After Martill, Tischlinger & Longrich, 2015

Alternative phylogeny of basal snakes after Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015

Alternative phylogeny of basal snakes after Zaher, 1998, Tchernov, Rieppel, Zaher, Polcyn, & Jacobs, 2000, Zaher & Rieppel, 2002, and Rieppel, Kluge & Zaher, 2002

<==o Ophidia Linnaeus, 1758 sensu Lee & Caldwell, 2000; Martill, Tischlinger & Longrich, 2015 [Serpentes Linnaeus, 1758 sensu lato] (snakes; käärmeet)
   |-- †Diablophis gilmorei (Evans, 1996) Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015 [Parviraptor gilmorei Evans, 1996]
   |-- †Eophis underwoodi Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015
   |-- †Parviraptor estesi Evans, 1994
   |-- †Portugalophis lignites Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015
   `--+--o †Coniophidae Hoffstetter, 1955 sensu Martill, Tischlinger & Longrich, 2015
      |  |-- †Tetrapodophis amplectus Martill, Tischlinger & Longrich, 2015
      |  `--o †Coniophis Marsh, 1892
      |     |-- †C. cosgriffi Armstrong-Ziegler, 1978
      |     |-- †C. precedens Marsh, 1892
      |     |-- †C. carinatus McGrew, Hecht, Hummel, Simpson & Wood, 1959
      |     |-- †C. platycarinatus McGrew, Hecht, Hummel, Simpson & Wood, 1959
      |     `-- †C. dabeidus Rage & Werner, 1999
      `--+-- †Najash rionegrina Apesteguía & Zaher, 2006
         `--+-- †Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901 sensu Zaher, 1998 [Dinilysiidae McDowell, 1987]
            `--+-- †Madtsoiidae Hoffstetter, 1961 sensu Scanlon & Lee, 2000
               `--o Serpentes Linnaeus, 1758 sensu Martill, Tischlinger & Longrich, 2015
                  |-- Scolecophidia Duméril & Bibron, 1844 [Scolecophidia Cope, 1864; Typhlopoidea Merrem, 1820] (blind snakes, thread snakes; sokkokäärmeet)
                  `--+--o †Pachyophiidae Nopcsa, 1923 sensu Caldwell & Lee, 1997 [Pachyrhachidae; ?Simoliophidae]
                     |  |?- †Pachyophis woodwardi Nopsca, 1923
                     |  |?- †Mesophis nopcsai Bolkay, 1925
                     |  |-- †Haasiophis terrasanctus (Tchernov, Rieppel, Zaher, Polcyn & Jacobs, 2000) Polcyn, Tchernov & Jacobs, 2003 [Haasia Polcyn, Tchernov & Jacobs, 1999; non Haasia Bollman, 1893 (Myriapoda) nor Haasia Yuan, 1988 (Trilobita)]
                     |  `--+-- †Eupodophis descouensi (Rage & Escuiillié, 2000) Rage & Escuillié, 2002 [Podophis descouensi Rage & Escuiillié, 2000]
                     |     `-- †Pachyrhachis problematicus Haas, 1979 (1980?) [Ophiomorphus colberti; Estesius colberti]
                     `--o Alethinophidia Nopcsa, 1923
                        |?-o Lapparentophidae Hoffstetter, 1968
                        |  |?- †Lapparentopheidae genera et species indet. 1 [Sudan]
                        |  |?- †Lapparentopheidae genera et species indet. 2 [Sudan]
                        |  |?- †Pouitella pervetus Rage, 1988
                        |  `-- †Lapparentophis defrennei Hoffstetter, 1960
                        `--+?-o †Simoliophis Sauvage, 1880 [Simoliophidae]
                           |  |-- †S. rochebrunei Sauvage, 1880
                           |  `-- †S. lybicus Nessov et al., 1998
                           |-- Anilioidea Stejneger, 1907 (telakäärmeensukuiset)
                           `-- Macrostomata Ritgen, 1828 (?Müller, 1831)

Serpentes incertae sedis:

Many of these are probably madtsoniids or booids.

    Ophidium Linnaeus, 1758 (nomen nudum)
    †PaleopythonPalaeophidae Lydekker, 1888

After Martill, Tischlinger & Longrich, 2015

<==o Ophidia
   |-- †Diablophis
   |-- †Eophis
   |-- †Parviraptor
   |-- †Portugalophis
   `--+--o †Coniophidae
      |  |-- †Tetrapodophis
      |  `-- †Coniophis
      `--+-- †Najash
         `--+-- †Dinilysia
            `--+-- †Madtsoiidae
               `--o Serpentes
                  |-- Scolecophidia
                  `--+--o †Pachyophiidae
                     |  |-- †Haasiophis
                     |  `--+-- †Eupodophis
                     |     `-- †Pachyrhachis
                     `--o Alethinophidia
                        |-- Anilioidea
                        `-- Macrostomata

reference(s):

  • Martill, D. M., Tischlinger, H. & Longrich, N. R., 2015: A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.
    –Science: Vol. 349, #6246, pp. 416-419 [doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9208]

After Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015

<==o Serpentes
   |-- †Diablophis
   |-- †Eophis
   |-- †Parviraptor
   |-- †Portugalophis
   `--+-- †Dinilysia
      `--+--o †Madtsoiidae
         |  |-- †Sanajeh
         |  `--+-- †Yurlunggur
         |     `-- †Wonambi
         `--+-- †Najash
            `--+-- †Coniophis
               `--+-- Scolecophidia
                  `--o Alethinophidia
                     |-- Uropeltidae
                     `--+-- Anilius
                        `--+--o †Pachyophiidae
                           |  |-- †Haasiophis
                           |  `--+-- †Pachyrachis
                           |     `-- †Eupodophis
                           `-- Macrostomata

Reference(s):

  • Caldwell, M. W., Nydam, R. L., Palci, A. & Apesteguía, S., 2015: The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution.
    –Nature Communications: Vol. 6, art.num. 5996, pp. 1-11 [doi: 10.1038/ncomms6996]

After Zaher, 1998, Tchernov, Rieppel, Zaher, Polcyn, & Jacobs, 2000, Zaher & Rieppel, 2002, and Rieppel, Kluge & Zaher, 2002

<==o Serpentes
   |?- †Pachyophis
   `--+?- †Coniophis
      |?- †Palaeophidae
      `--+?-o Scolecophidia (sokkokäärmeet)
         |  |-- Leptotyphlopidae
         |  `--+-- Typhlopidae
         |     `-- Anomalepididae
         `--+?- †Dinilysia
            `--o Alethinophidia
               |-- †Lapparentophis 
               `--+-- †Simoliophis
                  |-- Anilioidea
                  `-- Macrostomata

After Scanlon, & Lee, 2000

<==o Serpentes
   |-- †Pachyophiidae
   `--+-- †Dinilysia
      |-- †Madtsoiidae
      `--+-- Scolecophidia
         `--o Alethinophidia
            |-- Anilioidea
            `-- Macrostomata

Reference(s):

  • Scanlon, J. D. & Lee, M. S. Y., 2000: The pleistocene serpent Wonambi and the early evolution of snakes.
    –Nature: Vol. 403, #6768, pp. 416-420 [doi: 10.1038/35000188]

After Zaher, 1998

<==o Serpentes
   |-- Scolecophidia
   `--+-- †Dinilysia
      `--o Alethinophidia
         |-- Anilioidea
         `--+-- †Pachyrachis
            `-- Macrostomata

Reference(s):

  • Zaher, H. 1998: The phylogenetic position of Pachyrhachis within snakes (Squamata, Lepidosauria).
    –Journal or Vertebrate Paleontology: Vol. 18, #1, pp. 1-3 [10.1080/02724634.1998.10011029]

After Caldwell & Lee, 1997

<==o Ophidia
   |-- †Pachyrachis
   `--o Serpentes
      |-- Scolecophidia
      `-- Alethinophidia

Reference(s):

  • Caldwell, M. W. & Lee, M. S. Y., 1997: A snake with legs from the marine Cretaceous of the Middle East.
    –Nature: Vol. 386, #6626, pp. 705-709 [doi: 10.1038/386705a0]

Reference(s):