Mikko's Phylogeny Archive

PanicMain Groups of Non-Avian Archosaurs

  Main Groups of Basal Birds  

 

    Aves [Avialae sensu Gauthier, 1986]ARCHAEORNITHES [paraphyletic]
            †Archaeopterygiformes
            ?†Rahonaviformes
            ?†Jeholornithiformes
            ?†Yandangornithiformes
        Avebrevicauda Paul, 2002
            ?†Sapeornithiformes
            PYGOSTYLIA Chatterjee, 1997
                †Confuciusornithiformes
                OrnithothoracesEnantiornithesIberomesornithiformesEuenantiornithesSinornithiformes [incl. Cathyornithiformes]AxelornithiformesGobipterygiformesEnantiornithiformes
                    OrnithuromorphaLiaoningornithiformesChaoyangiaformesPatagopterygiformes
                        OrnithuraeHesperornithiformes [Odontornithes, Odontognathe]
                            †Gansuiformes
                            CarinataeAmbiortimorphae [Ichthyornithiformes sensu lato]
                                    ?†Apatornithiformes
                                    ?†Ambiortiformes
                                    ?†Ichthyornithiformes sensu stricto
                                Neornithes [Aves sensu Gauthier, 1986] (nykylinnut; modern birds)

Reference(s):

Chiappe, L. M. 1995: The first 85 million years of avian evolution.
–Nature: vol. 378, 23 November, pp. 349-355

Chiappe, L. M., 2002: Basal Bird Phylogeny: Problems and Solutions. 448-472.
in Chiappe, L. M. & Witmer, L. M., (eds.) 2002: Mesozoic Birds - Above the Heads of Dinosaurs.
–University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 2002, xii-520

Chiappe, L. M., Ji, Shu'an, Ji, Qiang & Norell, M. A., 1999: Anatomy and systematics of the Confuciusornithidae (Theropoda: Aves) from the Late Mesozoic of Northeastern China.
–Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History: #242, 1-89

Creisler, B. & Poling, J., 2002-: Aves Translation and Pronunciation Guide.
–iNet: www.dinosauria.com: http://www.dinosauria.com/dml/names/aves.htm

Feduccia, A., 1980: The age of birds.
–Harvard University Press, Cembridge, Massachusetts & London, England, 1980. ix-196.

Feduccia, A. 1995: Explosive evolution in Tertiary birds and mammals.
–Science: vol. 267, 3 February, pp. 637-638.

Feduccia, A. 1996: The origin and evolution of birds.
–Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1996. xii-420.

Keesey, T. M., 1996-2000: The Dinosauricon.
–iNet: The Dinosauricon: http://dinosauricon.com/

Paul, G. S., 2002: Dinosaurs of the Air: the evolution and loss of flight in Dinosaurs and Birds.
–Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2002, ix-460

Witmer, L. M., 2002: The Debate on Avian Ancestry - Phylogeny, Function, and Fossils. 3-30.
in Chiappe, L. M. & Witmer, L. M., (eds.), 2002: Mesozoic Birds – Above the Heads of Dinosaurs.
–University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 2002, xii-520

Zhou, Z. & Hou, L.-H., 2002: The Discovery and Study of Mesozoic Birds in China. 160-183.
in Chiappe, L. M. & Witmer, L. M., (eds.) 2002: Mesozoic Birds - Above the Heads of Dinosaurs.
–University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 2002, xii-520

 

© Mikko Haaramo,

/ Last updated 2003-07-20 / http://www.helsinki.fi/~mhaaramo