Jukka Tyrkkö

PhD, Fellow, Institute for Advanced Social Research, University of Tampere
Collaborating Scholar
E-mail: jukka.tyrkko(at)helsinki.fi or Jukka.Tyrkko(at)uta.fi

I am currently a Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Social Research (IASR) at the University of Tampere; see my page there for further information. I maintain my affiliation with the University of Helsinki as Adjunct Professor of English Philology and as a collaborating scholar at Varieng. I can be reached at either of the email addresses above.

Research interests

Multilingual Practices in the History of Written English

Multilingual features such as code-switching have been studied quite extensivelyin Present-Day English, but much less systematic attention has been afforded to how foreign languages have been used throughout the history of English. I joined the multilingualism project at the University of Tampere at the end of 2012, where I work with Päivi Pahta, Arja Nurmi and Laura Wright (University of Cambridge). We will be presenting our work at ICAME36 in Trier, Germany and at DSNA-20 & SHEL-9 in Vancouver, Canada. I will also present a paper at OX-LEX4 at Pembroke College, Oxford, in March 2015.

My own work in the project focuses on the development of corpus tools and statistical approaches that would help us identify and quantify multilingual content in large corpora. Multilingualizer, currently at version 0.9, is a GUI-enabled tool that can identify foreign words in corpora using a variety of methods including seed words and morpholofical features, part-of-speech tagging and frequency information. I am currently working on integrating the database of the Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary with Multilingualiser to improve dating-based pruning. At the end of May 2015, I will be giving a software demonstration at ICAME36 in Trier, Germany.

Multilingualism and the British Migrants of Nineteenth-Century Tampere

My research project at the IASR looks into the multilingualism and sociolinguistics of the British migrants who moved to Tampere in the nineteenth century and who were instrumental in transforming a small village into a vibrant industrial town in the space of less than a hundred years. Little research has been done on this fascinating group of people and less still on the complicated linguistic situation that existed in Tampere at the time. My project will eventually produce a monograph as well as an online database of all extant data concerning this community and the people with whom they interacted.

Book history

Book history plays a prominent role in my work, particularly as it informs us of the impact that the processes and circumstances of publishing and the book trade had on the dissemination of knowledge, textual structure, and language. I am currently working with Ilkka Mäkinen at the University of Tampere on a digital humanities project where we look at the history of reading with particular reference to migration of reading-related concepts across time and space. We presented a joint paper at SHARP2014 in Antwerp and have an abstract pending for SHARP2015 in Montreal. My own personal book history projects include studies of paratextuality and preliminaries both in early medical books and early dictionaries. I am also the current vice-chairperson of the newly formed Helsinki Society for Historical Lexicography.

The Gatekeepers of Knowledge project I started with Carla Suhr and Ville Marttila in 2011 is currently on a hiatus, but the research interests we share are very much alive and a part of my work. Combining methodologies developed in historical corpus linguistics and stylometrics with in-depth knowledge of the language of early modern medical writing and personal and institutional histories, we are developing new approaches to analysing the cross-influences between authorship and publishing as they relate to linguistic and textual features.

Scientific thought-styles project

I am a member of the Scientific thought-styles project and one of the editors of the corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts (EMEMT). The corpus was released in 2010 with a book, Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies, detailing its composition and use. Work on Late Modern English Medical Texts (LMEMT), the third and final installment of the Corpus of Early English Medical Writing, is in progress and we hope to get the corpus finished by the end of 2015.

The language of political speaking in transition

My interest in politics and the language of political speaking has grown gradually over the years. Rather than focusing on individual speeches or speakers, I am mostly interested in diachronic and syncronic variation in political speeches overall. I am particularly fascinated with discovering trends and patterns of change in features that are invisible to the naked eye: phraseologies, the use of closed class items such as pronouns and verbs, and the use of repetitive sequences and rhetorical devices. In the near future, I am looking forward to collaborating with Gerold Schneider (Zurich) on issues of complexity and with several colleagues at the IASR on Finnish political and societal discourses.

One of my longer-term projects has been the Small Corpus of Political Speeches, a corpus that started out as a pedagogical exercise designed to introduce corpus linguistic methodology students to some practical issues in corpus compiling. Over the years the corpus has grown steadily, and students and researchers from a number of countries around the world have been granted access to it for their own projects. The corpus was expanded considerably in the summers of 2013 and 2014 with help from research assistants Veera Saarimäki and Jenni Riihimäki, respectively. The corpus currently stands at 2.8 million words and 700 speeches. A dependency parsed version of the corpus will be available before too long.

Hidden patterns and phraseologies

I am interested in the hidden dimensions of language, that is, in the subtle trends and changes that language undergoes over time and space which go mostly unnoticed but which the speakers of a language apparently manage to redirect collectively. The use of statistical methods in the discovery of such tendencies is an area I find particularly fascinating. I am currently preparing a volume with Joanna Kopazcyk on lexical bundles and n-grams, based on a very successful seminar we co-convened at ESSE12 in Kosice, Slovakia.

Hypertext and new media

My doctoral thesis, entitled Fuzzy Coherence: Making Sense of Continuity in Hypertext Narratives (2011), examined the concepts of textual coherence and continuity in digital hypertexts with particular reference to how conventional textlinguistic, discourse analytical, and narratological concepts can be extended to hypertextual linking. The theoretically oriented thesis presented a model of the complex processes that are involved in the negotiation of coherence in fragmented and interactive texts. My main argument was that the intelligibility of textual continuity in hypernarratives relies largely on our faculties both to withstand textual ambiguities and to infer coherence relationships from unreliable information. Both of these phenomena involve complexities which can not be reduced to simplified process chains but rather require a hermeneutic approach, which is realised as a phenomenon I've coined fuzzy coherence. My future endeavours in this area involve turning the thesis into a refocused monograph.

CLMET3.0

In the spring of 2013, Hendrik De Smet, Hans-Jürgen Diller and I released CLMET3.0, a 34 million word expanded version of Hendrik's widely-used CLMETEV corpus. The expansions of CLMET3.0 are largely based on the work of the EUDDEET project. CLMET3 is available from Hendrik's website.

eVarieng and other institutional activities

In addition to research, I coordinated a variety of projects at VARIENG in my role as a planning officer from 2006 to 2012. Collectively entitled eVarieng, these online resources are intended to explore new frontiers of academic publishing and resourcing. Some of the most important aspects of that work involved coordinating various corpus resource projects and representing Varieng in various national and international contexts. Another important area of work involved launching the open-access Corpus Resource Database, or CoRD.

After six years as the managing editor of Varieng's eSeries Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change, I handed the reins to the capable hands of Tanja Säily at the end of 2012. My involvement with the series continues as a member of the editorial board.

I am also a Board Member and Treasurer of FINSSE, the Finnish Society for the Study of English, and Vice-Chair of the Helsinki Society for Historical Lexicography.

Teaching and guest lectures

I enjoy teaching, and have taught and co-taught a variety of courses since 2004 on corpus linguistics, discourse analysis, practical lexicography, genre and register analysis and computer-mediated communication. At the University of Tampere, my teaching in the near future includes corpus linguistic methodology and computer-mediated communication. I currently supervise the PhD projects of Joe McVeigh (Helsinki) and Hanna Ryynänen (Tampere).

Select publications

2014. Tyrkkö Jukka and Leppänen Sirpa (eds.) Texts and Discourses of New Media. Helsinki: VARIENG. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 15).

2014. Taavitsainen Irma, Hiltunen Turo, Lehto Anu, Marttila Ville, Pahta Päivi, Ratia Maura, Suhr Carla, Tyrkkö Jukka. (2014). Late Modern English Medical Texts 1700?1800: A corpus for analysing eighteenth-century medical English. ICAME Journal 38, 137-153.

2013. Exploring Part-of-Speech Profiles and Authorship Attribution in Early Modern Medical Texts. Teoksessa Jucker Andreas, Landert Daniela, Seiler Annina, Studer Nicole (eds.) Meaning in the History of English: Words and texts in context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 185-210.

2013. Notes on eighteenth-century dictionary grammars. In Transactions of the Philological Society 111 (2), 179-201.

2013. Printing houses as communities of practice: Orthography in early modern medical books. Teoksessa Kopazcyk Joanna, Jucker Andreas (eds.) Communities of Practice in the History of English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 151-176.

2013. Tyrkkö Jukka, Timofeeva Olga, Salenius Maria (eds). Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka. Vantaa: Modern Language Society of Helsinki. (Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 90).

2013. Kauhanen Henri, Hiltunen Turo, Tyrkkö Jukka. 2013. Something about nothing: Using Resampling, Collocation Extraction and Nonlinear Regression to Link Orthography and Grammaticalization. In Tyrkkö Jukka, Timofeeva Olga, Salenius Maria (eds.) Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, 131-158. (Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 90).

2013. Review of ?"Astronomy ?playne and simple: The writing of science between 1700 and 1900". In Literary and Linguistics Computing 28 (3), 487-490.

2013. Matti Rissanen and Jukka Tyrkkö. “The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (HC)”. In Meurman-Solin Anneli and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 12). Helsinki: VARIENG.

2013. Tyrkkö Jukka and Anneli Meurman-Solin. “Introduction”. In Meurman-Solin Anneli and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 12). Helsinki: VARIENG.

2013. Tyrkkö Jukka, Ville Marttila and Carla Suhr. “The Culpeper Project: Digital editing of title-pages”. In Meurman-Solin Anneli and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 12). Helsinki: VARIENG.

2013. Meurman-Solin, Anneli and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Principles and Practices for the Digital Editing and Annotation of Diachronic Data. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 14). Helsinki: Research Unit for Variation, Contacts, and Change in English.

2013. McConchie R.W., Teo Juvonen, Minna Nevala, Mark Kaunisto and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Selected Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 3 (HEL-LEX 3). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.

2013. “‘My intent is onelie to further those that be willing to learne’: The lexicon of mid-sixteenth century surgical books in context. In McConchie R.W., Teo Juvonen, Minna Nevala, Mark Kaunisto and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Selected Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 3 (HEL-LEX 3). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. 177–188.

2012. Tyrkkö Jukka, Matti Kilpiö, Terttu Nevalainen and Matti Rissanen. Introduction. In Tyrkkö Jukka, Matti Kilpiö, Terttu Nevalainen and Matti Rissanen (eds) Outposts of Historical Corpus Linguistics: From the Helsinki Corpus to a Proliferation of Resources. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 10). Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English: Helsinki.

2012. Tyrkkö Jukka, Matti Kilpiö, Terttu Nevalainen and Matti Rissanen (eds) Outposts of Historical Corpus Linguistics: From the Helsinki Corpus to a Proliferation of Resources. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 10). Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English: Helsinki.

2012. "A Physical Dictionary (1657): The first English medical dictionary". Reprint. In Considine, John (ed) Ashgate Critical Essays on Early English Lexicography. Volume 4. The Seventeenth Century. Ashgate.

2012. Tyrkkö Jukka and Irma Taavitsainen. "Laajojen tekstimassojen luokitteluperusteista". In Heikkinen, Voutilainen, Lauerma et al. (eds.) Genreanalyysi: tekstilajitutkimuksen käsikirja. Gaudeamus. 310-321.

2011. Fuzzy Coherence: Making Sense of Continuity in Hypertext Narratives. PhD thesis. University of Helsinki.

2011. Hiltunen, Turo and Jukka Tyrkkö. "Existential there constructions in early medical texts". In Rayson Paul, Sebastian Hoffmann, and Geoffrey Leech (eds.), Methodological and Historical Dimensions of Corpus Linguistics. Helsinki: Varieng. (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 6).

2011. “'Halles Lanfranke' and its most excellent and learned expositive table". In Timofeeva, Olga and Tanja Säily (eds.) Words in Dictionaries and History: Essays in Honour of R. W. McConchie. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 17-39.

2011. Hiltunen Turo and Jukka Tyrkkö. "Verbs of Knowing: Discoursive practices in Early Modern vernacular medicine". In Taavitsainen Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Medical Writing in Early Modern English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 44-74.

2011. Taavitsainen, Irma, Peter Murray Jones, Päivi Pahta, Turo Hiltunen, Ville Marttila, Maura Ratia, Carla Suhr and Jukka Tyrkkö. “Medical texts in 1500–1700 and the corpus of early modern English medical texts”. In Taavitsainen, Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Medical Writing in Early Modern England (Studies in English Language). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 9-29.

2011. Pahta Päivi, Turo Hiltunen, Ville Marttila, Maura Ratia, Carla Suhr, and Jukka Tyrkkö. "Communicating Galen's Methodus medendi in Middle and Early Modern English". In Pahta, Päivi and Andreas H. Jucker (eds.) Communicating Early English Manuscripts. (Studies in English Language.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2010. Diller Hans-Jürgen, Hendrik de Smet, and Jukka Tyrkkö. "A European Database of Descriptors of English Electronic Texts". In The European English Messenger, 19.2 Autumn 2010. 29-35.

2010. Taavitsainen Irma and Jukka Tyrkkö. ”The field of medical writing with fuzzy edges”. In Taavitsainen, Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 57-62.

2010. Taavitsainen Irma and Jukka Tyrkkö.  “Category 1. General treatises and textbooks”. In Taavitsainen, Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 65-72.

2010. “Category 5. Surgical and anatomical treatises”. In Taavitsainen, Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 121-127.

2010. “Sign terms in specific medical genres in early modern medical texts”. In Taavitsainen, Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 169-191.

2010. “The corpus tool and special features of Early Modern English Medical Texts”. In Taavitsainen, Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 217-218.

2010. Tyrkkö Jukka, Raymond Hickey and Ville Marttila. “Exploring Early Modern English Medical Texts: Manual to EMEMT Presenter.” In Taavitsainen, Irma and Päivi Pahta (eds.) Early Modern English Medical Texts: Corpus Description and Studies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 221-279.

2010. Taavitsainen, Irma, Päivi Pahta, Turo Hiltunen, Martti Mäkinen, Ville Marttila, Maura Ratia, Carla Suhr and Jukka Tyrkkö (compilers), with the assistance of Alpo Honkapohja, Anu Lehto and Raisa Oinonen. Early Modern English Medical Texts (EMEMT, 1500–1700). DVD-ROM with EMEMT Presenter software (Raymond Hickey). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

2010. "Hyperlinks: Keywords or Key Words?". In Bondi, Marina and Mike Scott (eds.) Keyness in Texts: Corpus linguistic investigations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 79-91.

2009. Hiltunen Turo and Jukka Tyrkkö. "'Tis well known to barbers and laundresses: Overt references to knowledge in English medical writing from the Middle Ages to the Present Day". In Renouf Antoinette and Andrew Kehoe (eds.) Corpus Linguistics: Refinements and Reassesments. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi. 67-87.

2009. Tyrkkö Jukka and Turo Hiltunen. "Frequency of nominalization in Early Modern English medical writing". In Andreas Jucker, Marianne Hundt & Daniel Schreier (eds.) Corpora: Pragmatics and Discourse. Papers from the 29th International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 293-316.

2009. McConchie R.W., Alpo Honkapohja and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 2 (HEL-LEX 2). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

2009. "A Physical Dictionary (1657): The first English medical dictionary". In McConchie R.W., Alpo Honkapohja and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.) Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on New Approaches to English Historical Lexis 2 (HEL-LEX 2). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. 171-187.