After Caldwell & Lee, 1997, Zaher, 1998, Scanlon, & Lee, 2000, and Zaher & Rieppel, 2002

Alternative phylogeny of basal snakes after Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015

Alternative phylogeny of basal snakes after Zaher, 1998, Tchernov, Rieppel, Zaher, Polcyn, & Jacobs, 2000, Zaher & Rieppel, 2002, and Rieppel, Kluge & Zaher, 2002

<==o Serpentes Linnaeus, 1758 [Ophidia sensu Lee & Caldwell, 2000] (snakes; käärmeet)
   |-- †Diablophis gilmorei (Evans, 1996) Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015 [Parviraptor gilmorei Evans, 1996]
   |-- †Eophis underwoodi Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015
   |-- †Parviraptor estesi Evans, 1994
   |-- †Portugalophis lignites Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015
   `--+?- †Najash rionegrina Apesteguía & Zaher, 2006
      |?-o †Pachyophiidae sensu Caldwell & Lee, 1997 [Pachyrhachidae]
      |  |-- †Pachyophis woodwardi Nopsca, 1923
      |  |-- †Eupodophis descouensi (Rage & Escuiillié, 2000) Rage & Escuillié, 2002 [Podophis descouensi Rage & Escuiillié, 2000]
      |  |-- †Pachyrhachis problematicus Haas, 1979?, 1980? [Ophiomorphus colberti, Estesius colberti]
      |  `-- †Haasiophis terrasanctus (Tchernov, Rieppel, Zaher, Polcyn & Jacobs, 2000) Polcyn, Tchernov & Jacobs, 2003 [Haasia Polcyn, Tchernov & Jacobs, 1999; non Haasia Bollman, 1893 (Myriapoda) nor Haasia Yuan, 1988 (Trilobita)]
      `--o Serpentes Linnaeus, 1758 sensu Lee & Caldwell, 2000
         |?-o †Coniophis Marsh, 1892 [Coniophidae Hoffstetter, 1955]
         |  |-- †C. cosgriffi Armstrong-Ziegler, 1978
         |  |-- †C. precedens Marsh, 1892
         |  |-- †C. carinatus McGrew, Hecht, Hummel, Simpson & Wood, 1959
         |  |-- †C. platycarinatus McGrew, Hecht, Hummel, Simpson & Wood, 1959
         |  `-- †C. dabeidus Rage & Werner, 1999
         |?- †Palaeophidae Lydekker, 1888
         |?- †Madtsoiidae Hoffstetter, 1961 sensu Scanlon & Lee, 2000
         `--+?- Scolecophidia Duméril & Bibron, 1844 [Scolecophidia Cope, 1864; Typhlopoidea Merrem, 1820] (blind snakes, thread snakes; sokkokäärmeet)
            `--+?- †Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901 sensu Zaher, 1998 [Dinilysiidae McDowell, 1987]
               `--o Alethinophidia Nopcsa, 1923
                  |--o Lapparentophidae
                  |  |?- †Lapparentopheidae genera et species indet. 1 [Sudan]
                  |  |?- †Lapparentopheidae genera et species indet. 2 [Sudan]
                  |  |?- †Pouitella pervetus
                  |  `-- †Lapparentophis defrennei 
                  `--+-- †Simoliophis sauvagei [Simoliophidae]
                     |-- Anilioidea Stejneger, 1907 (telakäärmeensukuiset)
                     `-- Macrostomata Ritgen. 1828
          

Serpentes incertae sedis:

Many of these are probably madtsoniids or booids.

OphidiumMesophisAlbaneryxCadurceryxCadurcoboaDaunoplisDawsonophisDunnophisHelagras prisciformisLithopbisPaleopythonPaleryxPlesiotortrixPterygoboaTregophis

After Caldwell, Nydam, Palci & Apesteguía, 2015

<==o Serpentes
   |-- †Diablophis
   |-- †Eophis
   |-- †Parviraptor
   |-- †Portugalophis
   `--+-- †Dinilysia
      `--+--o †Madtsoiidae
         |  |-- †Sanajeh
         |  `--+-- †Yurlunggur
         |     `-- †Wonambi
         `--+-- †Najash
            `--+-- †Coniophis
               `--+-- Scolecophidia (sokkokäärmeet)
                  `--o Alethinophidia
                     |-- Uropeltidae
                     `--+-- Anilius
                        `--+--o †Pachyophiidae
                           |  |-- †Haasiophis
                           |  `--+-- †Pachyrachis
                           |     `-- †Eupodophis
                           `-- Macrostomata

Reference(s):

  • Caldwell, M. W., Nydam, R. L., Palci, A. & Apesteguía, S., 2015: The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution.
    –Nature Communications: Vol. 6, art.num. 5996, pp. 1-11 [doi: 10.1038/ncomms6996]

After Zaher, 1998, Tchernov, Rieppel, Zaher, Polcyn, & Jacobs, 2000, Zaher & Rieppel, 2002, and Rieppel, Kluge & Zaher, 2002

<==o Serpentes
   |?- †Pachyophis
   `--+?- †Coniophis
      |?- †Palaeophidae
      `--+?-o Scolecophidia (sokkokäärmeet)
         |  |-- Leptotyphlopidae
         |  `--+-- Typhlopidae
         |     `-- Anomalepididae
         `--+?- †Dinilysia
            `--o Alethinophidia
               |-- †Lapparentophis 
               `--+-- †Simoliophis
                  |-- Anilioidea
                  `-- Macrostomata

Reference(s):