(Partly) After Nowak & Paradiso, 1972, Mech, 1974, Bekoff, 1977, and Nowak, 1979, 1999

Note:

I'm highly skeptic of the named subspecies of coyote and wolf. Oversplitting seems to be rampant here.

<==o Canis Linnaeus, 1758 [taxonomic history] (wolves, jackals, coyote and domestic dog; sudet, shakaalit, kojootit ja koirat)
   |?- †C. sp.1 [South Turkwel Hominid site, Kenya] [Werdelin & Lewis, 2000]
   |?- †C. africanus
   |?- †C. atrox
   |?- †C. terblanchei
   |?- †C. michauxi
   |?- †C. falconeri
   |+- †C. ferox Miller & Carranza-Casta˝eda, 1998
   |?- †C. petenyi
   |?- †C. arnensis
   |?- †C. chihliensis
   |?- †C. kuruksaensis
   |?- †C. th÷oides Tedford, Wang & Taylor, 2009
   |?- †C. feneus Tedford, Wang & Taylor, 2009
   |?-+-- †C. lepophagus Johnston, 1938; U. Pleist. NA.
   |  |?- †C. cedazoensis Mooser & Dalquest; 1975; U. Pleist. NA.
   |  `--o C. latrans Say in James, 1823 [taxonomic history] (coyote; kojootti) U. Pleist. R. NA.
   |     |-- C. l. cagottis (Hamilton-Smith, 1939)
   |     |-- C. l. clepticus Elliot, 1903) [incl.? †C. andersoni Merriam, 1910]
   |     |-- C. l. colatus Hall, 1934
   |     |-- C. l. dickeyi Nelson, 1932 (Panama coyote; panamankojootti)
   |     |-- C. l. frustror Woodhouse, 1850
   |     |-- C. l. goldmani Merriam, 1904
   |     |-- †C. l. harriscrooki Slaughter, 1961
   |     |-- C. l. hondurensis Goldman, 1936
   |     |-- C. l. impavidus Allen, 1903
   |     |-- †C. l. irvingtonensis Savage, 1951
   |     |-- C. l. incolatus (Alaska coyote; alaskankojootti)
   |     |-- C. l. jamesi Townsend, 1912
   |     |-- C. l. latrans Say in James, 1823
   |     |-- C. l. lestes Merriam, 1897 [incl.? C. l. microdon Merriam, 1897]
   |     |-- C. l. mearnsi Merriam, 1897
   |     |-- C. l. microdon Merriam, 1897
   |     |-- C. l. ochropus Eschscholtz, 1829
   |     |-- †C. l. orcutti Merriam, 1910
   |     |-- C. l. peninsulae Merriam, 1897
   |     |-- †C. l. riviveronis Hay, 1917 (floridankojootti; Florida coyote); Pleist. NA.
   |     |-- C. l. texensis Bailey, 1905
   |     |-- C. l. thamnos Jackson, 1949
   |     |-- C. l. umpquensis Jackson, 1949
   |     |-- C. l. vigilis Merriam, 1897
   |     `-- C. l. “var” (New England coyote; uudenenglanninkojootti)
   |?- †C. apolloniensis
   |?- †C. variabilis
   |?- †C. khomenkoi
   |?- †C. brevirostris
   `--+?- †C. etruscus (etruskisusi); L. Pleist. Eu.
      |?- †C. arnenis L. Pleist. SEu. [=? C. priscolatrans]
      |--+-- †C. edvardii Gazin, 1942  [taxonomic history]; Pleist. NA.
      |  |?-o C. rufus Audubon & Bachman, 1851 taxonomic history] (red wolf; punasusi) [?hybridspecies: C. latrans X C. lupus]
      |  |  |-- C. r. rufus Audubon & Bachman, 1851
      |  |  |-- †C. r. priscolatrans Cope, 1899
      |  |  |-- †C. r. gregoryi Goldman, 1937
      |  |  `-- †C. r. floridanus Miller, 1912
      |  `--+-- †C. armbrusteri Gidley, 1913; Pleist. NA.
      |     `--+-- †C. dirus Leidy, 1858 [taxonomic history] (direwolf); Pleist. NA.
      |        `--+?- †C. gezi E.Pleist. SSAm.
      |           `?- †C. nehringi L.Pleist. SSAm.
      `--+--+-- C. simensis Ruppell, 1835 (Abyssinian wolf; simeninsakaali)
         |  `?-+-- C. adustus Sundevall, 1846 (side-stiped jackal; juovasakaali)
         |     |-- C. mesomelas Schreber, 1778 (black-backed jackal; vaippasakaali)
         |     `-- C. aureus Linnaeus, 1758 [taxonomic history] (golden jackal; sakaali, kultasakaali)
         `--+-- †C. mosbachensis [C. lupus mosbachensis]; M. Pleist. Eu.
            `--+?-o C. familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 [taxonomic history] (domestic dog; koira) [polyphyletic?!]
               |  `-- C. f. dingo Blumenbach, 1780 (dingo)
               `--o C. lupus Linnaeus, 1758 [taxonomic history] (wolf; susi); Pleist. R. Eu. As. NAf. NA.
                  |--o “Eurasian wolves” [number of subspecies probably exaggerated]
                  |  |?- †C. l. lunellensis Bonifay, 1971
                  |  |-- C. l. lupus Linnaeus, 1758 (wolf; susi)
                  |  |-- C. l. albus Kerr, 1792
                  |  |-- C. l. arabs (Arabian wolf; arabiansusi)
                  |  |-- C. l. campestris Dwigubski, 1804 (arosusi)
                  |  |-- C. l. pallipes Sykes, 1831 (Indian wolf; intiansusi)
                  |  |-- C. l. chanco Gray, 1863 (Chinese wolf; kiinansusi) ==> domesticated dog??
                  |  |-- †C. l. hadophilax Temminck, 1839 (Japanese wolf; japaninsusi)
                  |  `-- C. l. hattai Kishida, 1931 (Hokkaido wolf; hokkaidonsusi)
                  `--o “North American wolves” [number of subspecies probably exaggerated]
                     |-- C. l. alces Goldman, 1941
                     |-- C. l. arctos Pocock, 1935 (arctic isles wolf; arktistensaartensusi
                     |-- C. l. baileyi Nelson & Goldman, 1929 (non Hoffmeister & Goodpaster, 1954) (meksikonsusi)
                     |-- C. l. beothucus G.M. Allen & Barbour, 1937 (newfoundlandinsusi)
                     |-- C. l. bernardi Anderson, 1943
                     |-- C. l. columbianus Goldman, 1941 (British Columbia wolf; brittiläisenkolumbiansusi)
                     |-- C. l. crassodon Hall, 1932 (Vancover Isle wolf; Vancoversaaren susi)
                     |-- C. l. fuscus Richardson, in Beechey, 1839 (Cascaid wolf; kaskadiensusi
                     |-- C. l. hudsonicus Goldman, 1941 (hudsoninlahdensusi)
                     |-- C. l. griseoalbus Baird, 1858 (Saskatshewaninsusi)
                     |-- C. l. irremotus Goldman, 1937 (Montana wolf; montanansusi)
                     |-- C. l. labradorius Goldman, 1937 (labradorinsusi)
                     |-- C. l. ligoni Goldman, 1937 (Panhandle wolf; rannikkovuortensusi)
                     |-- C. l. lycaon Schreber, 1775 (Timber wolf; metsäsusi)
                     |-- C. l. mackenzii Anderson, 1943 (mackentsinsusi)
                     |-- C. l. manningi Anderson, 1943 (ellesmerenmaansusi
                     |-- C. l. mogollonensis Goldman, 1937 (New Mexico wolf; uudenmeksikonsusi)
                     |-- C. l. monstrabilis Goldman, 1937 (Texas wolf; teksasinsusi)
                     |-- C. l. nubilus Say, in Long, 1823 (Great Plains wolf; puhvelisusi)
                     |-- C. l. occidentalis Richardson, 1829 (koilliskalliovuortensusi)
                     |?- †C. l. furlongi Merriam, 1910 [taxonomic history]
                     |-- C. l. orion Pocock, 1935 (grönlanninsusi; greenland wolf)
                     |-- C. l. pambasileus Elliot, 1905 (eteläalaskansusi)
                     |-- C. l. tundrarum Miller, 1912 (Tundra wolf; tundrasusi, pohjoisalaskansusi)
                     `-- C. l. youngi Goldman, 1937 (Great Basin wolf)

Alternative phylogenies of Canis:

After Tedford, Wang, Taylor, 2009:

<==o Canis [paraphyletic]
   |-- †Canis ferox
   `--+--+-- †Canis lepophagus
      |  `--+-- †Canis th÷oides
      |     `--+-- †Canis feneus
      |        `-- †Canis cedazoensis
      `--+-- †Canis arnensis
         `--+-- †Canis etruscus
            `--+--+--+-- †Canis palmidens
               |  |  `--+-- †Canis mosbachensis
               |  |     `-- †Canis variabilis
               |  `--+-- †Canis edwardii
               |     `--+-- Canis latrans (coyote)
               |        `-- Canis aureus (golden jackal)
               `--+--+-- †Canis chihliensis
                  |  `--+-- Canis lupus (wolf; incl. dog)
                  |     `--+-- †Canis armbrusteri
                  |        `-- †Canis dirus (direwolf)
                  `--+--+-- †Canis antonii
                     |  `-- †Canis falconeri
                     `--+-- †Xenocyon lycaonoides
                        `--+-- Cuon javanicus (dhole)
                           `-- Lycaon pictus (African hunting dog)

Reference(s):

  • Tedford, R. H., Wang, X. & Taylor, B. E., 2009: Phylogenetic systematics of the North American fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae).
    –Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History: #325, pp. 1-218

Reference(s):