After Livezey & Zusi, 2007, and Nesbitt, Ksepka & Clarke, 2011

Alternative phylogeny after Cracraft, 1988 (from Livezet & Zusi, 2007).

Alternative taxonomy after Olson, 1985, Feduccia, 1980, 1996

Alternative phylogeny after Mayr, 2002, 2003, 2004ab, 2005ab, Mayr & Clarke, 2003, Mayr, Manegold & Johansson, 2003 (fig. 7), and Bourdon, 2005

<==o Neognathia Huxley, 1867 [Neognathae Pycraft, 1900] (uusleukaiset; neognathous modern birds)
   |--o Galloanserae Sibley & Ahlquist, 1990 [Galloanserimorphae (Sibley et al., 1988)]
   |  |-- Galliformes (Temmink, 1820) (landfowl, i.e. chickens, fowls and relatives; kanalinnut)
   |  |?- †Diatrymiformes Shufeldt, 1913
   |  `-- Anseriformes Wagler, 1831 [incl. †Dromornithiformes Fürbringer, 1888 sensu Murray & Vickers-Rich, 2004] (waterfowls; sorsalinnut)
   `--o Neoaves Sibley et al., 1988
      |--o Natatores Baird, 1858
      |  |--o Pygopodo-Tubinares Livezey & Zusi, 2007
      |  |  |--o Caviomorphae Livezey & Zusi, 2007
      |  |  |  |-- Gaviiformes Wetmore & Miller, 1926 (loons; kuikkalinnut)
      |  |  |  `-- Podicipediformes (Fürbringer, 1888) (grabes; uikkulinnut)
      |  |  `--o Procellariimorphae (Fürbringer, 1888) Livezey & Zusi, 2007
      |  |     |-- Sphenisciformes Sharpe, 1891 (penguins; pingviinilinnut)
      |  |     `-- Procellariiformes Fürbringer, 1888 (shearwaters, albatrosses and storm petrels; ulappalinnut)
      |  `--o Stegano-Grallatores Livezey & Zusi, 2007
      |     |--o Pelecanimorphae Huxley, 1867
      |     |  |--o Balaenicipitiformes (Sclater, 1924) (shoebills; kenkänokat)
      |     |  |  `--o Balaenicipitidae (Sclater, 1924) (shoebills; kenkänokat)
      |     |  |     |?- ?†Paludavis richae
      |     |  |     |-- †Goliathia andrewsi Lambrecht, 1930
      |     |  |     `-- Balaeniceps rex Gould, 1850 (shoubill; kenkänokka)
      |     |  `-- Pelecaniformes Sharpe, 1891 [incl.? Odontopterygiformes (Spulski, 1910)] (pelecans, sulas, anhingas and cormorant & shags; pelikaanilinnut)
      |     `--o Ciconiimorphae (Garrod, 1874)
      |        |-- Ardeiformes (Wagler, 1831) (herons; haikaralinnut)
      |        `-- Ciconiiformes Garrod, 1874 [incl Phoenicopteriformes] (storks, ibises, etc.; kattohaikaralinnut)
      `--o Terrestrornithes Livezay & Zusi, 2007
         |--o Telmatores (Lowe, 1931)
         |  |-- Gruiformes (Bonaparte, 1854) [incl. Cariamiformes (Wagler, 1830)] (cranes and relatives; kurkilinnut)
         |  `--+-- Turnaciformes (Huxley, 1868) [incl. Mesitornithiformes] (buttonquails; kyyhkyrääkät ja pyyjuoksijat)
         |     `--+-- Ralliformes (Reichenbach, 1854)
         |        `-- Charadriiformes (Fürbringer, 1888) (shorebirds; rantalinnut)
         `--o Dendrornithes (Verheyen, 1961) (“treebirds”; “puulinnut”)
            |--o Raptores Baird, 1858 [Falconimorphae (Seebohm, 1890)]
            |  |-- Strigiformes (Wagler, 1830) (owls; pöllölinnut)
            |  `-- Falconiformes Seebohm, 1890 [incl. Cathartae (Coues, 1824)] (falcons, hawks, eagles, vultures, condors, etc.; päiväpetolinnut)
            `--o Anomalogonates Garrod, 1874 [Anomalogonatae]
               |?-o Coccyges Huxley, 1867
               |  |--o Cuculimorphae Sibley et al., 1988
               |  |  |--o Opisthocomiformes (L'Herminer, 1837) Sharpe, 1891 (hoatzins; haisulinnut)
               |  |  |  `--o Opisthocomidae Swainson, 1837 [incl. Foratidae Olson, 1992; Onychopterygidae Cracraft, 1971] (hoatzins; haisulinnut)
               |  |  |     |?- †Foro panarium Olson, 1992 [Foratidae Olson, 1992] E.Eoc. WNAm.
               |  |  |     |?- †Onychopteryx simpsoni Cracraft, 1971 [Onychopterygidae Cracraft, 1971] E.Eoc. SSAm.
               |  |  |     |-- †Namibiavis senutae Mourer-Chauviré, 2003; E.Mioc. SAf.
               |  |  |     `--+-- †Hoazinavis lacustris Alvarenga, Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré, 2011
               |  |  |        |?- †Hoazinoides magdalenae AH Miller, 1953; M.Mioc. NSAm.
               |  |  |        `-- Opisthocomus hoazin (Müller, 1776) Illiger, 1811; R. NSAm. (hoatzin; töyhtökana, haisulintu)
               |  |  `-- Cuculiformes (Wagler, 1830) (turacos, cuckoos, coucals, roadrunners, etc.; käkilinnut)
               |  `?-o Psittacimorphae Huxley, 1867) (parrot-like birds; papukaijamaiset linnut)
               |     |-- Psittaciformes (Wagler, 1830) (parrots; papukaijalinnut)
               |     `-- Columbiformes (Garrod, 1874) [incl. Pteroclidiformes (Boucard, 1876)] (doves & pigeons; kyyhkylinnut)
               `--+--o Strisores Baird, 1858 sensu Nesbitt, Ksepka & Clarke, 2011 [Incessores Baird, 1858; incl. Cypselomorphae Huxley, 1867]
                  |  |--+?- Steatornithidae sensu Nesbitt, Ksepka & Clarke, 2011 [Steatornithiformes] (rasvalinnut; oilbirds)
                  |  |  `-- Podarciformes Mathews, 1918 sensu Nesbitt, Ksepka & Clarke, 2011
                  |  `--o Cypselomorphae Huxley, 1867 sensu Mayr, 2002
                  |     |-- Caprimulgiformes (Ridgway, 1891) (goatsuckers, nightjars; kehrääjälinnut)
                  |     `--o Daedalornithes Sangster, 2005
                  |        |-- Aegothelidae (Bonaparte, 1853) [Aegotheliformes Simonetta, 1967; Aegotheli Sibley et al., 1988] (owlet-nightjars; australiankehrääjät)
                  |        `-- Apodiformes Peters, 1940 (swifts & hummingbirds; kirskulinnut)
                  `--+--o Trogones Livezey & Zusi, 2007 [ Trogonomorphae Livezay & Zusi, 2007] (trogon-like birds; trogonimaiset linnut)
                     |  |?=Sandcoleiformes Houde & Olson, 1992 [paraphyletic basal Trogones?]
                     |  |-- Coliiformes (Murie, 1872) (hiirolinnut; mousebirds)
                     |  `-- Trogoniformes Wetmore & Miller, 1926 (trogons; trogonilinnut)
                     `--o Pico-Clamatores Livezey & Zusi, 2007 [Passerimorphae Sibley et al., 1988] (Passer-like birds; varpuslintumaiset linnut)
                        |-- Coraciiformes Forbes, 1884 (blue-jays; säihkylinnut)
                        |-- Piciformes (Meyer & Wolf, 1810) (woodpeckers; tikkalinnut)
                        `-- Passeriformes (Linnaeus, 1758) (songbirds; varpuslinnut)

After Cracraft, 1988

<==o Neognathia
   |--o Gallianseres
   |  |-- Gallifores
   |  `-- Anseriformes
   `--o Neoaves
      |--+--+-- Procellariiformes
      |  |  `-- Pelecaniformes
      |  `--+-- Sphenisciformes
      |     `--+-- Caviiformes
      |        `-- Podicipediformes
      `--+-- Ciconiiformes
         |--+-- Ardeidae
         |  |-- Cruiformes
         |  |-- Charadriiformes
         |  `-- Columbiformes
         |--+-- Falconiformes
         |  `-- Strigiformes
         |--+-- Caprimulgiformes
         |  `-- Apodiformes
         `--+-- Coraciiformes
            `--+-- Piciformes
               `-- Passeriformes

After Olson, 1985, and Feduccia, 1980, 1996

<==o Neognathia
   |--o Galloanserae
   |  |-- Galliformes
   |  `--o “Anserimorphae”
   |     |?- †Diatrymiformes [Neornithes incertae sedis]
   |     `-- Anseriformes [incl. †Dromornithiformes]
   `--o Neoaves
      |-- Mesitornithidae [Mesiornithes]
      `--o Gruimorphae
         |?- †Anisolornis excavatus
         |?- Gruiformes
         |?-+-- Phoenicopteriformes
         |  `-- Podicipediformes
         |?-o Charadriomorphae
         |  |-- Charadriiformes
         |  `--+-- Turnaciformes
         |     `--+-- Pteroclidiformes
         |        `--+-- Columbiformes
         |           `-- Psittaciformes
         |?- Eurypygoidea
         |?- Rhynocheti
         |?- Otides
         `?-o “The Land-bird Assemblage”
            |-- Cariamiformes
            `--+-- Opisthocomidae
               `--+--+-- Accipitridae
                  |  `-- Musophagidae
                  `--+-- Falconidae
                     `--+?- Cuculiformes
                        `--+?- Pandionidae
                           |-- Sagittariidae
                           `--o Anomalogonatae
                              |-- Coliiformes
                              |--+-- Strigiformes
                              |  `--+-- Caprimulgiformes
                              |     `-- Apodiformes
                              `--+== “Coraciiformes”
                                 `--+-- Alcedinifores
                                    `--+-- Bucerotiformes
                                       `--+-- Piciformes
                                          `-- Passeriformes

After Sibley & Monroe, 1990

<==o Neornithes
   |--o Eoaves [Paleognathe; Paleognathia]
   |  |--o Galloanserae
   |  |  |-- Galliformes
   |  |  `-- Anseriformes
   |  `--o Ratitae
   |     |-- Tinamiformes
   |     `--o Struthioniformes
   |        |--+-- Struthionidae
   |        |  `-- Rheidae
   |        `--+-- Apterygidae
   |           `-- Casuariidae
   `--o Neoaves
      |-- Turnicidae
      `--+-- Piciformes
         `--+--+== “Coraciiformes”
            |  `-- Trogoniformes
            `--+-- Coliiformes
               `--+--+== “Cuculiformes”
                  |  `-- Opisthocomiformes
                  `--+-- Psittaciformes
                     `--+-- Apodiformes
                        `--+-- Musophagidae
                           `--+-- Strigiformes
                              `--+-- Caprimulgiformes
                                 `--+-- Columbidae
                                    `--+-- Passeriformes
                                       `--+--+-- Gruiformes
                                          |  `-- Ralliformes
                                          `--+-- Pteroclidae
                                             `--+-- Charadriiformes
                                                `--+-- Falconiformes
                                                   `--+-- Podicipediformes
                                                      `--+-- Phaethontidae
                                                         `--+--+-- Sulidae
                                                            |  `-- Phalacorcoracidae
                                                            `--+-- Ardeidae
                                                               `--+-- Scopidae
                                                                  `--+-- Phoenicopteridae
                                                                     `--+--+-- Pelecanidae
                                                                        |  `-- Ciconiidae
                                                                        `--+-- Fregatidae
                                                                           `--+-- Spheniscidae
                                                                              `--+-- Caviidae
                                                                                 `-- Procellariiformes

Reference(s):

  • Sibley, C. G. & Ahlquist, J. E., 1990: Phylogeny and classification of birds. A study in molecular evolution.
    –Yale University Press, New Haven & London, pp. xxii-976

After Mayr, 2003

<==o Neognathia
   |--o Gallianseres
   |  |-- Gallifores
   |  `-- Anseriformes
   `--o Neoaves
      |?= “Waterbird assemblage” [untreated]
      |-- Opisthocomidae
      `--+-- Musophagidae
         `--+--+--+-- Leptosomidae
            |  |  `-- Podargidae
            |  `--+-- Steatornithidae
            |     `--+-- Nyctibiidae
            |        `--+-- Aegothelidae
            |           `--+-- Hemiprocnidae
            |              `-- Trochilidae
            `--+--+-- Falconiformes
               |  `-- Strigiformes
               `--+--+--+-- Trogoniformes
                  |  |  `-- Bucerotiformes
                  |  `--o Coraciiformes
                  |     |--+-- Coraciidae
                  |     |  `-- Alcedinidae
                  |     `--+-- Meropidae
                  |        `-- Momotidae
                  `--+--+-- Psittaciformes
                     |  `--+-- Coliiformes
                     |     `--+-- Piciformes
                     `--+-- Cuculiformes
                        `-- Passeriformes

After Mayr & Clarke, 2003

<==o Neognathia
   |--o Gallianseres
   |  |-- Gallifores
   |  `-- Anseriformes
   |-- Caviidae
   |-- Podicipedidae
   |-- Spheniscidae
   |-- Procellariidae
   |-- Pelecaniformes
   |-- Balaenicipitidae
   |-- Ciconiidae
   |-- Threskiornithidae
   |-- Phoenicopteridae
   |--+-- Ardeidae
   |  `-- Eurypygidae
   |--+-- Psophiidae
   |  `-- Cruidae
   |-- Otididae
   |--+-- Recurvirostridae
   |  `-- Burhinidae
   |-- Rallidae
   |--+-- Cariamidae
   |  `-- Opisthocomidae
   |--+-- Cuculidae
   |  `-- Musophagidae
   |--+-- Cathartidae
   |  `--+-- Sagittariidae
   |     `--+-- Strigiformes
   |        `--+-- Accipitridae
   |           `-- Falconidae
   |--+-- Aegothelidae
   |  `--+-- Steatornithidae
   |     `-- Trogonidae
   `--+-- Passeriformes
      `--+-- Coraciidae
         `--+-- Psittacidae
            `-- Coliidae

After Mayr, 2005b

<==o Neognathia
   |--o Gallianseres
   |  |-- Gallifores
   |  `-- Anseriformes
   `--+--+-- Opisthocomidae
      |  |-- Musophagidae
      |  `-- Cariamidae
      `--+-- Ciconiidae
         `--+--+-- Cathartidae
            |  `--+-- Sagittariidae
            |     `--+-- Strigiformes
            |        `--+-- Accipitridae
            |           `-- Falconidae
            `--+--+-- Pteroclidae
               |  `-- Columbidae
               `--+-- Cuculidae
                  `--+-- Coraciidae
                     `--+--+-- Psittacidae
                        |  `-- Coliidae
                        `--+-- Aegothelidae
                           `--+-- Steatornithidae
                              `-- Trogonidae

After Mayr, 2005f

<==o Neognathia
   |--o Gallianseres
   |  |-- Gallifores
   |  `-- Anseriformes
   `--+-- Musophagidae
      `--+--+--+-- Strigidae
         |  |  `-- Tytonidae
         |  `--+-- Falconidae
         |     `-- Accipitridae
         `--+-- Leptosomidae
            `--+-- Podargidae
               |--+-- Psittacidae
               |  `--+-- Steatornithidae
               |     `--+--+-- Caprimulgidae
               |        |  `-- Nyctibiidae
               |        `--+-- Aegothelidae
               |           `--+-- Trochilidae
               |              `--+-- Hemiprocnidae
               |                 `-- Apodidae
               `--+-- Cuculidae
                  |-- Trogonidae
                  `--+--+--+-- Galbulae
                     |  |  `-- Pici
                     |  `--+--+-- Coraciidae
                     |     |  `-- Brachypteraciidae
                     |     `--+--+-- Alcedinidae
                     |        |  `-- Meropidae
                     |        `--+-- Todidae
                     |           `-- Motmotidae
                     `--+-- Passeriformes
                        `--+-- Coliidae
                           `--+-- Bucerotidae
                              `--+-- Phoenoculidae
                                 `-- Upupidae

Reference(s):