After Hu, Meng, Li & Wang, 2009, and O'Leary et al., 2013

Alternative phylogeny of Placentalia after Welker et al, 2015

Alternative phylogeny of Placentalia after Hu, Meng, Li, & Wang, 2009

Alternative phylogeny of selected basal eutherians after Wible, Rougier, Novacek & Asher, 2007

Alternative phylogeny of selected basal eutherians after Archibald & Averianov, 2006

Alternative phylogeny of selected basal eutherians after Ji, Luo, Yuan, Wible, Zhang & Georgi, 2002

Alternative molecular phylogeny of Placentalia after Madsen et al., 2001

Alternative molecular phylogeny of Placentalia after Murphy et al., 2001

Alternative molecular phylogeny of Placentalia after Waddell, Okada & Hasegawa 1999

Alternative phylogeny of Eutheria after McKenna & Bell, 1997

<==o Eutheria Gill, 1872 non Huxley, 1880 [Placentaria sensu lato] (istukkanisäkkäät)
   |-- †Acristatherium yanensis Hu, Meng, Li & Wang, 2009; E.Cret. EAs.
   |-- †Juramaia sinensis Luo, Yuan, Meng & Ji, 2011; M.Jur. EAs.
   |-- †Otlestes meiman Nesov, 1985
   `--+--+-- †Prokennalestes trofinovi Kielan-Jaworowska & Dashzeveg, 1989 [incl. P. minor Kielan-Jaworowska & Dashzeveg, 1989]
      |  `-- †Eomaia scansoria Ji, Luo, Yuan, Wible, Zhang & Georgi, 2002; E. Cret. EAs.
      `--+-- †Murtoilestes abramovi (Averianov & Skutschas, 2000) Averianov & Skutschas, 2001 [Prokennalestes abramovi Averianov & Skutschas, 2000]
         `--+-- †Bobolestes zenge Nessov, 1985; L.Cret. CAs. [Bobotheriidae Nessov, 1989]
            `--+-- †Montanalestes keeblerorum (Cifelli, 1999) Cifelli, 2000 [Montanalestes keebleri Cifelli, 1999]
               `--+--+-- †Eozhelestes mangit Nesov, 1997
                  |  `--o †Paranyctoides Fox, 1979 sensu Averianov & Archibald, 2013 [Paranyctidae (nomen nudum)] [are Zhelestids?]
                  |     |-- †P. sternbergi Fox, 1979 [incl.? Paranyctoides maleficus Fox, 1984; Paranyctoides “Wahweap” sp. A (Cifelli, 1990); Paranyctoides “Wahweap” sp. B (Cifelli, 1990); Paranyctoides “Kaiparowits” sp. A (Cifelli, 1990); Paranyctoides “Kaiparowits” sp. B (Cifelli, 1990)]
                  |     `-- †P. quadrans (Nessov, 1982) [incl.? Paranyctoides aralensis Nessov, 1993; Marsasia sp. Averianov & Kielan-Jaworowska, 1999] Averianov & Archibald, 2012
                  `--+-- †Zhelestidae Nessov, 1985
                     `--+--+--†Bulaklestes kezbe Nessov, 1985
                        |  `--+-- †Uchkudukodon nessovi (McKenna, Kielan-Jaworowska & Meng, 2000) Archibald & Averianov, 2006 [Daulestes nessovi McKenna, Kielan-Jaworowska & Meng, 2000]
                        |     `--o †Daulestes Trofimov & Nessov, in Nessov & Trofimov, 1979 [Taslestes Nessov, 1982; Kumlestes Nessov, 1982] [?--> †Palaeoryctidae]
                        |        |-- †D. kulbeckensis Trofimov & Nessov, in Nessov & Trofimov, 1979 [Kumlestes olzha Nessov, 1982]
                        |        `-- †D. inobservabilis (Nessov, 1982) [Taslestes inobservabilis Nessov, 1982]
                        |--o †Asioryctitheria Novacek, Rougier, Wible, McKenna, Dashzeveg & Horovitz, 1997 [Kennalestoidea Kielan-Jaworowska, 1981]
                        |  |--o †Asioryctidae Kielan-Jaworowska, 1981 [incl. Kennalestidae Kielan-Jaworowska, 1981 sensu Archibald & Averianov, 2006; Asioryctinae (Kielan-Jaworowska, 1981) Archibald & Averianov, 2006] 
                        |  |  |-- †Ukhaatherium nessovi Novacek, Rougier, Wible, McKenna, Dashzeveg & Horovitz, 1997
                        |  |  `-- †Asioryctes nemegetensis Kielan-Jaworowska, 1975
                        |  `--o †Kennalestidae Kielan-Jaworowska, 1981
                        |     |-- †Kennalestes gobiensis Kielan-Jaworowska, 1969
                        |     `-- †Sailestes quadrans Nessov, 1982
                        |--o †Didelphodonta McKenna, 1995 [paraphyleticCimolesta McKenna, 1995]
                        |  `-- †Cimolestidae Marsh, 1889 [taxonomic history]
                        `--+--+?- †Sahnitherium rangapurensis Rana & Wilson, 2003
                           |  `--o †Deccanolestes Prasad & Sahni, 1988 [“Adapisoriculidae” in partim?]
                           |     |-- †D. hislopi Prasad & Sahni, 1988
                           |     |-- †D. robustus Prasad, Jaeger, Sahni, Gheerbrant & Khajuria, 1994
                           |     `-- †D. narmadensis Prasad, Verma, Gheerbrant, Goswami, Khosla, Parmar & Sahni, 2010
                           `--+-- †Zalambdalestidae Gregory & Simpson, 1926
                              `--o Placentaria Owen, 1837 sensu stricto [Placentalia Owen, 1837; Preptotheria McKenna, 1975, incl. Therictoidea Gregory, 1910; Tokotheria McKenna, 1975]
                                 |-- Edentata G. Cuvier, 1798 (edentates; vajaahampaiset)
                                 `--o Epitheria McKenna, 1975
                                    |--o Afrotheria Stanhope et al., 1998
                                    |  |--o Afroinsectiphillia
                                    |  |  |?-o †Ptolemaiida Simons & Bown, 1995
                                    |  |  |  |-- †Kelba quadeema Savage, 1965; U. Mio. NEAf. [incl. Kenyalutra songhorensis Schmidt-Kittler, 1987; Ndamathaia kubwa Jacobs et al., 1987 sensu Morales et al., 2000] [Kelbidae Cote et al, 2007] [arctocyonid creodont (Savage, 1965); ptolemaiid pantolestan (Van Valen, 1967); Carnivora incertae sedis (McKenna & Bell, 1997); hemigaline viverrid (Morales, Pickford, Salesa & Soria, 2000)]
                                    |  |  |  `--o Ptolemaiidae Osborn, 1908
                                    |  |  |     |-- †Qarunavus meyeri Simons & Gingerich, 1974; L.Eoc. NEAf.
                                    |  |  |     |--o †Cleopatrodon Bown & Simons, 1987; L.Eoc. NEAf.
                                    |  |  |     |  |-- †C. ayeshae Bown & Simons, 1987
                                    |  |  |     |  `-- †C. major Bown & Simons, 1987
                                    |  |  |     `--o †Ptolemaia Osborn, 1908 [non †Ptolemaia McCutcheon & Wilson, 1961, a fossil rugose coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa:Rugosa)]; L.Eoc. NEAf.
                                    |  |  |        |-- †P. lyonsi Osborn, 1908
                                    |  |  |        `-- †P. grangeri Bown & Simons, 1987
                                    |  |  |-- Afrosoricida Stanhope et al., 1998 [Lipotyphla Haeckel, 1866 (in partim)]
                                    |  |  `--+-- †Leptictidae Gill, 1872 [Leptictida McKenna, 1975 (in partim); Proeutheria]
                                    |  |     `-- Macroscelidea Butler, 1956 [Macroscelides Peters, 1864; Macroscelidiformes Kinman, 1994] (norsupäästäiset; sengit; elephant shrews, sengis)
                                    |  `--+-- Tubulidentata Huxley, 1872 (aardwarks; putkihampaiset)
                                    |     `--o Paenungulata Simpson, 1945
                                    |        |-- Hyracoidea Huxlay, 1869 (hyraxes; tamaanit)
                                    |        `--+-- †Thomashuxleyia externa Ameghino, 1901, L.Eoc. SA. [Isotemnidae Ameghino, 1897]
                                    |           `--+-- †Carodnia [Xenungulata; Pyrotheria] 
                                    |              `-- Uranotheria  Simpson, 1945 (elephant-like ungulates; norsumaiset ungulaatit)
                                    `--o Boreoeutheria
                                       |--o Euarchontoglires Murphy & Eizirik, 2001 [Supraprimates]
                                       |  |-- Archonta Gregory, 1910 (primate-like eutherians; kädellistensukuiset)
                                       |  `-- Glires Linnaeus, 1758 [Gliriformes Wyss & Meng, 1996] (rodent-like eutherians; jyrsijä-jäniseläimet)
                                       `--o Laurasiatheria Waddell et al., 1999
                                          |-- Eulipotyphla [Lipotyphla Haeckel, 1866 (in partim)] (modern insect-eaters; nykyhyönteissyöjät)
                                          `--+--o Pholidotamorpha Gaudin et al. 2009
                                             |  |==Palaeanodonta Matthew, 1918 [Basal Pholidota sensu McKenna & Bell, 1997]
                                             |  `-- Pholidota Weber, 1904 (pangolins; muurahaiskävyt)
                                             `--+--o Ferae Linnaeus, 1758
                                                |  |-- †Creodonta Cope, 1875 (kreodontit; creodonts)
                                                |  `-- Carnivoramorpha Kalandadze & Rautian, 1992 (modern carnivores and their extinct relatives; nykypetoeläinmäiset nisäkkäät)
                                                `--o Ungulata Linnaeus 1766 (in partim) (ungulates; kaviokyntiset)
                                                   |--+--+-- †Hyopsodontidae Lydekker, 1889
                                                   |  |  `-- †Apheliscidae Matthew, 1918
                                                   |  `--+-- †Phenacodonta McKenna, 1975
                                                   |     `--+-- †Didolodus multicuspis Ameghino, 1897 [Enneocodus, Lonchoconus, Paulogervaisia, Cephanodus, Nephacodus, Argyrolambda]
                                                   |        `-- †Litopterna Ameghino, 1889
                                                   `--+-- †Mesonychia Van Valen, 1966 [Acreodi] (mesonykit; mesonychians)
                                                      `--+--o †Rodhocetus Gingerich et al., 1995a
                                                         |  |-- †R. balochistanensis Gingerich, ul Haq, Zalmout, Khan & Malkani, 2001
                                                         |  `-- †R. kasrani Gingerich et al., 1995a
                                                         `--o Euungulata
                                                            |-- Artiodactyla Owen, 1848 [Paraxonia Marsh, 1884] (sorkkaeläintensukuiset ungulaatit; artiodactyl-like ungulates; even-toed ungulates)
                                                            `-- Perissodactyla Owen, 1848 [Mesaxonia Marsh, 1884 sensu Prothero & Schoch, 1989] (kavioeläimet)

Alternative phylogenies of Eutheria:

After Welker et al, 2015 (orders only):

<==o Placentaria
   |--o Afrotheria
   |  |-- Afrosoricida
   |  `--+--+-- Macroscelidea
   |     |  `-- Tubulidentata
   |     `--+-- Proboscidea
   |        `--+-- Hyracoidea
   |           `-- Sirenia
   `--+-- Xenarthra
      `--+--+-- Primates
         |  `--+-- Scandentia
         |     `--+-- Lagomorpha
         |        `-- Rodentia
         `--+-- Eulipotyphla
            `--+-- Chiroptera
               |-- Carnivora
               `--+-- Artiodactyla
                  `--+-- †Meridiungulata
                     `-- Perissodactyla

Reference(s):

  • Welker, F., Collins, M. J., Thomas, J. A., Wadsley, M., Brace, S., Cappellini, E., Turvey, S. T., Reguero, M., Gelfo, J. N., Kramarz, A., Burger, J., Thomas-Oates, J., Ashford, D. A., Ashton, P. D., Rowsell, K., Porter, D. M., Kessler, B., Fischer, R., Baessmann, C., Kaspar, S., Olsen, J. V., Kiley, P., Elliott, J. A., Kelstrup, C. D., Mullin, V., Hofreiter, M., Willerslev, E., Hublin, J.-J., Orlando, L., Barnes, I. & MacPhee, R. D. E., 2015: Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin/'s South American ungulates.
    –Nature: in press [doi: 10.1038/nature14249]

After Hu, Meng, Li, & Wang, 2009

<==o Eutheria
   |-- †Acristatherium
   |-- †Juramaia
   |-- †Otlestes
   `--+--+-- †Prokennalestes
      |  `-- †Eomaia
      `--+-- †Murtoilestes
         `--+-- †Bobolestes
            `--+-- †Montanalestes
               `--+--+-- †Eozhelestes
                  |  `-- †Paranyctoides
                  `--+-- †Zhelestidae
                     `--+--+-- †Bulaklestes
                        |  `--+-- †Uchkudukodon
                        |     `-- †Daulestes
                        |-- †Asioryctitheria
                        |-- †Didelphodonta
                        `--+--+?- †Sahnitherium
                           |  `-- †Deccanolestes
                           `--+-- †Zalambdalestidae
                              `--o Placentaria
                                 |-- Leptictida
                                 `--+--+-- †Purgatorius
                                    |  `-- Eparctocyona
                                    `--+--+-- Carnivoramorpha
                                       |  `--+-- Paraxonia
                                       |     `--+-- †Phenacodonta
                                       |        `?- Perissodactyla
                                       `--+-- Archonta
                                          |-- Glires
                                          `--+--o Insectivora
                                             |  `-- Lipotyphla
                                             `--+--+-- Macroscelidea
                                                |  `-- Tubulidentata
                                                |-- Edentata
                                                `-- Uranotheria

Reference(s):

  • Hu, Y., Meng, J., Li, C. & Wang, Y., 2009: New basal eutherian mammal from the Early Cretaceous Jehol biota, Liaoning, China.
    –Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological series: Vol. 277, #1, pp. 229-236 [doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.0203]

Selected basal eutherians after Wible, Rougier, Novacek & Asher, 2007

<==o Eutheria
   |--+-- †Murtoilestes
   |  `--+-- †Prokennalestes
   |     `-- †Eomaia
   `--+-- †Bobolestes
      `--+-- †Montanalestes
         `--+-- †Zhelestidae
            `--+--+-- †Eozhelestes
               |  `-- †Paranyctoides
               `--+--+-- †Asioryctitheria
                  |  `--o †Cimolestidae [=? Didelphodonta]
                  |     |-- †Cimolestes
                  |     `--+-- †Batodon
                  |        `-- †Maelestes
                  `--+-- †Deccanolestes
                     `--+-- †Zalambdalestidae
                        `--+--+-- †Gypsonictops
                           |  `-- †Leptictis
                           `--+--+-- †Purgatorius
                              |  `--+-- †Protungulatum
                              |     `-- †Oxyprimus
                              `-- Placentalia

Reference(s):

  • Wible, J. R., Rougier, G. W., Novacek, M. J. & Asher, R. J., 2007: Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary.
    –Nature: Vol. 447, #7147, pp. 1003-1006 [doi: 10.1038/nature05854]

Selected basal eutherians after Archibald & Averianov, 2006

<==o Eutheria
   |-- †Eomaia
   `--+-- †Prokennalestes
      `--+-- †Bobolestes
         `--+--o †Asioryctitheria
            |  |-- †Uchkudukodon
            |  `--+-- †Daulestes kulbeckensis
            |     |-- †Daulestes inobservabilis
            |     `--+-- †Bulaklestes
            |        `--o †Asioryctidae
            |           |-- †Kennalestes
            |           `--o †Asioryctinae
            |              |-- †Ukhaatherium
            |              `-- †Asioryctes
            `--+--o †Zhelestidae
               |  |-- †Zhelestes
               |  |-- †Aspanlestes
               |  `--o †Parazhelestes
               |     |-- †P. robustus
               |     `-- †P. mynbulakensis
               `--+--o †Zalambdalestidae
                  |  |-- †Zalambdalestes
                  |  `-- †Kulbeckia
                  `?- Placentaria

Reference(s):

Selected basal eutherians after Ji, Luo, Yuan, Wible, Zhang & Georgi, 2002

<==o Eutheria
   |-- †Eomaia
   |-- †Prokennalestes
   |-- †Murtoilestes
   `--+-- †Montanalestes
      |--+-- †Asioryctes
      |  |-- †Kennalestes
      |  |-- †Ukhaatherium
      |  `-- †Zalambdalestes
      `--+-- †Daulestes
         `--+--+-- †Cimolestes
            |  `-- †Gypsonictops
            `--+-- †Aspanlestes
               `--+-- †Eoungulatum
                  `--+-- †Proungulatum
                     `-- Erinaceus

Reference(s):

  • Ji, Q., Luo, Z.-X., Yuan, C.-X., Wible, J. R., Zhang, J.-P. & Georgi, J. A., 2002: The earliest known eutherian mammal.
    –Nature: Vol. 416, #6883, pp. 816-822 [doi: 10.1038/416816a]

After Murphy et al, 2001 (orders only):

<==o Placentaria
   |?- †Meridiungulata
   |--o Afrotheria
   |  |-- Afrosoricida
   |  `--+--+-- †Microhyus
   |     |  `-- Macroscelidea
   |     `--o Pseudoungulata
   |        |-- Tubulidentata
   |        `--o Paenungulata
   |           |-- Hyracoidea
   |           `--o Tethytheria
   |              |-- Sirenia
   |              `--o Behemota
   |                 |-- †Desmostylia
   |                 `-- Proboscidea
   `--+-- Xenarthra
      `--o Boreoeutheria
         |--+--o Glires
         |  |  |-- Lagomorpha
         |  |  `-- Rodentia
         |  `--o Euarchonta
         |     |-- Scandentia
         |     `--o Primatomorpha
         |        |-- Dermoptera
         |        `-- Primates
         `--o Laurasiatheria
            |?- Eulipotyphla
            `--o Scrotifera
               |-- Chiroptera
               `--o Ferungulata
                  |-- Artiodactyla
                  `--o Zooamata
                     |-- Perissodactyla
                     `--o Ferae
                        |-- Pholidota
                        `-- Carnivora

Reference(s):

  • Murphy, W. J., Eizirik, E., Johnson, W. E., Zhang, Y. P., Ryder, O. A. & O'Brien, S. J., 2001: Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals.
    –Nature: Vol. 409, #6820, pp. 614-618 [doi: 10.1038/35054550]

After Madsen et al., 2001 (orders only):

<==o Placentaria
   |--o Atlantogenata
   |  |-- Xenarthra
   |  `--+?- †Meridiungulata
   |     `--o Afrotheria
   |        |--+-- Tubulidentata
   |        |  `--+-- Afrosoricida
   |        |     `--+-- †Microhyus
   |        |        `-- Macroscelidea
   |        `--o Paenungulata
   |           |-- Hyracoidea
   |           `--o Tethytheria
   |              |-- Sirenia
   |              `--o Behemota
   |                 |?- †Desmostylia
   |                 `-- Proboscidea
   `--o Boreoeutheria
      |--+-- Scandentia
      |  `--+-- Dermoptera
      |     `--+-- Primates
      |        `--o Glires
      |           |-- Lagomorpha
      |           `-- Rodentia
      `--o Laurasiatheria
         |?- Eulipotyphla
         `--+--o Ferae 
            |  |-- Pholidota
            |  `-- Carnivora
            `--+-- Chiroptera
               `--+-- Perissodactyla
                  `-- Artiodactyla

Reference(s):

  • Madsen, O., Scally, M., Douady, C. J., Kao, D. J., DeBry, R. W., Adkins, R., Amrine, H. M., Stanhope, M. J., de Jong, W. W. & Springer, M. S., 2001: Parallel adaptive radiations in two major clades of placental mammals.
    –Nature: Vol. 409, #6820, pp. 610-614 [doi: 10.1038/35054544]

After Waddell, Okada & Hasegawa 1999 (orders only):

<==o Placentaria
   |--o Atlantogenata
   |  |-- Xenarthra
   |  `--+?- †Meridiungulata
   |     `--o Afrotheria
   |        |--o Afrosoricida
   |        |  |-- Tenrecoidea
   |        |  `-- Chrysochloroidea
   |        `--+--+-- †Microhyus
   |           |  `-- Macroscelidea
   |           `--o Pseudoungulata
   |              |-- Tubulidentata
   |              `--o Paenungulata
   |                 |-- Hyracoidea
   |                 `--o Tethytheria
   |                    |-- Sirenia
   |                    `--o Behemota
   |                       |-- †Desmostylia
   |                       `-- Proboscidea
   `--+--+--o Glires
      |  |  |-- Lagomorpha
      |  |  `-- Rodentia
      |  `--o Euarchonta
      |     |-- Scandentia
      |     `--o Primatomorpha
      |        |-- Dermoptera
      |        `-- Primates
      `--o Laurasiatheria
         |?- Eulipotyphal
         `--o Scrotifera
            |-- Chiroptera
            `--o Ferungulata
               |-- Artiodactyla
               `--o Zooamata
                  |-- Perissodactyla
                  `--o Ferae
                     |-- Pholidota
                     `-- Carnivora

Reference(s):

  • Waddell, P. J., Okada, N., & Hasegawa, M., 1999: Towards resolving the interordinal relationships of placental mammals.
    –Systematic Biology: Vol. 48, #1, pp. 1-5

After McKenna & Bell, 1997

<==o Eutheria
   |-- †Bobolestes
   |-- †Otlestes
   |-- †Murtoilestes
   |-- †Eomaia
   `--o Placentaria
      |-- Edentata
      `--o Epitheria
         |?- †Hyotheridium
         |?- †Deccanolestes
         |?-o †Asioryctitheria
         |  `--o Asioryctidae
         |     |-- †Asioryctes
         |     `-- †Ukhaatherium
         |-- Leptictida
         `--o Preptotheria
            |--+-- Archonta
            |  `-- Anagalida
            `--+--o Insectivora
               |  `-- Lipotyphla
               `?-o Ferungulata
                  |-- Ungulatomorpha
                  `--o Ferae
                     |== Cimolesta
                     `--+-- †Creodonta
                        `-- Carnivoramorpha

Reference(s):

  • McKenna, M. C. & Bell, S. K., (eds.) 1997: Classification of mammals – above the species level.
    –Columbia University Press, New York, 1997, xii-631

Basal Eutheria incertae sedis:

Hyotheridium dobsoni Gregory & Simpson, 1926
    †Beleutinus orlovi Bazhanov, 1972 [a zalambdalestid or deltatheroid?]
    †Cretasorex Nesov & Gureyev, 1981 [identification doubtful, possibly nomen dubium]
    †Eodesmatodon Zheng & Chi, 1978
    †Eutrochodon Roth, 1903
    †Helioseus Sudre, 1979
    †Horolodectes sunae Scott, Webb & Fox, 2006
    †Idiogenomys ozziei Ostrander, 1983
    †Neodesmostylus Khomenko, 1927
    †Obtususdon hanhuaensis Xu, 1977
    †Prozalambdalestes simpsoniTelacodon laevis Marsh, 1892 [see Leptictida]
    †Tingamarra porterorum Godthelp, Archer, Cifelli, Hand & Gilkeson, 1992
    †Wanotherium xuanchengensis Tang & Yan, 1976
    †Veratalpa lugdunensiana Ameghino, 1905 [possibly a rodent, is based on an astragalus (Hutchison, 1974)]

    †Bibymalagasia MacPhee, 1994
        †Plesiorycteropodinae Patterson, 1975
            †Plesiorycteropus Filhol, 1895 [Myoryctes Forsyth Major, 1908; Majoria Thomas, 1915] R. Mad.
                †P. germainepetterae MacPhee, 1994
                †P. madagascariensis Filhol, 1895 [Majoria; Myoryctes rapeto]

Reference(s):