2001e Why translate? In P. Kukkonen and R. Hartama-Heinonen (eds), Mission, Vision, Strategies, and Values. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 25-32.
Language has two main functions: to define the Self and to communicate with others. Translation is only one way of coping with the problem of how to communicate with others across language boundaries. Other ways include multilingualism in various forms, code-switching, use of a lingua franca, refusing to communicate, and ethnic cleansing. The forms, causes and consequences of each kind of solution can be studied on many different levels: linguistic, technological, economic, socio-cultural, political, cognitive, ethical. At the ethical level, the various solutions highlight different ways of relating to the Other.