosten perusteella (taulukko)

5km 10km  1/2 M  Maraton
14.05 29.28 1.04.47 2.19.26

14.21 30.00 1.06.00 2.22.30

14.49 31.00 1.08.14 2.28.17

15.18 32.00 1.10.29 2.34.07

15.47 33.00 1.12.44 2.40.01

16.16 34.00 1.14.58 2.45.59

16.44 35.00 1.17.14 2.52.01

17.13 36.00 1.19.29 2.58.07

17.42 37.00 1.21.44 3.04.17

18.10 38.00 1.24.00 3.10.31

18.39 39.00 1.26.16 3.16.48

19.08 40.00 1.28.32 3.23.10

19.36 41.00 1.30.48 3.29.36

20.05 42.00 1.33.04 3.36.05

20.34 43.00 1.35.21 3.42.39

21.02 44.00 1.37.37 3.49.16

21.31 45.00 1.39.54 3.55.58

22.00 46.00 1.42.11 4.02.43

22.29 47.00 1.44.28 4.09.33

22.58 48.00 1.46.45 4.16.26

23.26 49.00 1.49.03 4.23.23

23.55 50.00 1.51.20 4.30.24

24.23 51.00 1.53.38 4.37.30

24.52 52.00 1.55.56 4.44.39

25.21 53.00 1.58.14 4.51.52

25.50 54.00 2.00.32 4.58.09

26.12 55.00 2.02.51 5.06.30

26.47 56.00 2.05.08 5.13.55

27.16 57.00 2.07.28 5.21.23

27.44 58.00 2.09.47 5.28.56

28.13 59.00 2.12.06 5.36.33

28.42 60.00 2.14.25 5.44.14

 

Lähde: Running Times -lehti, Donn Kirk  

 

maraton = 4.76Y

10.000m = Y 10.000m = 2.1Y

5.000m = 0.48Y 5.000m = Y 5.000m = 3.36Y

3.000m = 0.28Y 3.000m = 0.58Y 3.000m = 2.15Y

1.500m = 0.13Y 1.500m = 0.27Y 1.500m = Y

800m = 0.13Y 800m = 0.48Y

400m = 0.06Y 400m = 0.22Y  

 

Tulosten arviointi myös muille matkoille kuin pelkästään maratonille kiinnostaa varmaan useita juoksijoita. Yllä olevassa taulukossa arvioinnin pohjana on kolme eri ratamatkaa: 10.000, 5.000 ja 1.500 metriä.

 Lähde: Training Distance Runners, D. Martin & P. Coe.

 

WIKIPEDIA:http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maraton

Maratonilla tarkoitetaan 42,195 kilometrin juoksumatkaa.

Historia

Maraton on peräisin kreikkalaisesta tarusta, jonka mukaan kreikkalainen sotilas Feidippides juoksi Marathonin kylästä Ateenaan ilmoittamaan persialaisten lyömisestä Marathonin taistelussa. Matka Marathonin ja Ateenan välillä on noin 40 kilometriä. Tarun mukaan sotilas kuoli Ateenaan päästyään, mutta maraton-juoksun taru jäi elämään.

Ensimmäinen maraton oli kuukausi ennen Ateenan olympialaisia 1896 juostu Kreikan mestaruuskilpailu, johon otti osaa 11 juoksijaa. Vanhaa tarua noudattaen reitti kulki tuolloin Marathonista Ateenaan. Sama reitti oli käytössä kuukautta myöhemmin Ateenan olympialaisissa. Matkan tarkka pituus oli aluksi vakiintumaton, riitti että matka oli kaikille sama ja karkeasti 40 kilometriä. Nykyinen tarkka pituus, 42 195 metriä, tulee Lontoon kesäolympialaisista 1908, jolloin kuningatar Aleksandra määräsi maratonin lähdön tapahtuvaksi Windsorin linnan edustalta ja maalin kuninkaallisen aition eteen stadionilla. Maratonin pituudeksi oli määritelty 26 mailia, mutta matkaan lisättiin 385 jaardia, jotta se saatiin päättymään kuninkaallisen aition eteen. Kaksissa seuraavissa olympialaisissa matka edelleen vaihteli, mutta vuonna 1921 Kansainvälinen yleisurheiluliitto IAAF virallisti maratonin pituuden Lontoon maratonin mukaiseksi.

 

Maratoniin valmistautuminen

Maratonin juokseminen on hyväkuntoisellekin ihmiselle raskas fyysinen suoritus, johon valmistautuminen hyvissä ajoin on äärimmäisen tärkeää. Puoli vuotta on yleensä suositeltu minimiaika maratonin juoksemisen harjoitteluun. Harjoittelun tavoitteena on parantaa hapenottokykyä, parantaa lihaskuntoa ja ennen kaikkea totuttaa elimistö pitkäaikaisiin liikuntasuorituksiin.

Maratonharjoittelun runko koostuu säännöllisistä juoksuharjoituksista, joiden pituus ja nopeus vaihtelee. Tyypillisesti harjoitusohjelma sisältää rasitustason portaittaista nousua siten, että kolmen-neljän viikon nousujohteisen harjoittelun jälkeen seuraa palauttava jakso.

Pitkien matkojen juokseminen on maratonharjoittelun tärkeä osa, koska se valmentaa elimistöä käyttämään rasvaa tehokkaammin energiaksi ja varastoimaan suuria määriä glykogeenia lihaksiin. Maratonin pituisen matkan juokseminen harjoituksena ei kuitenkaan yleensä ole harrastajalle kannattavaa, koska se vaatii liian pitkän palautumisajan. Tyypillisesti pisimmät harjoitusmatkat harjoittelun loppuvaiheessa ovat noin 20–25 km.

Noin kuukautta ennen juoksusuoritusta harjoitustahtia lasketaan huomattavasti liiallisen rasituksen välttämiseksi. Viimeisellä viikolla ennen maratonia monet juoksevat vain lyhyitä (1–5 km) matkoja.

Muutamia päiviä ennen juoksusuoritusta voi elimistön energiavarastoja ladata muuttamalla ruokavalio hyvin hiilihydraattipitoiseksi. Onnistunut hiilihydraattitankkaus voi helpottaa huomattavasti juoksusuoritusta ja siirtää glykogeenin hupenemista. Hiilihydraattitankkaukseen sopivaa ravintoa on esim. pasta, urheilujuoma, puuro, leipä, riisi ja tuoremehu.

Maratonin juokseminen

Monet maratonin juosseet pitävät yhtenä tärkeimpänä tekijänä tasaista vauhtia ja riittävää nesteytystä. Tätä varten lähes kaikissa maratontapahtumissa on tasaisin välimatkoin väliaikapisteitä ja tasaista vauhtia juoksevia "jäniksiä". Nestevajeen välttämiseksi on suositeltavaa juoda joko vettä tai urheilujuomaa, joka sisältää myös energiaa ja suoloja. Liian vähäinen nesteen nauttiminen juoksusuorituksen aikana saattaa johtaa lihasten kangistumiseen ja pyörtymiseen. Toisaalta liian runsas nesteen nauttiminen saattaa sekoittaa juoksijan vatsan ja erityisesti hitaammilla juoksijoilla liiallinen juominen saattaa mm. ohentaa juoksijan verta liiallisesti.

Maratonin juoksemisen vaikeimpana osuutena pidetään yleisesti noin 30 km kohtaa, jossa elimistön glykogeenivarastot ovat jo hyvin vähissä. Juoksija saattaa kokea tämän lihaksien kangistumisena tai "seinään törmäämisenä". Tässä vaiheessa elimistö siirtyy käyttämään rasvaa energian lähteenä.

Kilpamaratoonareilla maratonin juoksemiseen kuluu aikaa alle kaksi ja puoli tuntia. Harrastelijajuoksijalle alle kolmen tunnin tulosta voidaan pitää jo todella kovana suorituksena. Rauhalliseen tahtiin hölkkäämällä maraton taittuu noin viidessä tunnissa.

Haamurajojen rikkojat

Miehet

Lähde: IAAF. Tulokset amatöörikilpailuista ellei toisin ilmoiteta.

Naiset

Lähde: IAAF.

Suomen ennätys[4]

2.10.46

Suomi Janne Holmén

13. huhtikuuta 2008

Rotterdam

Suomen ennätys[4]

2.28.00

Suomi Ritva Melender

2. huhtikuuta 1995

Lontoo

Suomalaisia maratontapahtumia

Maratontapahtumia muualla

www.pacethyself.com/

www.runnersweb.com/running/kmpace.html

www.100th.com/calculator/index.html

www.ultrarunner.com/pace.htm

www.users.on.net/klima/rkcalc_home.htm

www.lafayettefitness.org/congregation/pace.htm

 www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/7116/jv_mara.html

 www.startext.net/homes/cccd/pace.htm

 www.runnersworld.com/training/pacecalc.html

 www.coolrunning.com/wwwboard/messages/5107.html

www.raceplaceevents.com/paces.htm

www.cccd.org/pace.htm

www.raceplaceevents.com/mar_pace.htm

www.dorset-athletics.freeserve.co.uk/pacer.htm

www.wlv.ac.uk/~in1033/race.html

www.azroadrunners.org/tools/pace_calculator.html

 

SCIENTIFIC AND MEDICAL  ARTICLES

ABOUT MARATHON

(PubMed, Public MedLine)

 

Angiology. 2009 Feb-Mar;60(1):122-6.
Renal artery dissection following marathon running.
Iqbal FM, Goparaju M, Yemme S, Lewis BE.
Department of Internal Medicine, St Joseph Hospital, 2900 N Lake Shore Drive,
Chicago, IL 60657, USA. fmiqbal@sbcglobal.net
A 38-year-old, previously healthy man presented with flank pain after competing
in a marathon. Initial laboratory tests and urinalysis were essentially normal.
Both contrast enhanced-computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography
showed an infarcted region of the left lower kidney without renal artery
dissection. Thromboembolism was suspected, but further testing was negative. The
diagnosis of renal artery dissection was established by angiogram, showing
dissection of the segmental branch. The patient remained normotensive, maintained
normal renal function, and had resolution of pain symptoms prior to discharge. On
the basis of our experience and  of the literature, renal artery dissection
occurs in otherwise healthy men and often goes undiagnosed. The management
strategy tends to be conservative unless the patient develops progressive decline
in renal function or worsening hypertension, with an excellent prognosis. This
case also shows the importance of discussing the pros and cons of extreme
physical exertion with all patients.
PMID: 19190030


Sports Med. 2007;37(4-5):378-81.
Heat exhaustion and dehydration as causes of marathon collapse.
Kenefick RW, Sawka MN.
US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts
01760, USA. Robert.Kenefick@us.army.mil
This article s causes of marathon collapse related to physical exhaustion,
heat exhaustion and dehydration. During severe exercise-heat stress (high skin
and core temperatures), cardiac output can decrease below levels observed during
exercise in temperate conditions. This reduced cardiac output and vasodilated
skin and muscle can make it difficult to sustain blood pressure and perhaps
cerebral blood flow. Dehydration can accentuate this cardiovascular strain. In
contrast, excessive heat loss to the environment during cold weather may result
in hypothermic collapse. Other factors contributing to post-race collapse might
include reduced skeletal muscle pump activity and dehydration and prior heat
stress mediated changes in cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic challenges.
PMID: 17465613


Sports Med. 2007;37(4-5):353-7.
Fluid replacement and performance during the marathon.
Cheuvront SN, Montain SJ, Sawka MN.
US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts
01760-5007, USA. Samuel.cheuvront@na.amedd.army.mil
The primary purpose of this  is to relate a universal strategy for
replacing fluids to optimise marathon performance. A secondary purpose is to
examine common 'matters of debate' that may modify fluid needs to include the
importance of realistic convective air flow, metabolic water production and
waters of association with glycogen. The metabolic demands of marathon running
can result in substantial sweat losses and levels of dehydration consistent with
compromised endurance performance. Recommendations are provided to individualise
fluid intakes with the goal of preventing excessive dehydration (>2% body mass)
as well as weight gain. The minor importance of 'matters of debate' to fluid
replacement is also discussed.
PMID: 17465606


Sports Med. 2007;37(4-5):320-3.
Marathon performance in thermally stressing conditions.
Montain SJ, Ely MR, Cheuvront SN.
US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts
01760, USA. scott.montain@us.army.mil
It is generally appreciated that warm weather negatively affects marathon running
performance. This brief  summarises the historical literature on this topic
and recent work that our laboratory has performed to quantify the impact of
weather on marathon running performance. Using 140 race-years of data, we have
demonstrated that marathon performance times slow progressively as weather warms
above 5-10 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature, that men and women are affected
similarly, but slower runners suffer a greater performance penalty than elite
runners. The recent generation of a nomogram that predicts changes in finishing
time consequent to changes in weather conditions offers runners and coaches a
tool for use in developing marathon race strategy.
PMID: 17465598


Curr Sports Med Rep. 2007 Jan;6(1):39-42.
Sacral stress fracture in a marathon runner.
Alsobrook J, Simons SM.
jaalsobrook@yahoo.com
Athletically caused sacral stress fractures represent an uncommon reason for low
back pain. The clinician must consider this possible diagnosis when evaluating
patients with nonradicular low back or buttock pain. Women distance runners are
more commonly afflicted. Athletically caused sacral stress fractures are most
often unilateral. This case report presents an illustrative case of bilateral
sacral stress fracture occurring in a male runner.
Case Reports
PMID: 17212911


Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Sep;24(5):608-15.
Medical problems of marathon runners.
Sanchez LD, Corwell B, Berkoff D.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston,
MA 02215, USA. leon_sanchez@bidmc.harvard.edu
Several organ systems can be affected by marathon running. Acute musculoskeletal
injuries are common, but running does not result in increased rates of
musculoskeletal disability. Gastrointestinal complaints are also common among
runners; some of these complaints are explained by the decreased mesenteric blood
flow during exercise. Although cardiac events are rare, they can be devastating.
Symptomatic hyponatremia is another serious but mostly preventable problem.
PMID: 16938602


Clin J Sport Med. 2006 Jul;16(4):283-92.
Updated fluid recommendation: position statement from the International Marathon
Medical Directors Association (IMMDA).
Hew-Butler T, Verbalis JG, Noakes TD; International Marathon Medical Directors
Association.
Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
thew@sports.uct.ac.za
Practice Guideline
PMID: 16858210


Br J Sports Med. 2004 Aug;38(4):498-501.
The wear and tear of 26.2: dermatological injuries reported on marathon day.
Mailler EA, Adams BB.
Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH, USA.
Whether it is to take on the challenge, to get in shape and lose weight, to
relieve stress, or to enjoy the outdoors, people have increasingly turned to the
marathon as their sporting event of choice. Although there are many health
benefits, beginners should be aware that injuries are quite common in marathon
runners. Among these are the wear and tear injuries to the skin. This is a
of the most commonly reported dermatological injuries on marathon day.
PMID: 15273194


Br J Sports Med. 2004 Aug;38(4):408-12.
Master's performance in the New York City Marathon 1983-1999.
Jokl P, Sethi PM, Cooper AJ.
Department of Orthopaedics, Yale University, Yale Physicians Building, 800 Howard
Avenue, New Haven, CT 06512, USA. peter.jokl@yale.edu
BACKGROUND: Physical activity in older people is believed to slow down the
natural aging process through its effects on disuse atrophy. OBJECTIVES: To show
that elite master (age above 50) male and female athletes, as a group, have
improved their running times over the last two decades at a greater rate than
their younger counterparts. METHODS: Running time, age, and sex of all 415,000
runners in the New York City Marathon from 1983 to 1999 were examined using
linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The number of master participants increased
at a greater rate than their younger counterparts (p<0.05). Running times for the
top 50 male and female finishers over the past two decades showed significantly
greater improvement in the master groups than in the younger age groups
(p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Participation in the New York City Marathon is increasing
at a higher rate in the master groups than in other age groups. Male and female
masters continued to improve running times at a greater rate than the younger
athletes, whose performance levels have plateaued. This is the largest study to
compare master athletic performance with younger counterparts and men with women.
Comparative Study
PMID: 15273172


Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2003 Aug;10(4):304-12.
How to carry out a health-orientated marathon training programme for running and
inline skating.
Platen P, Schaar B.
Institute of Cardiology and Sports Medicine, German Sports University, Cologne,
Germany. platen@dshs-koeln.de
BACKGROUND: More and more people want to do something for their health.
Nevertheless, certain reluctance exists when it comes to committing oneself to
higher sporting aims, as well as some uncertainty concerning proper training.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Two model projects have been developed, aimed at motivating
larger parts of the population towards a health-orientated training programme.
Both projects serve as a basis for further, similarly designed large-scale
projects. In the running project a health-focused run training programme was set
up aimed at preparing people, previously inexperienced in running, for a
marathon. In the inline project an inline training programme was developed which
comprised both the training of essential techniques as well as individualized
endurance training, the aim being the participation in an inline marathon.
RESULTS: A total of more than 1000 people participated in both projects. The
health check performed before the beginning of the project revealed some
pathological findings, demonstrating the necessity of a medical examination
before taking up regular training. Both projects led to an improvement in
endurance performance. In addition, the blood-chemical metabolic parameters
showed clear optimization, in particular the lipid profile. The inline technique
training resulted in an improvement of the braking skills, which is accompanied
by a reduction in the risk of injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Both model projects have
shown that large-scale sports programmes that focus primarily on the prevention
of injuries and disease (under sport-medical guidance) with a performance
incentive are accepted by the population, provided they offer a high fun factor.
PMID: 14555888


Sports Med. 2001;31(10):743-62.
Thermoregulation and marathon running: biological and environmental influences.
Cheuvront SN, Haymes EM.
United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and
Mountain Medicine Division, Natick, Massachusetts, USA.
The extreme physical endurance demands and varied environmental settings of
marathon footraces have provided a unique opportunity to study the limits of
human thermoregulation for more than a century. High post-race rectal
temperatures (Tre) are commonly and consistently documented in marathon runners,
yet a clear divergence of thought surrounds the cause for this observation. A
close examination of the literature reveals that this phenomenon is commonly
attributed to either biological (dehydration, metabolic rate, gender) or
environmental factors. Marathon climatic conditions vary as much as their course
topography and can change considerably from year to year and even from start to
finish in the same race. The fact that climate can significantly limit
temperature regulation and performance is evident from the direct relationship
between heat casualties and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), as well as the
inverse relationship between record setting race performances and ambient
temperatures. However, the usual range of compensable racing environments
actually appears to play more of an indirect role in predicting Tre by acting to
modulate heat loss and fluid balance. The importance of fluid balance in
thermoregulation is well established. Dehydration-mediated perturbations in blood
volume and blood flow can compromise exercise heat loss and increase thermal
strain. Although progressive dehydration reduces heat dissipation and increases
Tre during exercise, the loss of plasma volume contributing to this effect is not
always observed for prolonged running and may therefore complicate the predictive
influence of dehydration on Tre for marathon running. Metabolic heat production
consequent to muscle contraction creates an internal heat load proportional to
exercise intensity. The correlation between running speed and Tre, especially
over the final stages of a marathon event, is often significant but fails to
reliably explain more than a fraction of the variability in post-marathon Tre.
Additionally, the submaximal exercise intensities observed throughout 42 km races
suggest the need for other synergistic factors or circumstances in explaining
this occurrence. There is a paucity of research on women marathon runners. Some
biological determinants of exercise thermoregulation, including body mass,
surface area-to-mass ratio, sweat rate, and menstrual cycle phase are
gender-discrete variables with the potential to alter the
exercise-thermoregulatory response to different environments, fluid intake, and
exercise metabolism. However, these gender differences appear to be more
quantitative than qualitative for most marathon road racing environments.
PMID: 11547895


Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1996 Apr;89(4):485-7.
[Atresia of the left coronary artery: a case in a marathon runner.  of the
literature]
Bouchiat C, Bonal J, Cellarier G, Talard P, Dussarat GV.
Service de pathologie cardiovasculaire, HIA Sainte-Anne, Toulon.
The authors report the case of a very rare coronary malformation: atresia of the
left main coronary artery. This anomaly was discovered in a marathon runner who
presented effort angina with a positive exercise stress test. At coronary
angiography, it was not possible to catheterise the left coronary artery and only
a minuscle dimple could be visualised. Selective right coronary catheterisation
showed a very large right coronary artery with retrograde injection of the whole
of the left coronary network, as far as the left main stem. The authors did not
suggest revascularisation because of the good functional tolerance of this
malformation.
PMID: 8763011

J UOEH. 1994 Sep 1;16(3):201-17.
A  of wheelchair marathon and tennis.
Ogata H.
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, University of
Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
Wheelchair sports were developed for people with spinal cord injuries, and have
contributed greatly to the improvement of physical fitness and social interaction
of handicapped people. Previously, wheelchair sports were used as a method of
rehabilitation to increase the recreational activity of wheelchair-bound persons.
Recently, however wheelchair sports have been expanded to include actual
competitions for wheelchair athletes. There are numerous international wheelchair
competitions and races all over the world. A wheelchair marathon race, one of the
most strenuous wheelchair sports, has become a popular event in Japan. The Oita
International Wheelchair Marathon has been held annually since 1981. In addition,
the International Wheelchair Tennis competition in Iizuka City started in 1985.
For the past 13 years, we have investigated the physiological aspects of
wheelchair athletes primarily through these two competitions. In this , the
results of these studies are summarized and the significance of wheelchair sports
is discussed from the medical rehabilitation point of view.
PMID: 7938975

Med Clin (Barc). 1993 Mar 6;100(9):337-42.
Comment in:
Med Clin (Barc). 1994 Feb 26;102(7):275.
[The marathon: a justified challenge?]
Gómez Huelgas R.
PMID: 7619090

Sports Med. 1993 Feb;15(2):116-32.
Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing. An update on fluid replacement,
immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference.
Sparling PB, Nieman DC, O'Connor PJ.
Department of Health and Performance Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta.
Four topics are addressed: fluid/fuel replacement during the marathon,
marathoning and susceptibility to infection, psychological aspects of elite
marathoners and the gender gap in marathon performance. Although these topics are
diverse, they all relate to practical questions raised by coaches and athletes.
Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that it is advisable for
marathoners to consume 800 to 1000 L/h of sports drink providing 45 to 60 g/h of
carbohydrate. It is strongly suggested to practice fluid consumption during
training sessions as it is probable that tolerance to drinking during running is
a trainable adaptation. Epidemiological and clinical research support the concept
that marathon training and racing increase the runner's risk of upper respiratory
tract infections because of negative changes in immune function. Susceptibility
to infection may be reduced by proper nutrition, adequate sleep, appropriate
recovery between vigorous workouts and minimal exposure to sick people during
periods of heavy training and major races. Although psychological research in
this area is still limited, evidence suggests that elite marathoners rely
primarily on associative strategies during competition while judiciously
dissociating in order to cope with pain. It is recommended that coaches and
athletes interested in employing psychological interventions seek assistance from
professionals well trained in the fields of both psychology and exercise science.
Will women soon outrun men? Over the past 2 decades societal views and training
practices of women distance runners have changed greatly, yet certain
performance-related biological differences between men and women are unlikely to
change.
PMID: 8446823

J Am Board Fam Pract. 1992 Mar-Apr;5(2):219-21.
Leiomyosarcoma of the femoral vein in a marathon runner.
Bradley WD, Fields KB, Delaney MJ.
Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital Family Practice Residency Program, Greensboro, NC
27401.
Leiomyosarcoma of the femoral vein is a rare tumor. Physicians involved in the
care of athletic patients must not be cavalier in evaluating overuse injuries and
should endeavor to make a specific diagnosis. If atypical findings, such as
generalized extremity swelling, are present, the physician must consider systemic
illness including malignancy in apparently healthy, physically active
individuals.
PMID: 1575075

Sangre (Barc). 1991 Apr;36(2):123-7.
[Plasma and erythrocyte changes produced after running a marathon]
Rubio de Val A, López Chicharro J, Moreno del Barrio PJ, Huertas Uhagón M, Rincón
Ruiz C, Lekue J.
Departamento de Fisiología del Ejercicio, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad
Complutense, Madrid.
PMID: 1866651

Am J Sports Med. 1989 Nov-Dec;17(6):770-2.
Fluid and electrolyte balance during a cool weather marathon.
Nelson PB, Ellis D, Fu F, Bloom MD, O'Malley J.
Department of Medicine, Institute of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School
of Medicine, Pennsylvania.
Changes in blood, serum, and urine parameters that are usually associated with
fluid and electrolyte balance were studied in 45 volunteers who ran the 1987
Pittsburgh Marathon. There were 39 males and 6 females. The mean age was 39.3
years. Their mean fluid intake was 1650 cc and the mean finishing time was 4
hours and 1 minute. The race was run in the rain with a temperature of 46 degrees
F. When the prerace and postrace values of the runners were compared, significant
increases were noted in the serum sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN),
creatinine, uric acid, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), protein, plasma renin,
vasopressin, and urinary potassium. Significant decreases were found in weight,
blood pressure, and urinary sodium. No significant differences were noted in
serum chloride, serum glucose, and hemoglobin/hematocrit. The mean weight loss of
1.9 kg was less than weight losses reported in marathons run under warmer
conditions.
PMID: 2696376

J Clin Pathol. 1989 Nov;42(11):1121-5.
Chemistry of marathon running.
Ames AC.
Department of Chemical Pathology, Neath General Hospital, West Glamorgan.
PMID: 2685052

 

Int J Sports Med. 1989 Oct;10 Suppl 3:S139-45.
Changes in basal plasma testosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone
sulfate in previously untrained males and females preparing for a marathon.
Keizer H, Janssen GM, Menheere P, Kranenburg G.
Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
In the present study 25 males and 11 females were monitored for an 18- to
20-month training period during which the training distance was gradually
increased. The training period was divided into three periods of 6, 5, and 7
months, respectively. The first, second, and third period were concluded with a
15-, 25-, and 42-km road race, respectively. The competitive distance always
exceeded the maximal distance covered in any previous training session. Before
and after three contests of 15, 25, and 42.195 km, the plasma concentration of
testosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were
determined. The decrease of plasma testosterone concentration in males was
dependent on the distance of the contests. Moreover, the plasma testosterone
concentration was increased in males during the course of the training period. In
females no clear relation between plasma testosterone levels and the contests
could be observed, and no changes in basal levels were found in the course of the
training period. DHEAS seems to be a more useful stress marker than the plasma
cortisol concentration. The plasma levels of this hormone remained elevated both
in males and females for 1-2 days after the contests. The amplitude of DHEAS
increments, however, was greater after the marathon.
PMID: 2532181

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987 Jun;19(3):187-94.
Heart disease in marathon runners
Noakes TD.
Thirty-six cases of heart attack or sudden death in marathon runners have been
reported in the world literature to date. The mean age of the runners was 43.8 yr
(range = 18 to 70), the mean years' running was 6.8 yr (range = 0.5 to 29), and
the mean best standard 42.2 km marathon time was 3 h 28 min (range = 2 h 33 min
to 4 h 28 min). Coronary artery disease was diagnosed either clinically,
angiographically, or at autopsy in 27 runners (75%), two of whom also had
histological evidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Seventy-one percent of the
runners with coronary artery disease had premonitory symptoms, and most ignored
such symptoms and continued to train or race. Fifty percent of all cardiac events
occurred either during or within 24 h of competitive running events or long
training runs. The marathon running population does not constitute solely persons
with excellent cardiovascular health. Marathon runners, especially those with a
family history of heart disease and other coronary risk factors, should not
consider themselves immune to either sudden death or to coronary heart disease
and should seek medical advice immediately if they develop any symptoms
suggestive of ischemic heart disease. Physicians should not assume that
"physically fit" marathon runners cannot have serious, life-threatening cardiac
disease.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PMID: 3298928

Sci Prog. 1986;70(277 Pt 1):109-27.
The physiology of marathon running.
Koivisto VA.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
PMID: 2420003

Sports Med. 1985 Mar-Apr;2(2):83-99.
Applied physiology of marathon running.
Sjödin B, Svedenhag J.
Performance in marathon running is influenced by a variety of factors, most of
which are of a physiological nature. Accordingly, the marathon runner must rely
to a large extent on a high aerobic capacity. But great variations in maximal
oxygen uptake (VO2 max) have been observed among runners with a similar
performance capacity, indicating complementary factors are of importance for
performance. The oxygen cost of running or the running economy (expressed, e.g.
as VO2 15 at 15 km/h) as well as the fractional utilisation of VO2 max at
marathon race pace (%VO2 Ma X VO2 max-1) [where Ma = mean marathon velocity] are
additional factors which are known to affect the performance capacity. Together
VO2 max, VO2 15 and %VO2 Ma X VO2 max-1 can almost entirely explain the variation
in marathon performance. To a similar degree, these variables have also been
found to explain the variations in the 'anaerobic threshold'. This factor, which
is closely related to the metabolic response to increasing exercise intensities,
is the single variable that has the highest predictive power for marathon
performance. But a major limiting factor to marathon performance is probably the
choice of fuels for the exercising muscles, which factor is related to the %VO2
Ma X VO2 max-1. Present indications are that marathon runners, compared with
normal individuals, have a higher turnover rate in fat metabolism at given high
exercise intensities expressed both in absolute (m/sec) and relative (%VO2 max)
terms. The selection of fat for oxidation by the muscles is important since the
stores of the most efficient fuel, the carbohydrates, are limited. The large
amount of endurance training done by marathon runners is probably responsible for
similar metabolic adaptations, which contribute to a delayed onset of fatigue and
raise the VO2 Ma X VO2max-1. There is probably an upper limit in training
kilometrage above which there are no improvements in the fractional utilisation
of VO2 max at the marathon race pace. The influence of training on VO2 max and,
to some extent, on the running economy appears, however, to be limited by genetic
factors.
PMID: 3890068

Am J Sports Med. 1984 Jan-Feb;12(1):44-51.
The marathon: dietary manipulation to optimize performance.
Sherman WM, Costill DL.
Despite pronounced involvement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
during the marathon, the limiting factor for this event revolves around the
supply and utilization of intramuscular and extramuscular fuel reserves. The
single most consistently observed factor contributing to fatigue at work
intensities selected by marathon runners is the depletion of muscle's endogenous
carbohydrate, glycogen. Dietary manipulations which reduce the rate of muscle
glycogen degradation will, therefore, spare this important fuel and delay
fatigue. The purpose of this paper will be to  dietary factors which are
pertinent to fuel utilization in order to optimize marathon performance.
PMID: 6367502

Nutr Rev. 1981 Aug;39(8):303-4.
Alcohol consumption and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in marathon runners.
PMID: 7024857

S Afr Med J. 1981 Jan 31;59(5):153-7.
Fifty years of training and competition in the marathon: Wally Hayward, age 70--a
physiological profile.
Maud PJ, Pollock ML, Foster C, Anholm JD, Guten G, Al-Nouri M, Hellman C, Schmidt
DH.
A 70-year-old South African long-distance runner, holder of his age group's
marathon record and former Olympic marathon runner, was studied to determine the
effects of 52 years of regular training on functional capacity and health.
Maximal treadmill exercise testing revealed no ischaemic ECG abnormalities and an
excellent functional capacity (58,6 ml/kg/min). Submaximal testing showed that
the subject ran at approximately 86% of maximum aerobic capacity when completing
the marathon in his record time. The subject was very lean (13,6% fat) for his
age. Muscles contained 82% slow-twitch fibres. Pulmonary function and blood
chemical values were within normal limits. Although total cholesterol was
somewhat high (247 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was elevated (53
mg/dl). Twenty-four-hour Holter monitoring revealed no significant ventricular
ectopic activity although frequent premature atrial contractions were noted.
M-mode echocardiography revealed a normal heart with moderately hypertrophied
left ventricular wall thickness. Radionuclide cine angiography showed a normal
ejection fraction at rest (69%), followed by a slight drop at maximal exercise
(62%). Left ventricular regional wall motion was considered normal at both rest
and exercise. He had no significant orthopaedic abnormalities but showed normal
flexibility and well-balanced muscular strength. Thickened heel pads were also
noted. These results appear to indicate a beneficial effect of habitual physical
activity upon the retention of functional capacity with ageing.
Biography
Comparative Study
Historical Article
Personal Name as Subject:
Hayward W
PMID: 7006111

Psychol Bull. 1976 Sep;83(5):827-50.
The marathon encounter group: a  of the outcome literature.
Kilmann PR, Sotile WM.
PMID: 794900

BAREFOOT RUNNING

http://www.feelmax.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=459:pronaatiokengistae-vammoja&catid=104:lehtiartikkelit&Itemid=176&lang=fi

Juoksukenkien valinnassa huomio on kiinnitetty hänen mielestään aivan liikaa kantaluun alueelle ja pronaation hallintaan, mutta jalan etuosan ja päkiän toiminta ponnistusvaiheessa on unohdettu tyystin. Siksi liian moni juoksija päätyy helpoimpaan ratkaisuun ja ostaa hyvin tukevat kengät sen sijaan, että jalkaterän toimintaa ja kimmoisuutta parannettaisiin harjoittelulla. Jukka Kankaan mukaan valtaosa hoitoa vaativista jalkaongelmista on seurausta siitä, että keho on omaksunut epätarkoituksenmukaisen liikemallin, jota se käyttää kaikissa tilanteissa. Vähitellen tämä liike alkaa aiheuttaa oireita, kun harjoitellaan paljon.  Aiemmin sattunut nilkkavamma tai jopa liian jäykkä kenkä voivat johtaa haitallisten liikemallien oppimiseen. – Välillä tuntuu siltä, että koko keskustelu pyörii vain sen ympärillä, onko juoksijoiden askelluksessa ylipronaatiota vai ei, vaikka pronaatio on erittäin tärkeä alaraajan iskunvaimennusmekanismi. Jos tätä jalan luontaista toimintaa aletaan rajoittaa kengän tukirakenteilla, se aiheuttaa ennemmin tai myöhemmin ongelmia, ja varsinkin silloin, kun juostaan paljon.

 

Juuri jalan etuosan tehtävä on estää turhia sivuttaisliikkeitä. Nilkan ensisijainen tehtävä taas on koukistua ja ojentua sekä vaimentaa iskuja ja tukea jalan jäykistymistä ponnistuksen ajaksi. – Kun paino on pelkästään päkiän varassa, on yhdentekevää millainen jäykkäpohjainen kenkä tai tukipohjallinen jalassa on. Tuettu kenkä ei voi ohjata jalan liikettä siinä vaiheessa, kun paino on päkiällä. Kuntojuoksijoiden yleisin ongelma on se, että jalkaterä toimii liian passiivisesti. Kun kantapää irtoaa alustalta ja paino on jalan etuosan varassa, siinä ei havaita mitään aktivaatiota. Päkiän kantavuus on heikko, koska lihakset eivät toimi. Jalan kaaret painuvat kasaan kuin pannukakku. Tämä saa jalan kiertymään paljon sivusuunnassa, ja tukeva kenkä saattaa jopa lisätä tätä liikettä.

Ponnistusvaiheessa kuorman tulisi kulkea aktiivisesti alustalle tukeutuvan isovarpaan päkiän kautta. Jalkapöydän luista selvästi paksuin on juuri ensimmäinen eli sisimpänä oleva luu, jonka jatkeena kaksiluinen isovarvas on.Toiminnallisesti meillä on lihasten kautta kontrolli vain ensimmäiseen ja viidenteen jalkapöydän luuhun niin, että voimme jännittää niitä alustaa vasten. Keskimmäiset jalkapöydän luut ovat jäykkiä puikkoja, joihin ei ole lihaskontrollia samassa suunnassa. Ensimmäinen ja viides luu ottavat myös kuormasta vastaan suurimman osan. Jos päkiä on passiivinen ja kuorma ohjautuu ponnistuksessa keskelle, koko kehon paino siirtyy näiden ohuiden luiden varaan. Keskimmäiset jalkapöydänluut niveltyvät jalan keskiosaan niin, että ne eivät voi väistää ponnistusvaiheessa syntyvää kuormaa, jolloin jalan holvikaaren luiset rakenteet rasittuvat. Juoksukenkien valinnassa Jukka Kangas kehottaa suosimaan kenkiä, jotka sallivat ja tukevat jalan normaalia toimintaa.Kaikki rakenteelliset ratkaisut, jotka pakottavat jalkaa toimimaan tietyllä tavalla, sopivat joillekin, mutta useimmille juoksijoille ne eivät sovi. Jos neutraaliin askellukseen tarkoitettu kenkä ei sovi jalkaan, seuraavaksi on pohdittava, mistä se johtuu, eikä heti lähdetä hakemaan ratkaisua ulkoisista tekijöistä kuten tuetuista kengistä. Useimmat juoksijat pärjäävät neutraaleilla jalkineilla ja sillä, että he harjoittavat jalan ja lantion seutua.

 

Yksi suuri virhe juoksukenkien suunnittelussa tehtiin Jukka Kankaan mielestä silloin, kun alettiin tehdä korkeakantaisia, pehmeitä ja tehokkaalla iskunvaimennuksella varustettuja kenkiä. Paksujen vaimennustyynyjen avulla haluttiin parantaa jalan iskunvaimennusta, vaikka jalka ei vaimenna iskuja pystysuunnassa, vaan askeleen rullauksen ja pronaation kautta. Jos kengässä on korkea ja pehmeä kantaosa, kantaiskuvaiheessa kengän pohja tekee niin syvän niiauksen, että polven koukistuminen lisääntyy tukivaiheen alussa. Tämä kipeyttää helposti polvet. Kontaktin alkaessa kenkä painuu niin paljon, että jalan rullaus ei ole sujuva ja jalan toimintaan tulee viive. Nilkan ja polven yhteistyö ei enää toimi, vaan sääreen alkaa syntyä kiertoliikettä, joka aiheuttaa myös polven virheliikettä. Tämä kompensoituu ihmisillä eri tavalla. Joillakin kipeytyy polvi, toisilla jalkaterä, mutta kipu voi nousta lantioon saakka. – Kenkä, joka ohjaa kannan rullausta ja auttaa jalan nopeasti kantaiskuvaiheen yli, on todennäköisesti paras vaihtoehto. Rullaavalla kengällä juokseminen tuntuu kuin jalka vain pyyhkäisisi alustaa vasten. Normaalirakenteisessa jalassa paino on seistessä 50 % kantapään varassa, jalan ulommalla pitkittäiskaarella on 20 % kuormasta ja ensimmäisen jalkapöydän luun varassa on noin 25 %. Päkiän keskusta on kontaktissa alustaan, mutta sen tehtävä ei ole kantaa kuormaa.

Hiekkapolut, hiekkapohjaiset ulkoilureitit ja mahdollisuuksien mukaan metsäpolut ovat hyviä maastoja perusharjoiteluun. Maastossa juokseminen tuntuu tosin oudolta ennen kuin jalka oppii tekemään automaattisesti sopeutumisen alustaan. Jos juostaan säännöllisesti vähintään viisi kertaa viikossa, Kangas suosittelee käyttämään rinnakkain 2–3 kenkäparia, sillä erilaiset maastot, vauhdit ja jalustat vaativat hieman erilaisia kenkiä. Näin jalkakin saa vaihtelevaa kuormitusta.

http://www.tekniikkatalous.fi/tk/article368824.ece
http://www.barefootrunning.fas.harvard.edu/index.html

FIVE-FINGERS

http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/08/fivefingers-in-alpine-lakes-wilderness.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKGF-ErsJiI (Mark Sisson)

http://www.marksdailyapple.com/barefoot-alternatives/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jrnj-7YKZE

Tossun hinta/laatusuhde korostuu, jos
- juoksija on vähintään "keskikokoinen"
- juostaan 10-30 km:n lenkkejä
- juoksualusta on asfaltti, kova tai jäinen maantie
- juostaan usein


Klassikkotutkimus:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7280/full/nature08723.html

Nature 463, 531-535 (28 January 2010) | doi:10.1038/nature08723; Received 27 July 2009; Accepted 26 November 2009

Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners

Daniel E. Lieberman1, Madhusudhan Venkadesan1,2,8, William A. Werbel3,8, Adam I. Daoud1,8, Susan D’Andrea4, Irene S. Davis5, Robert Ojiambo Mang’Eni6,7 & Yannis Pitsiladis6,7

  1. Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, 11 Divinity Avenue,

  2. School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

  3. University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA

  4. Center for Restorative and Regenerative Medicine, Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA

  5. Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA

  6. Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University Medical School, PO Box 4606, 30100 Eldoret, Kenya

  7. Faculty of Biomedical & Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK

  8. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Correspondence to: Daniel E. Lieberman1 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to D.E.L. (Email: danlieb@fas.harvard.edu).

Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years1, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.

 

http://journals.lww.com/acsm-csmr/Abstract/2010/05000/Prevention_of_Running_Injuries.14.aspx

Prevention of Running Injuries

Fields, Karl B.; Sykes, Jeannie C.; Walker, Katherine M.; Jackson, Jonathan C.

Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

http://www.ajpm-online.net/article/S0749-3797(09)00664-3/abstract

Effect on Injuries of Assigning Shoes Based on Foot Shape in Air Force Basic Training

Joseph J. Knapik, ScDaCorresponding Author Informationemail address, Lorie C. Brosch, MPH, MDc, Margaret Venuto, MA, MPHb, David I. Swedler, MPHa, Steven H. Bullock, DPT, MAa, Lorraine S. Gaines, MSa, Ryan J. Murphy, BSd, Juste Tchandja, MPHc, Bruce H. Jones, MPH, MDa

Background

This study examined whether assigning running shoes based on the shape of the bottom of the foot (plantar surface) influenced injury risk in Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT) and examined risk factors for injury in BMT.

Methods

Data were collected from BMT recruits during 2007; analysis took place during 2008. After foot examinations, recruits were randomly consigned to either an experimental group (E, n=1042 men, 375 women) or a control group (C, n=913 men, 346 women). Experimental group recruits were assigned motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. Control group recruits received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during BMT were determined from outpatient visits provided from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Other injury risk factors (fitness, smoking, physical activity, prior injury, menstrual history, and demographics) were obtained from a questionnaire, existing databases, or BMT units.

Results

Multivariate Cox regression controlling for other risk factors showed little difference in injury risk between the groups among men (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.11, 95% CI=0.89–1.38) or women (hazard ratio [E/C]=1.20, 95% CI= 0.90–1.60). Independent injury risk factors among both men and women included low aerobic fitness and cigarette smoking.

Conclusions

This prospective study demonstrated that assigning running shoes based on the shape of the plantar surface had little influence on injury risk in BMT even after controlling for other injury risk factors.

a U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

b Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland

c U.S. Air Force, 37th Medical Group, Lackland Air Force Base, Fort Sam Houston, Texas

d U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School, Fort Sam Houston, Texas

 

http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/06/24/0363546510369548.abstract

Injury Reduction Effectiveness of Assigning Running Shoes Based on Plantar Shape in Marine Corps Basic Training

  1. Joseph J. Knapik, ScD(joseph.knapik@us.army.mil)

  1. US Army Public Health Command
  1. Daniel W. Trone, PhD(c)

  1. Naval Health Research Center
  1. David I. Swedler, MPH

  1. Johns Hopkins University
  1. Adriana Villasenor, MPH

  1. Naval Health Research Center
  1. Steve H. Bullock, DPT

  1. US Army Public Health Command
  1. Emily Schmied, MPH

  1. Naval Health Research Center
  1. Timothy Brockelman, BEd

  1. Marine Corps Recruit Depot
  1. Peggy Han, MPH

  1. Naval Health Research Center
  1. Bruce H. Jones, MPH, MD

  1. US Army Public Health Command

Abstract

Background: Shoe manufacturers market motion control, stability, and cushioned shoes for plantar shapes defined as low, normal, and high, respectively. This assignment procedure is presumed to reduce injuries by compensating for differences in running mechanics.

Hypothesis: Assigning running shoes based on plantar shape will not reduce injury risk in Marine Corps basic training.

Study Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1.

Methods: After foot examinations, Marine Corps recruits in an experimental group (E: 408 men, 314 women) were provided motion control, stability, or cushioned shoes for plantar shapes indicative of low, medium, or high arches, respectively. A control group (C: 432 men, 257 women) received a stability shoe regardless of plantar shape. Injuries during the 12 weeks of training were determined from outpatient visits obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Other known injury risk factors (eg, fitness, smoking, prior physical activity) were obtained from a questionnaire, existing databases, or the training units.

Results: Cox regression indicated little difference in injury risk between the E and C groups among men (hazard ratio [E/C] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.24) or women (hazard ratio [E/C] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.10).

Conclusion: This prospective study demonstrated that assigning shoes based on the shape of the plantar foot surface had little influence on injuries even after considering other injury risk factors.

 

 

http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/1991/02000/Athletic_footwear__unsafe_due_to_perceptual.12.aspx

Athletic footwear: unsafe due to perceptual illusions

ROBBINS, STEVEN E.; GOUW, GERARD J.

Athletic footwear: unsafe due to perceptual illusions. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 217-224, 1991. Modern athletic footwear provides remarkable plantar comfort when walking, running, or jumping. However, when injurious plantar loads elicit negligible perceived plantar discomfort, a perceptual illusion is created whereby perceived impact is lower than actual impact, which results in inadequate impact-moderating behavior and consequent injury. The objective of this study was to examine how plantar tactile (mechanical) events affect perceived plantar discomfort. Also, we evaluated the feasibility of a footwear safety standard we propose, which requires elimination of the above illusion. Twenty subjects gave numerical estimates of plantar discomfort produced by simulated locomotion (concurrent vertical (0.1-0.7 kg[middle dot]cm-2) and horizontal (0.1-0.9 kg[middle dot]cm-2) plantar loads), with the foot supported by either a smooth rigid surface or a rigid surface with 2 mm high rigid irregularities. Vertical or horizontal load alone evoked no discomfort (P > 0.05), whereas together, discomfort emanated from loads as low as 0.4 kg[middle dot]cm-2. Irregularities heightened discomfort by a factor of 1.89. This suggests that the proposed safety standard is feasible, since compliance could be achieved simply by adding surface irregularities to insoles and by other changes that heighten localized plantar loads. However, until this standard is adhered to, it might be more appropriate to classify athletic footwear as "safety hazards'' rather than "protective devices''.

(C)1991The American College of Sports Medicine

 

 

Finnish History, Culture and Nature

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