This article appeared, without the illustrations, in Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 2 CIV 2003, pp. 149-158. The text is here reproduced, with minor alterations, by the kind permission of the Modern Language Society.
The article focuses on the sixteenth-century printed English books kept in the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences and deals with the distinctive features of Elizabethan book culture. The author points out that the Renaissance, the Reformation and other political and intellectual movements created quite a special atmosphere in society and reflected on the repertoire of publishing. The paper aims at a detailed description of the most interesting 16th-century volumes which are of great value to scholars specializing in the field of English history, medieval literature etc. It is proved that English book rarities stand in evidence of an unprecedented heyday of the publishing culture in Europe.
Английские книги 16-го века в Библиотеке Российской Академии наук (Санкт-Петербург)
Галина Николаевна Питулько, зав.сектором редкой книги Библиотеки Российской АН, кандидат исторических наук
В статье на основе изучения старопечатных английских книг 16 века, хранящихся в Библиотеке Российской Академии наук, автор рассматривает характерные черты елизаветинской книжной культуры. Автор подчеркивает, что Ренессанс, Реформация и другие политические и интеллектуальные обстоятельства создали совершенно особую атмосферу в обществе и отразились на репертуаре напечатанных книг. Основная научная задача статьи – подробное описание наиболее интересных томов 16 века, которые представляют большую ценность для ученых, специализирующихся в области английской истории, средневековой литературы и т.д. Доказывается, что английские книжные редкости убедительно свидетельствуют о непреходящем расцвете издательской культуры в Европе.
1. Introduction: Books in Elizabethan England
The Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the oldest scientific institution in Russia, founded by the special order of Peter the Great in 1714. Among the variety of early printed books in the library there are, interestingly enough, also a number of English volumes. The present article will introduce the most valuable 16th-century printed books of English provenance now kept in the Department of rare books in the library.
The 16th century was a remarkable period in the history of English society, an age of profound changes in all spheres of life. The great geographical discoveries which widened the perspectives of Englishmen, the Renaissance, the Reformation and the birth of Puritanism created quite a special atmosphere in society. 
The monopolization and strict regulation of book production were not favourable to the successful development of printing in Elizabethan England. In 1557 the Stationers' Company received a special royal charter which gave the guild an exclusive right to publish books and to control the contents and quality of what was printed. As a result, there was a very complex hierarchical structure within the company, severe prohibition of the book trade by foreigners, and restrictions on the number of printing-houses and type-foundries in some English centres. All these factors had a negative effect on publishing in the "golden age" of England. 
This brief excursus on the history of English publishing explains some peculiarities connected with the books I am going to discuss below. To a certain extent, social and political conditions exerted an influence on the volume and scope of publishing. There were, nevertheless, various trends in the intellectual life of Elizabethan England encouraging book production. Many Englishmen of the time turned towards spiritual values. Sixteenth-century England saw an increase in the number of people who possessed and read books. Collecting rare manuscripts and old printed books became a favourite occupation for some educated men. 
2. Early English books in the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2.1 Historical works
It is probably no exaggeration to say that every 16th-century volume in our library is of interest to specialists in the field of English history and medieval literature. These books are also of great value to scholars interested in the tastes of 16th-century audiences, the history of Anglo-Russian cultural contacts, the description of the provenance of individual books, etc.
The earliest English book among our rarities is a small Latin work entitled Illustrissimi ac potentissimi regis, senatus, populiq[ue] Angliae, sententia, et de eo Concilio, quod Paulus episcopus Ro[manus] Mantuae futurum simulauit….  Its place and date of publication are found at the end of the book: "Londini, in aedibus Thomae Bertheleti, 1537". At that time Latin was of course extremely common in religious works and even other books addressed to an international readership. It was only after the complete victory of the English Reformation that the situation changed and many theological tracts and pamphlets were printed in the vernacular. The above-mentioned work formed part of a private collection of books which from the 17th century onwards belonged to a famous library in Königsberg, East Prussia. This was the Wallenrodiana library, whose ex libris can be seen on the back of the upper cover of the binding with the Latin text "Wallenrodia dum magnis orta hunc reliquis junxit Bibliotheca libris…".
Historical works occupied a very important position among the printed books of the 16th century. Many of them were intended for an educated nonspecialist readership, for example Flores Historiarum per Matthaeum Westmonasteriensem collecti,…. The Flores was first published in 1567 from a manuscript written at Merton early in the 14th century. In reality Matthew Westminster is an imaginary name given to the supposed author of a chronicle called Flores Historiarum. English specialists of the 18th century describe him as "a phantom who never existed". We have the second edition of the Flores, published in London in 1570.  It is characterized by an excellently engraved title page decorated in the Renaissance style. Our copy once used to belong to Johann Philipp Krug's (1764–1844) collection, the owner's autograph appearing on the title page. It is known that histories were the most valuable part of this private library, which was bought by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1846. Another book from this collection is Αρχαιονομια, sive de priscis anglorum legibus libri, sermone Anglico…Lambardo Gulielmo interprete.
The works of William Camden (1551–1623), the antiquary and historian who was called the "English Strabo", were extremely popular in 16th- and 17th-century England. The first edition of the famous Britannia appeared in 1586, but within four years four new editions were published, three in London and one in Frankfurt. We have the second edition of Camden's history, printed in 1587. Britannia was intended to be a purely English history. This work, published in English, enjoyed great popularity.
The next book to deserve mention is Rerum Anglicarum scriptores by Henry Savile (1549–1622), the most educated Englishman in the field of secular literature in Elizabethan England.  It was published in London in 1596 and reprinted in Frankfurt in 1601. The first edition has a beautifully engraved title page, illuminations and initials in the text. The book begins with a dedication to Queen Elizabeth – "Serenissimae potentissimae Principi Elizabethae, Angliae, Franciae et Hiberniae Reginae, etc.", signed by the author. Savile was notably a friend of Thomas Bodley and assisted him in the foundation of the famous library.
Scholars in the field of English military history will undoubtedly be interested in the excellent materials contained in The theorike and practike of moderne warres… (London, 1598),  the first edition of a theoretical treatise written by the military writer and poet, Robert Barret, who died in 1600. The book is written in English, in the form of a dialogue between a gentleman and a captain. The style demonstrates the author's literary background and adherence to the Renaissance tradition. There are many underlinings and handwritten notes in English in the volume. Most of these notes are short citations. The volume has an "academic" binding of the 18th century, traditional for our library, and the flyleaves are of "peacock's feather" – a special type of paper. These features place this particular volume among the earliest books in our collection.
Illustration 3. The title page of Robert Barret's The theorike and practike of moderne warres… London, printed for William Ponsonby, 1598. (4050.f./1911.R.all.2).
Our library also has a copy of a curious and rare book called Of the Russe Common Wealth…, written by Giles Fletcher the Elder and published in London in 1591.  This work had a rather strange fate: shortly after publication it was forbidden in England because at that time the position of England on the Russian market was precarious. During Boris Godunov's rule there was a special embassy led by Jeremias Horsey, whose reputation in Muscovite political circles was not very high. It is evident that Fletcher's book was not welcome at that time because it described Russian morals and manners in a negative light. The Muscovite Trade Company prohibited the so-called "harmful" publication and almost the entire edition was destroyed. It was only 52 years later, in the middle of the 17th century, that Fletcher's book was reprinted.
Illustration 4. The title page of Giles Fletcher's Of the Russe Common Wealth. Or, maner of governement by the Russe Emperour… Londini, printed by T. Dawson for Thomas Charde, 1591. (12623.o./1517).
2.2 Geographical discoveries
The 16th century was a period of the great geographical discoveries which made England one of the great seapowers. This gave many energetic men an opportunity to implement their plans and publishing ideas. One of them was Richard Hakluyt (1552?–1616), who became a popular writer and editor of geographical works in Elizabethan England. His most important work is The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation… (London 1589).  We possess the two earliest editions of this book, the first published in 1589 (one volume) and the second in 1598–1600 (three volumes). 
The publication of The Principall Navigations… gave its author an international reputation: Dutch merchants consulted Hakluyt when they prepared an expedition to the North, and the Flemish painter and editor Theodor de Bry benefited from Hakluyt's book when preparing an edition of the illustrated history of geographical discoveries in four languages.
Hakluyt had close contacts with many illustrious Englishmen of his time. For example, the famous "sea-wolf", traveller and adventurer, Walter Raleigh, provided him with descriptions of his voyages.  Thanks to these useful connections Hakluyt was able to produce a book rich in geographical and historical information, making use of similar compilations of the second half of the 16th century. Another publication dealing with geographical explorations is The first Booke of the Historie of the Discouerie and Conquest of the East Indias…, written by Fernando Lopes de Castanheda and translated into English by Nicholas Lichefield (London, 1582).  In the same year, Hakluyt published Divers Voyages touching the Discovery of America, which was the first step towards publishing The Principall Navigations.
Our copy of the first edition of The Principall Navigations probably belonged to one of the English book collections acquired by the Library of the Academy of Sciences in the 18th century. This volume may have belonged to Pitcairne's or Erskine's private book collections of Peter the Great's time. There are, however, no particular owner's inscriptions on the title page of this book.
2.3 Philological rarities
The next books will be of interest to specialists in the English and Latin languages, philosophy and history: Bibliotheca scholastica. A double dictionarie, penned for all those that would have within short space the use of the Latin tongue,… Compiled by John Rider, Master of Arts, published in 1589 like the first edition of Hakluyt's The Principall Navigations. It follows the pattern of Oxford University Press, established in 1478. The title page is illuminated by an engraving of the editor's stamp of "Academiae Oxoniensis" with the motto: "Sapientiae et felicitatis". According to the title this reference work was intended for scholars, courtiers, lawyers, travellers and merchants "within her Majesties Realmes of England and Ireland". Judging by the owners' notes, it had belonged to various people, evidence of the great interest in such literature. One of the owners was a certain Otto Hildebrand, who lived in the 17th century and was, judging by the inscription on the title page, an apothecary by profession: "Sum Ottonis Hildebrand: pharmacop: 1682".  The large number of notes on the flyleaves and in the text itself attests to the frequent use of this volume. At the back of the title page we find the inscription "Præclaro viro, pariter et charo, Dño Ranzouio / Rodulphus Yocartus". Yocartus, one of the former owners of this copy, had preferred Latin to the vernacular and played with the shades of meaning of two adjectives sharing a common root, praeclarus and clarus. This dictionary probably came to our library at the beginning of the 18th century, because the symbol "Gr." (for 'grammatica'), a symbol used in the first printed, scientific catalogue of the library, the Kamernyi katalog, published in 1742,  appears at the end of the book. Thus Rider's reference book formed part of the earliest book collection of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Speaking of philological rarities, it is necessary to mention the works by John Florio (1553?–1625), a real patriot whose family originally lived in Siena and then fled to England because John's father was a protestant. Florio's first philological book was printed in London in 1578 when he was twenty-five years old. We have two beautiful editions of the 1590s. One is Florios Second frvtes, To be gathered of twelue Trees, of diuers but delightsome tastes to the tongues of Italians and Englishmen, published in London in 1591.  This edition consists of two parts: the first is intended for English readers, while the second has separate pagination and a title page in Italian.  It is worth noting that in our copy all readers' notes and marks are restricted to the English part of the book; this seems to suggest that the material of the first part of Florios…frutes was felt to be more interesting than that contained in the second part. The other volume, A Worlde of Wordes, Or Most copious, and exact Dictionarie in Italian and English, collected by John Florio, printed in London in 1598,  is interesting from the linguistic point of view, with a number of English equivalents to Italian words. This copy of 1598 is important for the history of bibliophilism. There are four owner's autographs in three languages: Italian, English and Greek. John Roberts, who probably lived in England at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century, was the first of them. Judging by the stamp on the title page and the mark "Gr" ('grammatica') at the end, this copy must have been in our library in the first half of the 18th century.
Illustrations 8, 9 & 10. Florio, John. A Worlde of Wordes, Or Most copious, and exact Dictionarie in Italian and English… London, by Arnold Hatfield for Edw. Blount, 1598. (4108.f./2586.R.). The title page, a list of sources used in the compilation and the first page of dictionary entries.
2.4 Natural sciences
There is also an excellently engraved first edition of a 16th-century anatomy book in our library: Compendiosa totius Anatomie' delineatio…per Thomam Geminum. This work was printed at John Herford's press in London in October, 1545.  Its author, Thomas Gemini, or Geminus, (fl. 1540–1560) was a famous engraver, printer and the compositor of a compendium of anatomy with copperplate engravings by himself. This English edition of 1545 reproduced Vesalius's work on anatomy, published at Basle in 1543. It is interesting that Gemini's Compendiosa…delineatio was dedicated to Henry VIII, who was a pupil of Thomas More. The book has an engraved frontispiece, illustrated by allegorical figures surrounding the royal arms in the centre. Scholarly opinion considers the engravings of this edition to be the earliest copperplates known in England. The difference between the styles of the engraved frontispiece and the anatomical plates is marked. While the former represents the manner of the Fontainebleau school, the engraved anatomical plates display the characteristics of Italian Renaissance woodcuts. The frontispiece was probably designed by a different hand, while Gemini had made the anatomical engravings. Our copy of Compendiosa…delineatio probably came from a private German collection, judging by the numerous inscriptions written in German in a 17th-century hand on the leaves containing the engraved anatomical drawings.
We have recently received a very interesting botanical book compiled by a famous scientist of the 16th century, John Gerard (1545–1612). He had close connections with Lord Burghley and dedicated The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes… (London, 1597) to him.  One of the most distinguished features of this book is a beautiful engraved portrait of Gerard. There is a large number of pictures of various plants in this volume. As a whole, the engraved title page, the numerous illustrations of the text, and the high-quality printing – all typify the printer of this book, John Norton, who was three times Master of the Stationers' Company. 
2.5 Books printed in Scotland
Books printed in Scotland occupy a special place among the rare old printed books of the 16th century. There are a few works written by the famous Scottish writer and historian George Buchanan (1506–1582): Rerum Scoticarum Historia… (Edinburgh, 1582 and 1583)  and De jvre regni apud Scotos dialogvs… (Edinburgh, 1580).  The latter had provoked considerable debate in the circles of provincial author-publicists. Of the first-mentioned work we have two copies of the 1583 edition – one of these, originally part of a private collection, is bound with Rerum Britannicarum (Leiden, 1587); the other is a separate volume, with the owner's inscription – later crossed out – on the title page: "Mr Ro[bert] Smith knight this book and no other. 1655". There are numerous notes in Latin in the text. This copy is distinguished by a typical 17th- and 18th-century "English" binding in brown leather with characteristic linear stamping. It belonged to the original mid-18th-century English collection of our library, with the mark "Brit." ('Britannia') at the end of the book.
The most interesting old Scottish book among our holdings is contained in a publisher's collection consisting of three historical works: (1) The Actis and Constitutiounis of the Realme of Scotland… (Edinburgh, 1566); (2) The Actis of the Parliament of…James the sext,… (Edinburgh, 1575); (3) In the Parliament of the Richt Excellent…James the sext… (Edinburgh, 1575).  This volume is characterized by excellent decoration – an engraved title page, Gothic print and woodcut initials. On some pages of this volume, we can read the owner's name, John Maisson and the date 1631. The owner was probably John Mason (1586–1635), the founder of New Hampshire and the author of an extremely rare work, A Briefe Discourse of the Newfoundland, with the situation, temperature, and commodities thereof… (1620). 
2.6 Poetical works
Poetical works by English authors are represented by an interesting collection of rhymes, written by the famous poet laureate John Skelton (1460–1525) and printed in London around the 1560s–1570s.  This book has distinctive features: Gothic print and engraved initials. It is well known that the poet was rewarded with the honourable title "poeta laureatus" in the late fifteenth century by the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Louvain and had the reputation of being an indefatigable satirist. With such a fame Skelton survived, despite his attitude towards the clergy and persons of high rank, an attitude exemplified by the poem "Collin Clout", contained in this volume. Judging by the owner's autograph on the title page, the book was one of the English rarities in a very interesting private collection, that of Rudolph von Strauch, Duke of Courland. Von Strauch was an expert on old European books and travelled to various countries, including England. He was a large landowner and the author of History of Liefland.  He died in 1681; his books, and indeed the whole library of the dukes of Courland, arrived in the Library of the Academy of Sciences in 1714.  Our copy of Skelton has the official stamp of the library on the title page and the mark "Poe" ('poetica') of the Kamernyi katalog.
Another poetical volume among our holdings is the Aeneid by Vergil (70–19 BC) in a Scottish English translation by Gavin Douglas.  There are many inscriptions, pen strokes and ink drawings on the margins of this copy, witnessing of the continuing interest of successive owners in this text during the 16th and 17th centuries. It is quite possible that this volume once belonged to one of the British university libraries. It certainly contains caricatures of certain professors, drawn by irreverent students.
Illustrations 11 & 12. Two pages from Vergilius Maro, Publius. The XIII Bukes of Eneados of the famose Poete Virgill… Londini, by W. Copland, 1553 (6791.q./2016).
2.7 Theology and law
England in the 16th century had a rich literary tradition, but there were also important changes in the sphere of ideas and beliefs, reflected in an influx of new theological publications. Any edition of the English Bible is thus a profitable source for investigators. We have one copy of the Bible, printed in 1595 and "translated according to the Ebrew and Greek, and conferred with the best translations in divers languages" as the title page claims.  The print of this Bible has features typical of such editions: strict Gothic letters are combined with excellent engraved initials and small engravings with topics from the Holy Scripture. We can examine the original English binding, which is a rare opportunity. It is a beautiful book-cover, made of brown leather with the date ("1597") and the first owner's name ("Hans. Davit Slovne"). We have not been able to find any information about Slovne; this name is probably related to the well-known Scottish name Sloane. Later on, this copy of the Bible belonged to a famous 17th-century private library, the Wallenrodiana library, in Königsberg: this is brought out by the ex libris at the back of the upper book-cover.
Illustrations 13, 14, 15 & 16. The Bible: That is, the Holy Scriptures, contained in the Olde and Newe Testament… London, imprinted by the Deputies of Christopher Baker, 1595. (373,f./5445.). Frontispiece, title page, first page and ex libris.
Considering that the sermon was the favourite form of theological literature in the 16th century, it is not surprising to find the following two books in our collection: Hugh Latimer's (1485?–1555) Frutefull Sermons…, printed by John Day in 1571  and St. John Chrysostom's Homiliae ad populum Antiochenum…, published by George Bishop and Rudolph Newberie in 1590.  Latimer, the famous bishop of Worcester, was distinguished by his unsurpassed skill at persuasion. For example, in March 1554, Latimer, Ridley and Cranmer were sent down to Oxford to dispute with the best divines of both English universities on three articles touching the mass. Frutefull Sermons can be seen as a well-deserved posthumous homage to Latimer by the "English Plantin", John Day. In 1594 our copy belonged to a certain Philipp Williams, whose notes are found on the back of page 278. The second book, Chrysostom's Homiliae, is interesting as a specimen of a Greek Father whose works were read and printed in 16th-century England. It was probably a serious scholarly edition because John Harmer (1555–1613), professor of Greek at Oxford, took part in the preparation of both the first edition (1586) and of the second edition (1590). The second edition is notable for its beautiful Greek print with engraved initials and illuminations. There are various handwritten notes in the book. The autographs of two English owners can be seen on the title page: "Benj. May (?)" and "Samuel Friers. 1601"; in addition, there is a note in Greek. The first stamp of the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the 18th century and the mark "H.Ec." ('historia ecclesiastica') testify that this book was in the earliest book collection of our library.
Books on law were printed and widely read in 16th-century England, including treatises on civil law, juridical acts, manuals, etc. Some lawyers became famous writers, like John Perkins who wrote a popular textbook for law students, A Profitable booke of Maister John Perkins felow of the inner Temple treating of the lawes of Englande, first printed in 1530 in Norman French and later reprinted in Latin. There is a Latin edition of 1567 in the collection of our library. 
The 16th-century books kept in the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences stand in evidence of an unprecedented heyday of the humanities and publishing culture in Europe. Our English rarities convincingly demonstrate how this flourishing activity is reflected in the history of the first scientific library of Russia at the beginning of the 18th century. It is quite obvious that all these books call for more detailed palaeographic analysis and linguistic research, which would result in the preparation and publication of a scholarly catalogue containing a complete description of every copy of our early English books. 
 See: Rostenberg, L. Literary, political, scientific, religious and legal publishing, printing and bookselling in England: 1551-1700. I-II. New York, 1965.
 Steinberg, S.H. Five Hundred Years of Printing. Bristol, 1961; Clair, C. A History of European Printing. London, New York, San Francisco, 1976.
 See: Fletcher, W. English book collectors. London, 1902.
 Illustrissimi ac Potentissimi Regis, Senatus, Populiq[ue] Angliae, sententia, et de eo Concilio. quod Paulus episcopus Rom. Mantuae futurum simulauit: et de ea bulla, quae ad calendas Nouembres id prorogarit. Londini, in aedibus Thomae Bertheleti, 1537. (845.o./4212-77.all.4). The title of the book can be translated as 'The decision of the most illustrious and powerful King, Parliament and the people of England, and about that Council which the Roman bishop Paul pretended to be forthcoming at Mantua; and about the papal bull which postponed the same council to the first of November'.
 Αρχαιονομια, sive de priscis anglorum legibus libri, sermone Anglico…Lambardo Gulielmo interprete. Londini, ex officina Joannis Daij, 1568 (7448.q./4247.R.).
 Camden, William. Britannia: Sive florentissimorum regnorum, Angliae, Scotiae, Hiberniae, et lnsularum adiacentium ex intima antiquitate Chorographica descripti… Londini, per Radulphum Newbery, 1587. (5090.o./20655.).
 Savile, Henry. Rerum Anglicarum scriptores…ex vetustissimis codicibus manuscriptis nunc primum in lucem editi… Londini, excudebat G. Bishop, R. Nuberie et R. Baker, 1596. (290l.f./12362.R.).
 Barret, Robert. The theorike and practike of moderne warres… London, printed for William Ponsonby, 1598. (4050.f./1911.R.all.2).
 Fletcher, Giles. Of the Russe Common Wealth. Or, maner of governement by the Russe Emperour… Londini, printed by T. Dawson for Thomas Charde, 1591. (12623.o./1517).
 Hakluyt, Richard. The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation… Londini, by Christopher Barker, 1589. (4192.f./2735.R.).
 Hakluyt, Richard. The Principal Navigations… Imprinted at London by George Bishop, Ralph Newberie and Robert Barker, 1599-1600. (4204.f./2751.R. Vol. I-II; 419l.f./2734.R. Vol. III).
 Greenblatt, S.J. Sir Walter Ralegh. The Renaissance Man and His Roles. New Haven, London, 1971, pp. 156-7.
 Lopes de Castanheda, Fernando. The first Booke of the Historie of the Discouerie and Conquest of the East lndias, enterprised by the Portingales, in their daungerous Nauigations, in the time of King Don John, the second… /translated into English by N. Lichefield/ Londini, by Thomas East, 1582. (7631.q./4505.R.all.1).
 Rider, John. Bibliotheca scholastica. A double dictionarie… Oxford, by Joseph Barnes, 1589. (6917.q./2565.R.).
 It is of interest to note that a certain O. Hildebrand is given as one of the owners of Andreas[?] Van der Cruyssen, Misse. Haer korte uytlegginge, en godvruchtige oeffeninge onder de zelve… [Amsterdam, 1651]. The title page has the inscription "Segnior Andreas Hasse Lixaböae mii verehrte tot ener Gedachtenüsse. Anno 1683 d. 6 Januarii. O. Hildebrand m. propr.". – This volume is one of the books from the Courland library, donated by the Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg to the University of Helsinki in 1829. – See Sirkka Havu and Irina Lebedeva (comps.), Collections donated by the Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg to the Alexander University of Finland in 1829. Helsinki: Helsinki University Library, 1997, p. 129. [Matti Kilpiö, personal communication].
 Kamernyi katalog. Biblioteka Imperialis Petropolitanae. Pars 1-2. St Petersburg, 1742.
 Florio, John. Florios Second Frvtes, To be gathered of twelue Trees, of diuers but delightsome tastes to the tongues of Italians and Englishmen. Londini, printed for Thomas Woodcock, 1591. (6862.q./2460.R.all.1).
 Florio, Gio:ni. Giardino Di ricreatione nel quale crescono fronde,fiori e frutti, vaghe, leggiadri, e soaui, sotto nome di seimila Proverbij, e piaceuoli riboboli Italiani… Londra, appresso Thomaso Woodcock, 1591. (6862.q./2460.R.all.2).
 Florio, John. A Worlde of Wordes, Or Most copious, and exact Dictionarie in Italian and English… London, by Arnold Hatfield for Edw. Blount, 1598. (4108.f./2586.R.).
 Geminus, Thomas. Compendiosa totius Anatomie' delineatio, et reexarata… Londini, in officina Joanni Herfordie, X.1545. (1923.f.max./2627.R.).
 The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. Gathered by John Gerarde of London Master in Chirurgerie. London, imprinted by John Norton, 1597. (6997.f./48540.R.).
 Clair. C. A History of European Printing…, p. 287.
 Both were printed by the Scottish royal typographer Alexander Arbuthnet. See: Buchanan, George. Rerum Scoticarum Historia… Edimburgi, apud Alexandrum Arbuthnetum, 1582. (4350.f./4245.R.); Edimburgi [Edinburgh], ad exemplar Alexandri Arbuthneti editum, 1583 (4557.f./4989.R.).
 We have two copies of this polemical work, Buchanan, George. De jvre regni apud Scotos dialogvs… Ed.2. Ad exemplar Joannis Rosseij Edinburgi. Londini, by Edward Aggas, 1580. (11216.o./3908.R.); (5403.o./5952-57.R.all.2).
 The Actis and Constitutionnis of the Realme of Scotland… Edinburg, by Robert Letzprevik, the XXVIII day of November, 1566. (4569.f./5001.R.).
 L. Stephen and S. Lee (eds.), The Dictionary of National Biography… London, 1921-22. Vol. XII, p. 1313.
 Skelton, John. Heare after foloweth certain bokes compiled by master Skelton, poet laureat, whose name here after doth appere. London, by John Day, s.a. /1570?/ (11213.o./3905.R.all.1).
 Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon… Leipzig; Halle, 1744. Vol. XI, pp. 783-4; Deutscher Biographischer Index. München, London, New York, 1986. Vol. IV, p. 1945.
 See: Havu S. and Lebedeva I. Collections donated by the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg … Helsinki, 1997, p. 23.
 Vergilius Maro, Publius. The XIII Bukes of Eneados of the famose Poete Virgill… Londini, by W. Copland, 1553 (6791.q./2016).
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 The present article forms part of the Early English Text and Corpus Studies (EETACS) project, with participants from the Department of English Philology and Translation at the State University of St Petersburg, the Department of English at the University of Helsinki, the St Petersburg Department of Foreign Languages of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences. I wish to thank Professor Matti Rissanen, Dr Matti Kilpiö and Dr Roderick McConchie for kindly reading the manuscript of this article and commenting on it.
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