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Key to Comments

This is an index of tag-external comments. For tag-internal ones, see the Key to Tags

In this index, self-explanatory tags have not been included (e.g. {two words covered by a fold in the MS copy; probably YOur BUSSINES'}, {probably one word torn}, {<the rest torn}, {direction of writing changes on this folio}, etc.

Arrows are used to relate a particular tag-external comment to a feature in the preceding or following context. The commented feature is usually signalled as problematic by a question-mark (for further information, see the CSC Manual, Commentary. A comment positioned before the tagged item contains a forward arrow at the end (e.g. {unclear correction>}), whereas a comment positioned after the tagged item contains a backward arrow at the beginning ({<unclear correction}).

Comments without arrows provide information about a feature BETWEEN the preceding and following tagged items, so that the comment {torn} indicates that the manuscript is torn and therefore a word or words are missing.

In the following index, + arrow is attached to comments occurring with arrows.

A

{address}
+ arrow
the address of the letter (excluded if different from the hand(s) in the body of the letter)
{adjacent}
+ arrow
the position of date and place adjacent to the initial term of address or the final formula and signature
{ambiguous}
+ arrow
a passage is ambiguous, usually due to the writer’s carelessness or an inexperienced’ writers poor linguistic competence
{appositive} between two nominal structures which form a non-restrictive appositive construction

B

{blurred}
+ arrow
the ink is blurred in the manuscript

C

{cancellation} a sequence of characters or an unidentified word or words have been cancelled
{cancelled}
+ arrow
a specified character or characters cancelled in the preceding or following word
{compressed}
+ arrow
a sequence of characters, especially minims but also words at the end of lines, may be so compressed that they become ambiguous
{cond} a specification of the semantic role of a finite clause of condition without the subordinator that attached to the adverb so in the preceding context
{corrected}
+ arrow
a feature signalled out by a question-mark is a correction; the comment often specifies what the correction replaces (e.g. {<C corrected by S}
{correction}
+ arrow
a feature signalled out by a question-mark is a correction but what has been given as a correction remains unidentified

D

{damaged} the manuscript is damaged so that the text is illegible
{damaged}
+ arrow
a feature is signalled out by a question-mark to point out that its reading remains somewhat doubtful because of the manuscript being damaged
{date approximate} the date of writing has not been given in a particular letter and therefore an pproximate date has been used in the file-initial parameters (positioning the writer in the first or second half of a particular century according to the date of his/her birth and/or death)
{del} {del} before and after a deleted item
{direct exclamative}
+ arrow
a direct exclamative follows
{direct question}
+ arrow
a direct question follows
{direct quote}
+ arrow
a direct quote follows
{doubtful reading}
+ arrow
a doubtful reading of a passage is signalled out

E

{end} at the end of each file consisting of a single letter

F

{f1}
{f2}
{f3}
{f4}
{f5}
{f1r}
{f1v}
{f2r}
{f2v}
{f1va}
{f1vb}
type of folio numbers used
{fold}
+ arrow
a manuscript is often worn at places where it has stayed folded for centuries; this damage may cause problems for reading the text
{fronted av}
+ arrow
a fronted adverbial
{fronted complement}
+ arrow
a fronted subject or object complement
{fronted modifier}
+ arrow
a fronted postnominal or postadjectival modifier
{fronted O}
+ arrow
a fronted object
{fronted S}
+ arrow
the comment permits the study of variation between type ‘It is likely that the boats will spoil’ and type ‘The boats are likely to spoil’
{zero pre}
{zero formal S}
{fronted S>}
$/T_THE
$boat/npl_BOT+S $/pln_+S
$be{n}/vps03<npl+_IS
$all/aj-pn<_ALL
$like/aj_LEIK
$to/im+C_TO
$spoil/vi<S_SPOYLL
$with/pr-cj_WITH
$/neg>vn_NOT
$be/vn{rc}-av_BE+ING $/vn{rc}-av_+ING
$dress/vpp{pass}_DRES+T $/vpp{pass}_+T
{zero pr}
$/Dis-pl_THIS
$2/qc_TUO
$year/npl-av_YEIR+S $/pln-av_+S

G

H

{hand 1>} {<hand 1}
{hand 2>} {<hand 2}
these pairs of comments indicate change of hand

I

{indep}
+ arrow
an unintegrated proposition, usually a fixed initial or final formula realised by a participle clause
{ink blot} the manuscript is damaged by an ink-blot
{ink blot}
+ arrow
the reading of a feature signalled out by a question-mark remains doubtful because of an ink-blot
{in margin}
+ arrow
the text continues in margin; together with {ins} {ins}, this comment refers to text inserted in margin
{ins} {ins} before and after an inserted item
{inversion}
+ arrow
inverted word-order
{inversion indicating subordination}
+ arrow
inverted word-order indicating subordination (typical of clauses of condition with the subordinator left implicit)

J

K

L

{line blurred}
+ arrow
{line damaged}
a line blurred or damaged; in the case of several lines, their number has been specified

M

N

{no dot}
+ arrow
if there is ambiguity between <i> and <e> in a particular hand, dotless <i> is commented
{no flourish}
+ arrow
a word-form could be interpreted as contracted but this is not indicated by a flourish

O

{<or …}
+ arrow
an alternative reading for an ambiguous character or characters

P

{parenthetic}
+ arrow
a sentence added by the writer as an aside
{partly damaged}
+ arrow
a feature is partly damaged (the lower part of a line by a fold, for instance) but the reading is still virtually unambiguous
{past reference}
+ arrow
the present tense used with past reference

Q

R

{repeated}
+ arrow
a word has been repeated
{result} a specification of the semantic role of a finite clause of result without the subordinator that attached to the adverb so in the preceding context

S

{space}
+ arrow
there is a space between words which is longer than the general practice in a particular hand; the marked spaces may provide evidence of sentence and paragraph boundaries
{syntactic ambiguity}
+ arrow
a construction (sometimes a longer passage) is syntactically ambiguous
{syntactic merger}
+ arrow
a structure is followed by a different one, for example, a nominal infinitive-clause by a nominal that-clause in the complementation of a verb

T

{term of address}
+ arrow
the comment signals out a term of address (e.g. right honourable)
{torn} the manuscript is torn; visible fragments of words have been listed in the comment)
{torn}
+ arrow
a feature is signalled out by a question-mark to point out that its reading remains somewhat doubtful because the manuscript is torn

U

{unclear}
+ arrow
the meaning of a word or a sequence of words remains unclear
{unclear correction}
+ arrow
a feature signalled out by a question-mark is a correction but the reading of the correction remains doubtful
{unidentified word} the transcriber has not been able to identify a particular word (a possible reading has usually been given in the comment)
{unidentified words} the transcriber has not been able to identify two or more words, their number being specified in the comment (a possible reading has been given as part of the comment)

V

W

{word repeated}
+ arrow
a word has been repeated

X

Y

{year approximate} the year of writing has not been given in a particular letter and therefore an approximate year has been used in the file-initial parameters (positioning the writer in the first or second half of a particular century according to the date of his/her birth and/or death)

Z

This list of zero realisations is not exhaustive, variation in them resulting from their varying relations with numerous other features.

{zero aux} zero realisation of an auxiliary verb
{zero av>cj} zero realisation of an adverb related to a connective (e.g. the absence of so in so that)
{zero cj} zero realisation of a connective, for example the absence of with or without in absolute constructions)
{zero cj{c-emb-pre}} zero realisation of a connective in a the latter clause in a sequence of co-ordinate adverbial clauses
$&/cj_&
{zero S}
$tell/vpt_TOLD
{zero that}
$since{cause}/cj{-c-emb-pre}_SINC
{zero that<}
$/P13GF_HER
$hazard/n_HAzARD
$be{n}/vpt13<n+_WAS
$eminent/aj_EMINANT
$&/cj_&
{zero cj{c-emb-pre}}
$that/cj<_THAT
$/P11N_j
{\}
$have{n}/vpt11<P+>pr_HAD
$so/av_SO
$near/aj_NEIR
$interest/n{rc}_INTREST
$in/pr<v_IN
$/P13GF_HER
$grand/aj>n-k_GRAND+
$child/n-k<aj_+CHYLD
{zero do} zero realisation of the do-periphrasis in negative and interrogative clauses
{zero formal O} zero realisation of formal object
{zero formal S} zero realisation of formal subject
{zero im} zero realisation of the infinitive marker
{zero P} zero realisation of the subject form of a reflexive pronoun in a co-occurrence pattern with -self
{zero PO} zero realisation of the oblique form of a reflexive pronoun in a co-occurrence pattern with -self
{zero pr} zero realisation of a preposition, for example in adverbial phrases such as this day
{zero pr-cj} zero realisation of a preposition with connective potential (governing a nominalisation)
{zero pr-cj<vi} zero realisation of a preposition with connective potential (governing a nominalisation) related to an infinitive
{zero pr<nqpl} zero realisation of a preposition related to a quantifying plural noun
{zero pr<v} zero realisation of a preposition related to a finite verb
{zero pre} zero realisation of and, but, for and so as sentence-level text-structuring connectives at the beginning of a simple or complex sentence
{zero post} zero realisation of a connective at the beginning of a main clause following an initially-positioned subordinate clause
{zero post-emb} zero realisation of a connective at the beginning of an embedded main clause following an initially-positioned embedded subordinate clause
{zero PX} zero realisation of a reflexive pronoun in a co-occurrence pattern with -self
{zero rel} zero realisation of a relative element, its detailed analysis being provided by a tag introduced by 0 [=zero]
{zero S} zero realisation of subject (the most frequent type being represented by the subject being left unrepeated)
{zero that} zero realisation of the complementizer that
{zero that-emb} zero realisation of the complementizer that in an embedded clause
{zero that<} zero realisation of the complementizer that attached to an adverbial subordinator
{zero that<aj} zero realisation of the complementizer that in a nominal that-clause as complement of an adjective
{zero that<S} zero realisation of the complementizer that in a nominal that-clause as extraposed subject
{zero that<O} zero realisation of the complementizer that in a nominal that-clause as extraposed object
{zero that&com} an ambiguous construction which can be interpreted as zero realisation of the complementizer that in a nominal that-clause as object of the preceding finite verb or, alternatively, that finite verb can be analysed as the predicate verb of a comment clause (see CSC Manual Commentary)
{zero that&Oinf} an ambiguous construction which can be interpreted either as zero realisation of the complementizer that in a nominal that-clause as object, with a predicate verb in the subjunctive, or as a Latinate object + plain infinitive construction (see CSC Manual Commentary)
{zero v} zero realisation of a verb (the most frequent type being represented by the verb being left unrepeated, another typical contexts being verbless relative clauses and clauses of comparison introduced by than)
{zero vi} zero realisation of an infinitive (the most frequent position being after modal auxiliaries)