Publications on archaeology (vs. language)

Parpola, Asko, in press (2006). Administrative contact and acculturation between Harappans and Bactrians: Evidence of sealings and seals. Pp. 281-288 in: Catherine Jarrige (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 2001. Paris: ADPF Éditions Recherche sur les Civilisations.

Carpelan, Christian & Asko Parpola, in press (2006). On the emergence, contacts and dispersal of Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Uralic and Proto-Aryan in archaeological perspective. In: Gojko Barjamivic, Irene Elmerot, Adam Hyllested, Benedicte Nielsen and Björn Okholm Skaarup (eds.), Language and prehistory of the Indo-European peoples: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Budapest: Archaeolingua.

Parpola, Asko, 2005. The Nâsatyas, the chariot and Proto-Aryan religion. Journal of Indological Studies 16-17 (2004-2005): 1-63. Kyoto: Association for the Study of Indian Thought. (PDF)

Parpola, Asko, & Christian Carpelan, 2005. The cultural counterparts to Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Uralic and Proto-Aryan: Matching the dispersal and contact patterns in the linguistic and archaeological record. Pp. 107-141 in: Edwin F. Bryant & Laurie L. Patton (eds.), The Indo-Aryan controversy: Evidence and inference in Indian history. London & New York: Routledge.

Parpola, Asko, 2004 [2005]. Gandhâra Graves and the Gharma pot, the Nâsatyas and the nose: In pursuit of the chariot twins. Pp. 102-128 in: M. F. Kosarev, P. M. Kozhin & N. A. Dubova (red.), U istokov tsivilizatsii: Sbornik statej k 75-letiyu Viktora Ivanovicha Sarianidi. Moskva: Staryj sad. [To be reprinted in: Ancient Pakistan (Peshawar), vol. 16.]

Parpola, Asko, 2004. From archaeology to a stratigraphy of Vedic syncretism. The banyan tree and the water buffalo as Harappan-Dravidian symbols of royalty, inherited in succession by Yama, Varuna and Indra, divine kings of the first three layers of Aryan speakers in South Asia. Pp. 479-515 in: Arlo Griffiths & Jan E. M. Houben (eds.), The Vedas: Texts, language & ritual. Proceedings of the Third International Vedic Workshop, Leiden  2002. (Groningen Oriental Studies, 20.) Groningen: Egbert Forsten.

Parpola, Asko, 2004. Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Aryan, Proto-Indo-Aryan and Proto-Iranian in archaeological  perspective: Summary of a holistic attemot at reconstruction. Pp. 269-276 in: Maitreyee Deshpande (ed.), Problems in Vedic and Sanskrit literature: Festschrift in honor of 60th birth anniversary of Ganesh Umakant Thite. Delhi: New Bharatiya Book Corporation.

Parpola, Asko, 2002. Proto-Aryan, Proto-Indo-Aryan and Proto-Iranian in archaeological  perspective. Paper read at the Fourth Harvard roundtable on ethnogenesis in Central and South Asia. Cambridge  MA 11-13 May 2002.

Parpola, Asko, 2002. Search for a common homeland. [Review of: Edwin Bryant, The quest for the origins of Vedic culture. The Indo-Aryan migration debate. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.] The Times Higher Education Supplement, 8 March 2002, p. 8.

Parpola, Asko, 2002. Comments on “Indigenous Indoaryans and the Rgveda”.  The Journal of  Indo-European Studies 30 (3-4): 395-399.

Parpola, Asko, 2002. Pandaíê and Sîtâ: On the historical background of  the Sanskrit epics.  Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (2): 361-373.

Parpola, Asko, 2002. From the dialects of Old Indo-Aryan to Proto-Indo-Aryan and Proto-Iranian.  Pp. 43-102 in: Nicholas Sims-Williams (ed.), Indo-Iranian languages and peoples.  (Proceedings of the British Academy, 116.) London: The British Academy.

Parpola, Asko, 2002. Pre-Proto-Iranians of Afghanistan as initiators of S’âkta Tantrism: On the  Scythian / Saka affiliation of the Dâsas, Nuristanis and Magadhans.  Iranica Antiqua 37: 231-322.  Leuven: Peeters.

Carpelan, Christian, and Asko Parpola, 2001. Emergence, contacts and dispersal of Proto-Indo-European, Proto-Uralic and Proto-Aryan in archaeological perspective. Pp. 55-150 in:  Christian Carpelan, Asko Parpola and Petteri Koskikallio (eds.), Early contacts between Uralic and Indo-European: Linguistic and archaeological considerations. (Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, 242.) Helsinki: The Finno-Ugrian Society.

Parpola, Asko, 1999. The Formation of the Aryan Branch of Indo-European. Pp. 180-207 in:  Roger Blench and Matthew Spriggs (eds.), Combining archaeological and linguistic aspects of  the past. (World Archaeology: Archaeology and Language series, 3.) London: Routledge.

Parpola, Asko, 1998. Aryan languages, archaeological cultures, and Sinkiang: Where did Proto- Iranian come into being and how did it spread? Pp. 114-147 in: Mair, Victor H., 1998. (Ed.)  The Bronze and Iron Age peoples of eastern Central Asia, vol. 1. (The Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph 26: 1.) Washington, D.C. : Institute for the Study of Man.

Parpola, Asko, 1997. The Aryan languages and archaeology, with an excursus on Botaj. Pp. 911-926 in: Allchin, F. R., and Bridget Allchin, 1997. (Ed.) South Asian Archaeology 1995. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.

Potts, Daniel T., Asko Parpola, Simo Parpola and J. Tidmarsh, 1996 [1997]. Guhlu and guggulu. Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 86 (Festschrift für Hans Hirsch): 291-305.

Parpola, Asko, 1995. The problem of the Aryans and the Soma: The archaeological evidence. Pp. 353-381 in: George Erdosy (ed.), Language, material culture and ethnicity: The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia. (Indian Philology and South Asian Studies, 1.) Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Parpola, Asko & Petteri Koskikallio (eds.), 1994. South Asian Archaeology 1993. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists held in Helsinki University 5-9 July 1993. Vol. I-II. (Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae B 271.) Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia. 8:o (25 cm), 887 pp. with 412 figs. (photographs, line drawings and maps) and 22 tables. ISBN 951-41-0729-2.

Parpola, Asko, 1993. Margiana and the Aryan problem. International Association for the study of the cultures of Central Asia, Information Bulletin 19: 41-62. Moscow.

Parpola, Asko, 1993. Bronze Age Bactria and the history of Indian religions. Studia Orientalia 70: 81-87. Helsinki: The Finnish Oriental Society.

Parpola, Asko, 1988. The coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the cultural and ethnic identity of the Dasas. Studia Orientalia 64: 195-302. Helsinki: The Finnish Oriental Society.  (Unauthorised partial reprint: International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 17 (2), June 1988: 85-229. Trivandrum.)

Parpola, Asko, 1984. The Todas of the Nilgiris: Hypothesis of a twofold origin -- Pre-Tamil and Saka. Pp. 319-336 in: S.D. Joshi (ed.), Amr tadha ra : Professor R.N. Dandekar Felicitation Volume. Delhi, Ajanta Books International. 

Parpola, Asko, 1974. On the protohistory of the Indian languages in the light of archaeological, linguistic and religious evidence: An attempt at integration. Pp. 90-100 in: J.E. van Lohuizen - de Leeuw & J.M.M. Ubaghs (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1973: Papers from the second international conference of South Asian archaeologists held in the University of Amsterdam. Leiden: E.J. Brill. 

Parpola, Asko, 1973. Arguments for an Aryan origin of the South Indian megaliths. (Tamilnadu State Department of Archaeology, Publication 32.) Madras: State Department of Archaeology, Government of Tamilnadu. iv + 74 pp. 

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