Mikko's Phylogeny Archive

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  Synonyms and subspecies of Homo sapiens  

 

Note:

Several subspecies of modern human has been named thru years. One can almost say, that every time a fossil H. sapiens -bone has been found, it has been named in a new extinct subspecies.

Now, it's really questionable can such subspecies be named within human, since our species seems to have unusually large individual variation, not seen in many other hominid species. One notable exception is our close relative Homo erectus, which too seems to have this highly polymorphic feature.

This list is far from complete. For a more complete list of named Middle and Late Pleistocene human-remains, see Smith, 2002

These subspecies has been named:

 

Reference(s):

Burkitt, J. H., 1995: Mammals: A world listing of living and extinct species.
–iNet: Cougar Hill Sanctuary Association: Online Library: mammals.pdf [this resource no longer available!]

Carroll, R. L., 1988: Vertebrate paleontology and evolution.
–W. H. Freeman and company, New York, 1988, 698

Carroll, R. L., 1988: Appendix. 594-648
in Carroll, R. L., 1988: Vertebrate paleontology and evolution.
–W. H. Freeman and company, New York, 1988, 698

Mallegni, F., Carnieri, E., Bisconti, M., Tartarelli, G., Ricci, S., Biddittu, I. & Serge, A., 2002: Homo cepranensis sp. nov. and the evolution of African-European Middle Pleistocene hominids.
–Comptes Rendus Palevol: Vol. 2, #2, pp. 153-159

Nowak, R. M., 1991: Walker's Mammals of the World; Part 1.
–The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1991, xlviii-642-lxiii

Nowak, R. M., 1991: Walker's mammals of the World; Part 2.
–The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1991, xii-643-1629

Smith, F. H., 2002: Migrations, radiations and continuity: Patterns in the evolution of Middle and Late Pleistocene humans. 437-456.
in Hartwig, W. C., (eds.) 2002: The Primate Fossil Record.
–Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2002, xiv-530

 

© Mikko Haaramo,

/ Last updated 2003-06-15 / http://www.helsinki.fi/~mhaaramo