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The Verb Phrase

Core properties

v verb
vps present tense
Singular Plural Other
vps11 vps21 vps01
vps12 vps22 vps02
vps13vps23vps03

Note: If the subject is an indefinite pronoun, a collective noun, or some other item which is fuzzy as regards number, zero is used for number.

vptpast tense
vsjpssubjunctive present
vsjptsubjunctive past
venppan en-past participle (e.g. given)
vppa past participle
vpp-aja past participle with adjective-like properties
vpp-ava past participle with adverb-like properties
vpp-cja past participle with connective potential (e.g. provided)
vpp-pra past participle with preposition-like properties
vpp-aj-ava past participle with adjective-and adverb-like properties
vpp-aj-n a past participle with adjective- and noun-like properties (e.g. the enclosed)
vpp-aj-ka past participle with adjective-like properties as head in a compound

vpspa present participle
vpsp-aja present participle with adjective-like properties
vpsp-ava present participle with adverb-like properties
vpsp-cja present participle with connective potential (e.g. seeing)
vpsp-pra present participle with preposition-like properties (e.g. concerning)
vpsp-aj-ka present participle with adjective-like properties as head in a compound
vpsp-aj-ava present participle with adjective-and adverb-like properties
vpsp-pr-cja present participle with preposition-like properties with a nominalization as complement
vian infinitive
vma modal verb
vi-avan infinitive with adverb-like properties

Note: im ‘the infinitive marker’ provides information about an initial consonant (+C), vowel (+V) or H (+H) of the immediately following word

v-impan imperative
v-impersan impersonal use of a verb

Note: Gerunds, verbal nouns and deverbal nouns are dealt with in section The Noun Phrase

Comments in lexels

{allow} attached to the verb let to distinguish it from let ‘prevent’
{aux} to indicate that a primarily lexical verb is used as an auxiliary (e.g. get, instead of be, in the passive)
{cause} a superordinate verb which expresses a command, a request, or a wish, or realises a similar communicative act
{h} the auxiliary BE instead of HAVE in the present and past perfect
{lat} a construction influenced by Latin (including analogical formations)
{motion}a semantic disambiguator attached to verbs used in the role of motion which primarily occur in other senses (e.g. they were making south)
{n} a copular use of a verb (e.g. be{n}, stand{n}, stay{n})
{rep} attached to the verb DO in the function of replacing another verb which occurs in the preceding context

Comments in grammels

{abs} an absolute construction
{cleft}

attached to the verb BE in a cleft sentence

$/S_IT
$be{n}/vps13<S+{cleft}_IS
$/T_THE
$presence/n{rc}>pr_PRESENCE
$of/pr<n_OFF
$honest/aj_HONEST
$man/npl_MEN"
{zero rel}
$/0RO{sent}{cleft}_0
$/P21N_WE
$desire/vps21<P+_DESYR $/vps21<P+_0

{co} attached to the present or the past participle as PV in a co-ordinate clause
{com} in a comment clause
{-im} the bare/plain infinitive
{indep} a non-finite PV in an independent proposition
{neg} in the tag of the auxiliary do in negative clauses
{nom} in a nominal clause
{q} in the tag of the auxiliary do in direct interrogative clauses
{rel} infinitive, present participle or past participle as PV in a relative clause, or an adjective in a verbless relative clause
{pass} a past participle in the passive
{prog} a present participle in the progressive
{psp} a past participle in the present perfect
{ptp} a past participle in the past perfect

Note: The variant of the progressive to be in doing has been tagged as follows:

{zero pre}
$/T_THE
$action/n{rc}>pr-cj_ACTION"
$anent/pr-cj<n_ANENT
$/T_THE
$discuss/vn{rc}>pr_DISCUSS+ING $/vn{rc}>pr_+ING
$of/pr<vn_OF
$/T_THE
$right/npl>pr_RICHT+is $/pln>pr_+is
$of/pr<n_OF
$/T_THE
{\}
$chantry/n_*CHANTORIE
$be/vps13<cnp+_IS
$in/pr-cj_IN
$do/vn{rc}{prog}_DO+ING $/vn{rc}{prog}_+ING

$now/av_NOW

Note: The semantic category of adverbial clauses is indicated in the tag of finite verbs in the subjunctive. In the case of temporal clauses, the comment {time} permits the study of present tense verbs used with future time reference.

{cause} an adverbial clause of cause
{circ} an adverbial clause of circumstance
{comp} an adverbial clause of comparison
{conc} an adverbial clause of concession
{cond} an adverbial clause of condition
{pref} an adverbial clause of preference
{prop} an adverbial clause of proportion
{purpose} adverbial clause of purpose
{result} adverbial clause of result
{time} adverbial clause of time

The main data retrieval principle is that advebial clauses are extracted by semantic criteria on the basis of information provided in the tags of subordinators. See the section on Connectives.

Relations

Attached to finite verb forms

<cl+

an immediately preceding nominal-clause subject
>cl+an immediately following nominal-clause subject
<cl-a non-adjacent nominal-clause subject in the preceding context
>cl-a non-adjacent nominal-clause subject in the following context

Note: a nominal ing-clause subject (e.g. <vncl+, etc.)

<cnp+an immediately preceding complex NP as subject
>cnp+an immediately following complex NP as subject
<cnp-a non-adjacent complex NP as subject in the preceding context
>cnp-a non-adjacent complex NP as subject in the following context

Note: a pronominal head of the complex NP is also indicated, e.g. >pncnp+, <pncnp+,>pncnp-,<pncnp-, etc. Similarly, a complex NP in the plural is indicated by <cnpl+, etc.

Note: with co-ordinate structures as subject, the structures of both units are indicated (e.g. ye and yours <P&P-n)

<Dis-n+an immediately preceding demonstrative pronoun as subject
>Dis-n+an immediately following demonstrative pronoun as subject
<Dis-n-a non-adjacent demonstrative pronoun as subject in the preceding context
>Dis-n-a non-adjacent demonstrative pronoun as subject in the following context

Note: Similarly with Dat-n, Des-n, Dir-n, and Dai-n

<n+an immediately preceding simple NP in the singular as subject
>n+an immediately following simple NP in the singular as subject
<n-a non-adjacent simple NP in the singular as subject in the preceding context
>n-a non-adjacent simple NP in the singular as subject in the following context

Note: n{app} with an appositive structure in the singular as subject

Note: n{coll} with a collective noun in a simple NP as subject

Note: n-k with a compound noun in the singular as subject

<npl+an immediately preceding simple NP in the plural as subject
>npl+an immediately following simple NP in the plural as subject
<npl-a non-adjacent simple NP in the plural as subject in the preceding context
>npl-a non-adjacent simple NP in the plural as subject in the following context

Note: npl{app} with an appositive structure in the plural as subject

Note: npl-k with a compound noun in the plural as subject

<P+an immediately preceding personal pronoun as subject
>P+an immediately following personal pronoun as subject
<P-a non-adjacent personal pronoun as subject in the preceding context
>P-a non-adjacent personal pronoun as subject in the following context

Note: <PG-n+, etc. with a nominal use of a possessive pronoun as subject

<pn+an immediately preceding indefinite pronoun as subject
>pn+an immediately following indefinite pronoun as subject
<pn-a non-adjacent indefinite pronoun as subject in the preceding context
>pn-a non-adjacent indefinite pronoun as subject in the following context
cj-pr> related to prepositions (e.g. as concerning, in this particular case forming a pair with vpsp-pr<)
<R+ an immediately preceding relative pronoun as subject
<R- a non-adjacent relative pronoun as subject in the preceding context

Note: -n is attached to nominal relative pronouns: R-ncl indicate a nominal relative clause as subject

Note: As with other types of complex NP structures, a relative link as part of a complex noun phrase is indicated:

$whereof/RO{y2}>pr>n_Quhar+OF $of/pr<R>n_+OF
$/T_THE
$consequence/n{rc}<pr<R_*CONSEQUENCE
$be{n}/vps13<Rcnp+_IS

Note: co-ordinate structures as subject have been tagged applying the practice illustrated by the following example, with & indicating the presence of a co-ordinate conjunction.

$/P21G_OUR
$religion/n_*RELIGION
$law/npl_LAW+ES $/pln_+ES
$&/cj_&
$liberty/npl_LIBERTY+S $/pln_+S
$lie{place}/vps23<nnpl&npl+_LY
$/vps23<nnpl&npl+>pr_0
$at/pr<v_AT
$stake/n-av_STAKE

Attached to both finite and non-finite verb forms

>avan adverbial particle in the following context
<pra preposition as part of the complementation in the preceding context
>pra preposition as part of the complementation in the following context
>pr>a stranded preposition as part of the complementation in the following context
>viattached to the periphrastic do and semi-modals such as be to, have to, going to; forming a pair with <v

Attached to participles with adjective-like properties

>cj a nominal that-clause as adjective complementation, forming a pair with <vpsp-aj or <vpp-aj; attached to the complementizer that

Note: with zero that, the comments {zero that<vpsp-aj} and {zero that<vpp-aj} form a pair with /vpsp-aj>cj and vpp-aj>cj respectively.

<pn the pronoun self in compounds with the second unit consisting of a participial adjective (e.g. self-interested)

Attached to infinitives

<v attached to the infinitive in collocates with the periphrastic do and semi-modals such as be to, have to, going to; forming a pair with >vi

Note: in adverbial infinitive clauses, the sequence so as to + infinitive is tagged as follows

$so/av>cj_SOE
$as/cj<av>vi-av_AS
$to/im+C_TO
$be{n}/vi-av<cj_BE

Note: In the collocate to have ado, the string pr>vi forms a pair with vi<pr:

$/P13NM_HE
$have{n}/vps13<P+_HES
$a/pr>vi_A+
$do/vi<pr_ADO

Note: The grammel of the preposition for in the function of introducing the subject in an infinitive clause is related to the infinitive:

$for/pr>vi_FOR
$/P11G+C_MY
$lordship/n{ho}_*LO
$to/im+C_TO
$do/vi<pr_DO
$/P13OI_IT
$be{n}/vps13<cl+_IS
$improbable/aj_IMPROBABLE

<pn, <pn-aj

in nominal wh-infinitive clauses

$advise/v-imp_ADWYSs
$/P02N_zOW
$what/pn-aj>vi_Q^T^T
$best/aj-sup_BEST
$course/n_COWRS
$to/im+C_TO
$take/vi<pn-aj>pr_TAKE
$therewith/Dat>pr_THAIR+W^T $with/pr<Dat<vi_+W^T

The Noun Phrase

Core properties

cnpa complex noun phrase in the singular
cnpla complex noun phrase in the plural
Gnthe genitive morpheme in a noun in the singular
Gplnthe genitive morpheme in a noun in the plural
na noun in the singular
nGa noun in the genitive
nGpla plural noun in the genitive
npla noun in the plural
nqa quantifying noun in the singular
nqpla quantifying noun in the plural
plnthe plural morpheme in a noun
plvnthe plural morpheme in a deverbal noun
plnqthe plural morpheme in a quantifying noun
n-ava noun in the singular as head in an adverb phrase or a preposititional phrase functioning as adverbial
n-ka noun in the singular as head of a compound noun
n-pna noun with pronoun-like properties (e.g. thing in everything)
n-voc‘vocative’, a noun in the singular in terms of address
npl-ava noun in the plural as head in an adverb phrase or a preposititional phrase functioning as adverbial
npl-ka noun in the plural as head of a compound noun
npl-voc‘vocative’, a noun in the plural in terms of address
nq-ava quantifying noun in the singular in an adverbial PrepP (e.g. a great deal)
nq-ka quantifying noun in the singular as head of a compound noun
n-av-cj a noun incorporated in an adverbial connective phrase
n-av-pr a noun incorporated in an adverbial phrase in the function of a preposition
vnthe gerund, a verbal noun or a deverbal noun
vnpla deverbal noun in the plural
vn-avthe gerund, a verbal noun or a deverbal noun in an adverbial
vnpl-ava deverbal noun in the plural in an adverbial
aj-nan adjective with noun-like properties
aj-n-voca nominal use of an adjective in terms of address
aj-sup-na nominal use of an adjective in the superlative
av-nan adverb with noun-like properties (e.g. until then)

Comments in lexels

{c}with certain names of months as a disambiguator (e.g. March)

Comments in grammels

{app}in the latter unit of a non-restrictive appositive structure (with a tag-external comment ‘appositive’ between the two units)

Note: Fixed phrases indicating an appositive relation are tagged as follows:

$that/Dat-n{app}_THAT
$be{n}/vps13<Dat-n+_IS

$which/RN{sent}{app}_WHICH
$be{n}/vps13<R+_IS

{civ}a civil use, mostly in contrast with ecclesiastical or military use
{coll}a collective noun
{disc}a discontinous noun phrase with a non-adjacent relative clause as postmodifier; the comment is attached to the relative element
{eccl}an ecclesiastical use
{ho}a honorific use
{onom}used as a name or part of a name
{pass}attached to n-av or npl-av functioning as agent in passive constructions
{rc}a nominalization (incl. gerunds, verbal nouns, deverbal nouns, deverbal noun derivatives, etc.)
{tl}a title in front of a name (e.g. Lord{tl} Methven)

Note: a deverbal noun may be used in a collective sense, this being indicated by the comment {coll}:

$be/vps13<cnp+_IS
$appoint/vpp{pass}>pr>pr-cj_APPOINT+ED $/vpp{pass}>pr>pr-cj_+ED
$by/pr{pass}<v_BY
$/T_THE
$meet/vn{coll}-av{pass}>pr_MEET+ING
$/vn{coll}-av{pass}>pr_+ING

$of/pr<vn-av_OF
$/T_THE
$baron/npl_BARON+S $/pln_+S

Relations

<aj

in compound nouns with an adjective as first part
<avin compound nouns with an adverb as first part, forming a pair with av>n-k
<avan adverb in postmodification in a nominalization (e.g. his coming here)
<nin compound nouns with a noun as first part
<neg-pn-ajattached to a noun or a cardinal numeral with pronoun-like properties in indefinite pronouns of the type nobody, no one, etc.
<Oattached to the head of a noun phrase as extraposed object; for other structural realizations, see <S below
<pn-aj attached to nouns with pronoun-like properties in indefinite pronouns of the type anything, somebody, etc.
<S attached to the head of a noun phrase as extraposed subject; in other realizations of the extraposed (postponed) subject, the following rules are applied: in nominal that-clauses and nominal wh-clauses, <S is attached to the conjunction; in nominal relative clauses, <S is attached to the nominal relative pronoun; in nominal infinitive clauses, <S is attached the infinitive; and in nominal ing-clauses, <S is attached to the gerund.
>P referring to a co-referential, usually redundant, personal pronoun

n>pr

a noun in the singular related to a preposition which governs an NP or a pronoun
n>pr-cja noun in the singular related to a preposition which governs a nominalization
n>vi-ava noun in the singular with an adverbial infinitive clause in postmodification
n>vna noun in the singular as subject of a gerund, forming a pair with vn<n
nG>vna singular noun in the genitive as subject of a gerund, forming a pair with vn<nG
nq>cjnor or than related to items such as more
vn>pra gerund, a verbal noun or a deverbal noun related to a preposition which governs an NP or a pronoun
vn>pr-cja gerund, a verbal noun or a deverbal noun related to a preposition which governs a nominalization, a nominal head as object or in postmodification
nq<Ta quantifying noun with a definite article
vn<PGa possessive pronoun as subject of a gerund, forming a pair with PG>vn
n-k<aja noun compound with an adjective as the first unit, forming a pair with aj>n-k
n-k<na noun compound with a noun as the first unit, forming a pair with n>n-k
vn-k<ava noun compound consisting of a verbal noun with an adverb as the first unit, forming a pair with av>vn-k
n-av-cj>R

a noun incorporated in an adverbial connective phrase followed by what has been tagged as a relative clause (cf. research on these structures)

$unto/pr_WNTO
$/T_THE
$time/n-av-cj{post}>R_TYME
$that/RO{y1}-av{time}<n-av-cj_YAT
{\}
$/T_THE
$tack/npl_TAK+ES $/pln_+ES
$should/vm_SOULD
$expire/vi_EXPYR

vn-k-av<ava noun compound consisting of a verbal noun with an adverb as the first unit in an adverbial

The Adjective Phrase

Core properties

aj

an adjective
ajpla plural adjective
ajqa quantifying adjective (e.g. a little time)
plajthe plural morpheme attached to an adjective
Rajan attributive relative

aj-avan adjective with adverb-like properties
aj-cpva comparative adjective
aj-nan adjective with noun-like properties
aj-nplan adjective with noun-like properties in the plural
aj-plnthe plural morpheme of a nominal use of an adjective
aj-pran adjective with preposition-like properties (e.g. conform)
aj-supa superlative adjective
neg-aja negative adjective
pn-ajan attributive indefinite or interrogative pronoun

aj-n-av

an adjective with noun-like properties in an adverbial (e.g. in short)
aj-n-voca nominal use of an adjective in terms of address
aj-sup-na nominal use of an adjective in the superlative
neg-pn-aja negative attributive pronoun (indefinite or interrogative)
aj-n-av-pran adjective with noun-, adverb-, and preposition-like properties
vpp-aja past participle with adjective-like properties
vpsp-aja present participle with adjective-like properties
vpp-aj-ava past participle with adjective-and adverb-like properties
vpp-aj-ka past participle with adjective-like properties as head in a compound
vpsp-aj-ava present participle with adjective-and adverb-like properties
vpsp-aj-cpva present participle with adjective-like properties in the comparative
vpsp-aj-ka present participle with adjective-like properties as head in a compound
vpsp-aj-supa present participle with adjective-like properties in the superlative
vpsp-aj-npla nominal use of a present participle with adjective-like properties in the plural

Comments in lexels

{rep} attached to an adjective used as a substitute for an element in the preceding context (e.g. last ‘aforesaid’)

Comments in grammels

{onom}

an adjective as part of a name
{post}an adjective positioned after a noun as head
{rel}an adjective as a typologically distinctive constituent in a verbless relative clause
{tl}an adjective in names of high administrative offices (e.g. high commissioner)

Relations

>cja nominal that-clause or a dependent yes-no question in adjective complementation or an adverbial clause of comparison
>cja nominal that-clause as adjective complementation, forming a pair with <vpsp-aj or <vpp-aj; attached to the complementizer that

Note: with zero that, the comments {zero that<vpsp-aj} and {zero that<vpp-aj} form a pair with /vpsp-aj>cj and vpp-aj>cj respectively.

>pna nominal wh-clause in adjective complementation
>pra prepositional phrase in adjective complementation
>via nominal infinitive clause in adjective complementation
>vna nominal ing-clause in adjective complementation
>n-kreferring to a noun compound with an adjective as first part, forming a pair with n-k<aj
>pn-ajan attributive wh-pronoun in a nominal clause in adjective complementation
>pr-cja preposition governing a nominalization in adjective complementation
>vi-avan adverbial infinitive clause in adjective complementation (e.g. ready to do)
T-cj>with an adjective in the comparative with a connective function, forming a pair with T-cj<aj-cpv

Note: To retrieve data for the study of variation in realisations of clause links in the semantic role of proportion, see Section Connectives)

<pnthe pronoun self in compounds with the second unit consisting of a participial adjective (e.g. self-interested)

Note: The adverb so as a pro-form has the tag /aj when it substitutes for an adjective used in the preceding context.

$although/cj{-c-pre}_ALTHO
{zero that<}
$/P02N_zE
$be{n}/vsjpt02<P+{conc}_WAR
$so{rep}/aj>pr_SO
$to/pr+V<aj_TO
$all/pn-aj_AL
$/T_THE
$world/n_WARDIL

The Adverb Phrase

Core properties

av

an adverb; an adverbial
av-cjan adverb as part of a connective phrase (e.g. as soon as)
av-cpva comparative adjective as the base element of an adverb
av-nan adverb with noun-like properties (e.g. until then)
av-pran adverb with preposition-like properties (e.g. nevertheless of)
av-supa superlative adjective as the base element of an adverb
av-cpv-cjan adjective in the comparative in an adverbial connective (e.g. the sooner)
aj-avan adjective with adverb-like properties (e.g. arrive safe)
Dis-avan adverbial use of a demonstrative pronoun (e.g. this far)
n-ava singular noun as head in an adverb phrase or a preposititional phrase functioning as an adverbial
neg-ava negative adverb (e.g. never)
npl-ava plural noun as head in an adverb phrase or a prepositional phrase functioning as an adverbial
nq-ava quantifying noun in an adverbial PrepP (e.g. a great deal better)
qo-avan ordinal numeral as an adverb (e.g. first(ly))
vi-avan infinitive with adverb-like properties
vn-ava gerund, a verbal noun or a deverbal noun in an adverbial construction
vnpl-ava deverbal noun in the plural in an adverbial construction
vpp-ava past participle with adverb-like properties
vpsp-ava present participle with adverb-like properties
vpsp-aj-ava present participle with adjective- and adverb-like properties
aj-av-pran adjective with adverb- and preposition-like properties (e.g. near, in contrast with near to)
aj-cpv-avan adjective in the comparative with adverb-like properties
aj-n-avan adjective with noun- and adverb-like properties
aj-sup-avan adjective in the superlative with adverb-like properties
n-av-cja noun incorporated in an adverbial connective phrase
n-av-pra noun incorporated in a prepositional phrase
vpp-aj-ava past participle with adjective- and adverb-like properties
vpsp-aj-ava present participle with adjective- and adverb-like properties
P….-avan object form of a personal pronoun or a reflexive -pronoun in an adverbial function (e.g. P13OM-av, P13XM-av)
aj-cpv-av-pra comparative adjective with adverb- and preposition-like properties (e.g. nearer, in contrast with nearer to)
aj-n-av-pran adjective with noun-, adverb-, and preposition-like properties

Note: adverbial clauses of proportion are tagged as follows:

$/T-cj{-c-pre}>av-cpv-cj>T-cj_*THE
$soon/av-cpv-cj<T-cj_SCHOUN+ER $-er/av-cpv-cj<T-cj_+ER
{zero that<}
$/P02G_YOWR
{.}
$lordship/n{ho}_*L
{.}
$do/vsjps13<n+{prop}_DO $/vsjps13<n+{prop}_0
$/P13OI_ITT
$/T-cj>aj-cpv<T-cj_THE
$better/aj-cpv<T-cj_BETTER

Comments in the lexel

{conc}as a disambiguator in a concessive adverb such as yet
{except}as a disambiguator attached to only as /av-cj<neg
{rep}attached to the adverb so used as a pro-form

Note: The grammel of the pro-form so provides information about the category which has been substituted:

$/P11G+C_MY
$name/n_NEM
$be{n}/vps13<n+_IS
$dear/aj>pr_DEIR
$to/pr+C<aj_TO
$/P11O_ME
$&/cj_&
$/P11N_j
$believe/vps11<P+_BELEUE $/vps11<P+_0
{zero that}
{fronted C>}
$so{rep}/aj>pr_SO
{inversion>}
$shall/vm_SCHALL
$/P11G+C_MY
$desire/n{rc}_DESSYR
$be{n}/vi_BE
{\}
$to/pr+C{non-ad}<aj_TO
$/P02O_zOU


$/P11G+C_MY
$lady/n{tl}_*LADY
'_SOUTHERLAND
$tell/vpt_TOLD
{\}
$/P11O_ME
$so{rep}/n_SOE

Comments in the grammel

{pass}attached to n-av or npl-av functioning as agent in passive constructions
{post}an adverb in postmodification in a limited set of fixed expressions (cf. an adverbial postmodifier in nominalizations is tagged as a relation, i.e., by <av)
{sent}attached to the grammel of the adverb so as a pro-form with sentential reference
{ts}an adverb or and adverbial phrase in a text-structuring function

Relations

av>an adverb in a collocate of adverbial elements (linked with <av)
av>an adverb in a correlative pair of connective elements (linked with <cj)
>prin fixed adverb + preposition combinations
T>related to a comparative adjective, forming a pair with <aj-cpv or <av-cpv

>n-k

an adverb as first part in a compound with a noun phrase head
T-cj>related to an adjective in the comparative in an adverbial connective, forming a pair with <av-cpv-cj
>vn-kan adverb as first part in a compound noun with a deverbal noun as head
>vpp-aj-kan adverb as first part in a compound adjective with a participial adjective as head
<avan adverb as postmodifier in a noun phrase, incl. nominalizations (e.g. his coming here)
<negattached to adverbs with a connective function such as only/av-cj ‘except’
<pn-ajin adverbial uses of indefinite pronouns, forming a pair with n-av (e.g. something different)
<prin an adverbial prepositional phrase, forming a pair with e.g. n-av,npl-av, aj-n-av
<vwith an adverbial particle attached to a finite form of a phrasal verb
<viwith an adverbial particle attached to the infinitive of a phrasal verb
<vppwith an adverbial particle attached to the past participle of a phrasal verb in a non-finite clause
<vpspwith an adverbial particle attached to the present participle of a phrasal verb in a non-finite clause

Note: -ever in items such as whoever, whatsoever has been tagged as an adverb.

$whoever/RN-n>av_WHO+EVER $ever/av<RN-n_+EVER

The adverb ever which occurs in an intensifying function with a number of subordinators is tagged as follows:

$or{time}/cj{….}>av_OR
$ever/av<cj_EVER

Pronouns

Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns

Core properties

Pas the first element in the grammel of a personal, possessive or reflexive pronoun
1immediately following P , singular
2immediately following P, plural
0immediately following P, indefinite number
1as the third element in the grammel, first person
2as the third element in the grammel, second person
3as the third element in the grammel, third person
Nas the fourth element in the grammel, nominative
Oas the fourth element in the grammel, object or oblique
Gas the fourth element in the grammel, genitive
Xas the fourth element in the grammel, reflexive
Mas the fifth element in the grammel, masculine gender
Fas the fifth element in the grammel, feminine gender
Ias the fifth element in the grammel, neuter gender
Singular Plural Other
P11N P21N P01N (e.g. the royal we)
P12N P22N P02N (the polite second person singular)
P13N P23N P03N (with generic reference)

Note: P10N when the writer (the authorial I) refers to himself or herself using a third person pronoun

GP-nthe genitive morpheme in a nominal use
-ava personal or reflexive pronoun in a prepositional phrase with an adverbial function
-na possessive pronoun in a nominal function

Note: the 2nd, 3rd and 5th slot are omitted in indicating relations:

$/P13GM-n>pr_HIS
$of/pr<PG-n_OF

$/T_Y^E
$22/qo-n>pr_TWANTIE-TOO
$of/pr<qo-n_OF
$november/n_NOVEMBER

$/P11G+C_MY
$trouble/n{rc}_TRUBELL
$&/cj_AND
$/P02G-n>R_zO^R+is $/GP02-n>R_+is
$both/aj<_BAITH
{\}
$who/RO{+h2}<PG&PG-n_QUHOME

G-P…

a possessive pronoun with an unmarked NP in the genitive in the preceding context 'David's herecoming'

'_DAUED $/Gn_0
$/G-P13GM_HES

$here/av>vn-k_HEIR+
$come/vn{rc}-k<av_+COM+ING $/vn{rc}-k<av_+ING

Note: Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns have an empty lexel.

Comments in the grammel

{post}postgenitive

Relations

<nattached to a co-referential, usually redundant, P, forming a pair with n>P
<P+in the grammel of a finite verb indicating an immediately preceding personal pronoun as subject
>P+in the grammel of a finite verb indicating an immediately following personal pronoun as subject
<P-in the grammel of a finite verb indicating a non-adjacent personal pronoun as subject in the preceding context
>P-in the grammel of a finite verb indicating a non-adjacent personal pronoun as subject in the following context

Note: with co-ordinate structures as subject, the structures of both units are indicated (e.g. ye and yours <P&PG-n)

<Preferring to a co-referential redundant P
>pra prepositional phrase as postpronominal modifier
>qc-na pronoun followed by a cardinal numeral (e.g. you two)
<pn-aj with all related to a personal pronoun (e.g. they were all…)
<attached to a reflexive pronoun with the corresponding personal pronoun in the preceding context

Note: To allow the study of variation between type to it and type thereto the relation between a preposition and the personal pronoun it has been indicated.

$where/cj{-c-emb-post}_WHER
{zero that<}
$/P02N_YE
$can/vm_CAN
$get/vi>pr_GETT
$/A+C_A
{\}
$merchant/n_MERCHAND
$to/pr+C<vi>P_TO
$/P13OI<pr_ITT

Demonstrative pronouns

Core properties

Disthe demonstrative pronoun this
Datthe demonstrative pronoun that
Desthe demonstrative pronoun these
Dirthe demonstrative pronoun thir
Daithe demonstrative pronoun those
Dathe demonstrative pronoun tha
Dis-plthe demonstrative pronoun this as a determinative with a plural NP
Dat-plthe demonstrative pronoun that as a determinative with a plural NP
-na nominal use of any of the above-listed demonstrative pronouns
-n-ava nominal use of any of the above-listed demonstrative pronouns in an adverbial function
Dis-av demonstrative pronoun in an adverbial compound such as herewith
Dat-av demonstrative pronoun in an adverbial compound such as therefore

Comments in the grammel

{sent}attached to Dis or Dat used with sentential reference

Relations

>av

a demonstrative with adverb-like properties (e.g. this far)
<D..+in the grammel of a finite verb indicating an immediately preceding demonstrative pronoun as subject
<D..-in the grammel of a finite verb indicating a non-adjacent demonstrative pronoun as subject in the preceding context
>D..+in the grammel of a finite verb indicating an immediately following demonstrative pronoun as subject
>D..-in the grammel of a finite verb indicating a non-adjacent demonstrative pronoun as subject in the following context

Note: D.. refers to Dis, Dat, Des, Dir, Dai, etc.

Note: -n attached to nominal uses

>pr

a demonstrative pronoun in compounds such as hereof and thereof

$/P11N_j
$speak/vpt>pr_SPOKE
$hereof/Dis>pr $of/pr<Dis<v

Indefinite and interrogative pronouns

Core properties

Gpnthe genitive morpheme of an indefinite pronoun
pnan indefinite or an interrogative pronoun
pnGan indefinite pronoun in the genitive and the interrogative pronoun whose
plpnthe plural morpheme of an indefinite pronoun
pnplan indefinite pronoun in the plural
n-pna noun modified by attributive indefinite pronouns with pronoun-like properties (e.g. thing, body, man, person)
neg-pna negative pronoun (e.g. none)
pn-ajan attributive indefinite or interrogative pronoun
pnpl-ajan attributive indefinite pronoun in the plural
qc-pnthe cardinal numeral one with pronoun-like properties

Comments in the lexel

{same} attached to one ‘the same’

Relations

<pn+in the grammel of a finite verb indicating an immediately preceding indefinite pronoun as subject
>pn+in the grammel of a finite verb indicating an immediately following indefinite pronoun as subject
<pn-in the grammel of a finite verb indicating a non-adjacent indefinite pronoun as subject in the preceding context
>pn-in the grammel of a finite verb indicating a non-adjacent indefinite pronoun as subject in the following context

Note: a pronominal head of a complex NP is also indicated, e.g. >pncnp+, <pncnp+, >pncnp-, <pncnp-, etc.

pn<Aan indefinite pronoun with the indefinite article (e.g. an other)
pn<Tan indefinite pronoun with the definite article (e.g. the one, the other)
>n-pnforming a pair with the grammel pn-aj> of attributive indefinite pronouns such as any and some in anything, somebody, etc.
>qc-pnforming a pair with the grammels pn-aj> and neg-pn-aj> of attributive indefinite pronouns such as some and no in someone, no one, etc.

Note: The arrow < is attached to the postpositioned attributive pronoun all.

$/T_THE
$teind/npl_TEIND+is $/pln_+is
$be/vpt23<npl+_WAR
$all/pn-aj<_ALL
$cast/venpp{pass}_CAST+IN $/venpp{pass}_+IN

Relatives

Core properties

Rrelative
Nimmediately after R, nominative
Oimmediately after R, object or oblique
Ximmediately after R, adverbial
Gimmediately after R, genitive
ajimmediately after R, attributive
0 (=zero)immediately preceding R, a zero-realisation of a relative link
R.pla relative pronoun in the plural
plR.the plural morpheme of a relative pronoun
-avattached to relatives in an adverbial function
-cjattached to relatives in a connective function
-na nominal relative
Raj-n-cj

an attributive nominal relative pronoun as a connective in a universal concessive clause

$whatsoever{conc}/Raj-n-cj{emb-pre}>av>av_WHAT-SO+EUER $-ever/av<Raj-n-cj {emb-pre}>av_+EUER
$course/n_COURSE
$be/vsjpt13<n+{conc}_WER
$take/venpp{pass}_TAK+EN $/venpp{pass}_+EN
$yet{conc}/av<pn-aj-cj_YET
$/A+C_A
$trial/n{rc}_TRYAL
$be{n}/vps13<n+_IS
$necessary/aj_NECESSAIR

RN-n-cj

a nominal relative pronoun as a connective in a universal concessive clause

$whoever{conc}/RN-n-cj{-c-pre}>av_WHO-EWER $ever/av<RN-n-cj{-c-pre}_-EWER
$do/vps03<RN-n-cj+{conc}_DOTH
$so/av_*SO

RX-n-av

a nominal relative in an adverbial role as a modifier

$/T_THE
$lord/n{eccl}_LORD
$only/av_ONLY
$know/vps13<n-_KNOU+ES $/vps13<n-_+ES
$how/RX-n-av_HOW
$sad/aj_SAD
{\}
$/A+C_A
$time/n_TYM
$/P11N_j
$have/vps11<P+_HAUE
$have{n}/vpp{psp}_HAD

Note: For retrieving relative links in an adverbial role, the users are recommended to search both by RX and RO-av:

$whereat/RX{sent}-n>pr_QUher+AT $at/pr<RX-n_+AT

$&/cj{ts}_AND
$/Dis-n_THIS
$be{n}/vps13<Dis-n+_IS
$/T_Y^E
$only/aj_ONLY
$cause/n{rc}_CAUSE
$that/RO{sent}-av{cause}_THAT
$/P11N_j
$have/vps11<P+_HAUE
$write/venpp{psp}>pr_WRET+INE $/venpp{psp}>pr_+INE
$/Dir_THIR
$few/aj_FEU
$line/npl_LYN+S $/pln_+S
$to/pr+C<v_TO
$/P02G_zOUR
$lordship/n{ho}_*LO

Comments in the grammel: 1st slot

+han NP with animate human reference as antecedent
-han NP with animate non-human reference as antecedent
yan NP with inanimate reference as antecedent
0an indefinite pronoun, a collective noun, etc. as antecedent
1an NP in the singular as antecedent
2an NP in the plural as antecedent
{rel}

attached to an infinitive, a present participle or a past participle or, in verbless relative clauses, to the typologically most relevant constituent (typically an adjective)

$/S_THERE
$be{n}/vps23<S+_IS
$so/av_SO
$many/ajq_MANY
$disease/npl<S_DESEAS+ES $/pln<S_+ES
{zero rel}
$/0RN{y2}_0
{zero v}
$incident/aj{rel}>pr_INCIDENT
$to/pr+C<aj_TO
$little/aj_LITTLE
$child/npl_CHILDREN

Comments in the grammel: 2nd slot

{cleft}

a relative element in a cleft sentence

$/S_IT
$be{n}/vps13<S+{cleft}_IS
$/T_THE
$presence/n{rc}>pr_PRESENCE
$of/pr<n_OFF
$honest/aj_HONEST
{\}
$man/npl_MEN"
{zero rel}
$/0RO{sent}{cleft}_0
$/P21N_WE
$desire/vps21<P+_DESYR $/vps21<P+_0

{comp}

attached to the relative as in structures illustrated by the following example

$such/aj>R_SUCH
$/A+C_A+
$sad/aj_+SADE
$stroke/n{rc}_STROCK
$as/RO{comp}<aj>v>pr>_AS
$/P21N_WE
$have/vps21<P+_HAUE
$meet/vpp{psp}<R>pr_MET
$with/pr<<v<R_WITH

{disc}a relative clause within a discontinuous NP structure
{f}in an epistolary formula
{non-ad}the antecedent is not adjacent to the relative element
{sent}a clause or a nominalization as antecedent

Note: In the string RO-av, the latter element is followed by a semantic comment which indicates one of the following options: {cause}, {manner}, {place} or {time}.

$&/cj{ts}_AND
$/Dis-n_THIS
$be{n}/vps13<Dis-n+_IS
$/T_Y^E
$only/aj_ONLY
$cause/n{rc}_CAUSE
$that/RO{sent}-av{cause}_THAT
{\}
$/P11N_j
$have/vps11<P+_HAUE
$write/venpp{psp}>pr_WRET+INE $/venpp{psp}>pr_+INE
$/Dir_THIR
$few/aj_FEU
$line/npl_LYN+S $/pln_+S
$to/pr+C<v_TO
$/P02G_zOUR
{/}
$lordship/n{ho}_*LO

Relations

<aja restricted set of adjectives or attributive ordinal numerals as antecedent (e.g. such, first, last, etc.)
<aj-supa superlative adjective as antecedent
<D...a demonstrative pronoun as (part of) antecedent
<D…-na nominal use of a demonstrative pronouns as antecedent
<PGa genitive personal pronoun as antecedent
<pnan indefinite pronoun as antecedent
<pn-ajan attributive indefinite pronoun as part of the antecedent
<Pa nominative personal pronoun as antecedent
<POan object form of a personal pronoun as antecedent
<prin adverbial relative phrases representing the type in which matter
<PXa reflexive pronoun as antecedent
<R+in the grammel of a finite verb indicating an immediately preceding relative pronoun as subject

Note: -n attached to nominal uses

<R-in the grammel of a finite verb indicating a non-adjacent relative pronoun as subject in the preceding context

Note: -n attached to nominal uses

<Rattached to the relative element sharing the same antecedent as another relative structure in the preceding context
<Ta relative element with the definite article (e.g. the which)
>n, >npl, >vn the relative element is part of an NP structure (e.g. which I read part of, which I forgot the details of, whom I expect the coming of)
>Preferring to a coreferential redundant P
>prin compound relatives such as wherein
>pr>in relative structures with a stranded preposition
>Rattached to the relative element in the first relative clause in a sequence of two or more relative clauses
>vthe relative element functions as object of a prepositional verb (e.g. which I long for)
>vithe relative element functions as object of the infinitive of a prepositional verb (e.g. which I never ceased to long for)
>vpp-aj the relative element is the head of a PrepP as complement of a participial adjective (e.g. with which I am contented)

Note: Beside prepositions attached to nouns and verbs, prepositions in PrepPs in an adverbial function may be stranded:

$about/av_ABOUT
$/Dat>R_THAT
$time/n-av_TYM
{zero rel}
$/0RO{y1}-av{time}<Dat>pr>_0
$/P12N_YOU
{\}
$be/vpt12<P+_WAR
$bring/vpp{pass}>pr_BROGHT
{ins}
$to/pr+C<v_TO
$bed/n_BED
{ins}
$in/pr<<RO-av_IN

Note: A relative may occur as the first unit in an appositive construction in which the second unit is a nominal clause. In these structures <Rcl+ is attached in the grammel of a finite verb to refer to the immediately preceding subject.

$which/RO{sent}{non-ad}_WHICH
{appositive}
$that/cj{app}_THAT
$/P02N_YOU
$may/vm_MAY
$find/vi_FINDE
$&/cj_AND
$be/vi_BE
$fill/vpp{pass}>pr-cj_FILL+ED
$/vpp{pass}>pr-cj_+ED
$with/pr-cj<v_WITH
{\}
$/T_THE
$consolation/npl{rc}>pr_CONSOLATION+S $/pln{rc}>pr_+S
$of/pr<npl_OF
$/P21G_OUR
$lord/n{eccl}_LORD
'_jESUS-CHRIST
{/}
$be{n}/vps13<Rcl+_IS

Conjunctions

Core properties

cja connective
aj-cj

an attributive connective

$whatsoever{conc}/cj{emb-pre}-aj>av_QUHATSUM\+EUER
$-ever/av<cj{emb-pre}-aj_+EUER

$question/npl{rc}_QUESTION+S $/pln{rc}_+S
$may/vm_MAY
$arise/vi_ARYSS

av-cjan adverb in a connective phrase (e.g. as soon as)
cj-av

a connective element as an adverb modifier

$how{conc}/cj{pre}-av_HOW
$quiet/aj_QUYET
$/P02N_zE
$be{n}/vsjps02<P+{conc}_BE $/vsjps02<P+{conc}_0

‘However quiet you should be, yet …’

cj-pr

a conjunction as part of a prepositional structure

$as/cj-pr{foc}>vpsp-pr_AS
$concern/vpsp-pr{foc}<cj-pr_CONSERN+ING
$/vpsp-pr{foc}<cj- pr_+ING

n-cj

a noun incorporated in a non-adverbial connective phrase

$/P13NM_HE
$be{n}/vps13<P+>pr-cj_IS
$of/pr-cj<v_OF
$intention/n{rc}-cj>vi_jNTENTION"
$to/im+C_TO
$stay/vi<n-cj_STAY

neg-cja negative conjunction (e.g. nor)
pr-cja preposition which governs a nominalization
R.-cja relative element in a connective function
vpp-cja past participle with connective potential
vpsp-cja present participle with connective potential
T-cjthe definite article attached to an element with a connective function (e.g. the sooner)
av-cpv-cjan adverb in the comparative in a connective function (e.g. the sooner)
n-av-cja noun incorporated in an adverbial connective phrase

Note: These core properties also occur in connective phrases containing a relative construction

$unto/pr_WNTO
$/T_THE
$time/n-av-cj{post}>R_TYME
$that/RO{y1}-av{time}<n-av-cj_YAT
{\}
$/T_THE
$tack/npl_TAK+ES $/pln_+ES
$should/vm_SOULD
$expire/vi_EXPYR

neg-av-cja negative adverb with a connective function (e.g. sentence-initial neither)
vpsp-pr-cja present participle with preposition-like properties with a nominalization as complement (e.g. concerning his coming)

Comments in the lexels

{cause}semantic category cause
{circ}semantic category circumstance
{com}semantic category comparison
{conc}semantic category concession
{cond}semantic category condition
{except}semantic category exception
{manner}semantic category manner
{place}semantic category place
{pref}semantic category preference
{prop}semantic category proportion
{purpose}semantic category purpose
{result}semantic category result
{time }semantic category time
{q}attached to if or whether in dependent questions

Comments in the grammels

app

with indicators of an appositive structure

{appositive}
$such/aj>cj_*SUCH
$as{comp}/cj{app}<aj_AS
'_*ARBO

cwith complementizer that
-cwithout complementizer that
din an adverbial clause as disjunct
embin an embedded clause
medthe subordinate clause is before the verb complementation in the main clause or another subordinate clause
postthe subordinate clause follows the main clause
prethe subordinate clause precedes the main clause
tfin a topic-forming adverbial clause
tsin a text-structuring function (e.g. and, for)

Relations

<ajlinked with the adjective such in the preceding context
<avlinked with the adverb so in the preceding context
av>related to adverbs in connective phrases such as the adverb as in as soon as
>av

in frequently co-occurring cj + av sequences (e.g. or else, as also, before ever)

$or/cj{ts}>av_OR
$else/av{ts}<cj_ELLES

>avlinking a connective such as as with so in the main clause (similarly though with yet, if with then)
<cjlinking with another connective in the preceding context
>cjlinking with another connective in the following context
>Dat-avlinking the connective when with thereafter in the main clause
<neglinking but with negation in the preceding clause
>viattached to as in the collocate (so) as to + infinitive
>vi-avadverbial infinitive constructions following nouns such as purpose (to the purpose to do)

Prepositions

Core properties

pra preposition
pr{post}postposition
pr-cja preposition functioning as a connective (governing a nominalization)
cj-pr

a conjunction as part of a prepositional structure

$as/cj-pr{foc}>vpsp-pr_AS
$concern/vpsp-pr{foc}<cj-pr_CONSERN+ING
$/vpsp-pr{foc}<cj- pr_+ING

vpp-prpast participle with preposition-like properties (e.g. past)
vpsp-pra present participle with preposition-like properties (e.g. concerning)
aj-av-pran adjective with adverb- and preposition-like properties (e.g. near, in contrast with near to)
n-av-pra noun incorporated in an adverbial phrase in the function of a preposition
vpsp-pr-cja present participle with preposition-like properties with a nominalization as complement

Comments in the grammel

{foc}with a focusing function
{non-ad}in discontinuous noun phrases to indicate the non-adjacent position of a prepositional phrase in postmodification

Relations

<v, >vwith prepositions related to finite verbs
<vi, >viwith prepositions related to an infinitive
<vn, >vnwith prepositions related to a gerund, a verbal noun or a deverbal noun
<vpp, >vppwith prepositions related to a past participle as PV in a non-finite clause
<vpsp, >vpspwith prepositions related to a present participle as PV in a non-finite clause

With adjectival and nominal structures, <pr or >pr form a pair with the core property or a string of core properties. See The Noun Phrase and The Adjective Phrase

Negation

Core properties

negthe negative particle not
neg-ava negative adverb (e.g. never)
neg-cja negative conjunction (e.g. nor)
neg-pnnegative pronoun (e.g. none)
neg-xpa negative prefix
neg-av-cja negative adverb with a connective function (e.g. sentence-initial neither)
neg-pn-ajnegative attributive pronoun, attached to nouns or cardinal numerals with pronoun-like properties in indefinite pronouns of the type nobody, no one, etc.

Relations

>cj, >ac-cjthe core properties neg or neg-av are related to conjunctions such as but ‘except’ and except or adverbs with a connective function such as only/av-cj ‘except’
<vthe negative particle not modifying a verb in the preceding context
<vmthe negative particle not modifying a modal verb
>neg-xpthe negative particle not modifying a negative prefix (e.g. not unknown)
>nqthe negative particle modifying a quantifying noun (e.g. not a little)
>prthe negative particle not modifying a preposition
>vthe negative particle not modifying a verb in the following context
>vnthe negative particle not modifying a gerund, a verbal noun or a deverbal noun

Note: To permit data retrieval for the study of multiple negation, relations between all negative items in what can be considered a sentence have been related to one another. It is noteworthy that what consists a sentence in data of this kind may sometimes be a problem difficult to solve. Moreover, in defining a sentence, different researchers apply different criteria.

Numerals

Core properties

qca cardinal numeral
qoan ordinal numeral
qc-na nominal use of a cardinal numeral
qc-pnthe cardinal numeral one with pronoun-like properties, forming a pair with the grammels pn-aj> and neg-pn-aj> of attributive indefinite pronouns such as some and no in someone and no one
qo-avan ordinal numeral as an adverb (e.g. first(ly))
qo-n-ava nominal use of an ordinal numeral in an adverbial function

Comments in the lexels

{pro}the cardinal numeral one with pronoun-like properties as a pro-form

Relations

<prrelated to a nominal structure in the preceding context by a preposition
>pnin correlation with another pronominal use (e. g. (the) one – the other)
>prrelated to a nominal structure in the following context by a preposition
>qc-na pronoun followed by a cardinal numeral (e.g. you two)

Interjections

Core properties

intinterjection

Determinative

Core properties

Athe indefinite article
Tthe definite article
T-cjthe definite article attached to an element with a connective function (e.g. the sooner)

Note: The indefinite article an may be merged into the noun, a hyphen and a plus sign indicating where the word boundary usually is

$/A+C_A-N+
$apoplexy/n _+APOPLEXSIE

(for a napoplexsie)

Relations

aj-cpv<Ta comparative adjective with the definite article (e.g. the better)
aj-cpv<T-cja comparative adjective with the definite article in a connective function in an adverbial clause of proportion
nq<Aa quantifying noun with the indefinite article (e.g. a little)
nq<Ta quantifying noun with the definite article (e.g. the more)
pn<Aan indefinite pronoun with the indefinite article (e.g. an other)
pn<Tan indefinite pronoun with the definite article (e.g. the one, the other)
R<Ta relative element with the definite article (e.g. the which)

Word formation

Core properties

kin all compound formations
xpa prefix
xsa suffix

Note: To retrieve data for the study of phrasal verbs, the type outshut has been tagged as follows:

$to/im+V_TO
$out/av>vi-k_OUT+
$shut/vi-k<av_+SHUT

For information on other core properties in compounds, see The Noun Phrase and The Adjective Phrase in particular.

Relations

Each formative unit is analysed separately and the core properties of each unit are related to one another by arrows.

Phonology

The hypothesis of variation being conditioned by the phonological properties of the immediately following word can be tested in a restricted set of items, including the indefinite article (variation between a and an), the infinitive marker (variation between to and till), the first person possessive pronoun (variation between my and mine), the negative attributive pronoun (variation between no and none) and the preposition to (variation between to and till). These items have been selected in accordance with the practices in the Edinburgh Corpus of Older Scots.

+Cthe next word begins with a consonant
+Hthe next word begins with <h>
+Vthe next word begins with a vowel