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3.3.9 Negation

Negative particles are subcategorized by relating them to the unit they modify using an arrow (note that this arrow is not part of a pair, but points back or forward depending on the position of the unit modified):

$/P11N_j

$can/vm_CAN

$/neg<vm_NO^T

$write/vi_WRYT

$present/av_PRESENT+LY $-ly/xs-av_+LY

 

$for/cj{ts}_FOR

$/P11N_j

{zero do}

$wit/vps11<P+_WAIT $/vps11<P+_0

$/neg<v_NO^T

$how/pn-av_QUHOW

$soon/av_SONE~

$/P11N_j

$return/vps11<P+_RETURANE $/vps11<P+_0

 

$which/RN{sent}_WHICH

$be{n}/vpt13<R+_WAS

$part/av_PART+LY $-ly/xs-av_+LY

$/T_THE

$cause/n{rc}>pr-cj_CAUSE

$of/pr-cj<n_OF

$/P11G+C_MY

$/neg>vn_NOT

{\}

$come/vn{rc}_COM+ING $/vn{rc}_+ING

$/P02G_YOUR

$way/n-av_WAY

 

$/neg>pr_NOT

$without/pr_WITHOUT

$expense/n{rc}-av_EXPENCE

 

$so{result}/av{ts}_SO

$/P12N_YOU

$must/vm_MOST

$excuse/vi_EXCOUS

{\}

$/P13GF>vn_HIR

$/neg>vn_NOT

$write/vn{rc}<PG>pr_WRET+ING $/vn{rc}<PG>pr_+ING

$to/pr+C<vn_TO

$/P02O_YOU

$at/pr_AT

{\}

$present/aj-n-av_PRESENT

The scope of the negation may require the use of arrows pointing both to the predicate verb and to its complement in cases in which the complement is realised by an item containing a negative prefix:

$/S_jT

{\}

$be{n}/vps13<S+_jS

$/neg<v>neg-xp_NO^T

$know/venpp{pass}-aj>pr_WN+KNAW+INE $un-/neg-xp-venpp{pass}-aj>pr_WN+ $/venpp{pass}-aj>pr_+INE

$to/pr+C<venpp-aj_TO

$/P02G_zO^R

$lordship/n{ho}_L

$that/cj<S_THAT

The concept of negation is defined semantically, meaning that items which function as negative minimizers (barely, hardly, little, scarcely, etc.) have been tagged with /neg as their core property:

$/P11N_j

$know/vps11<P+_KNOW

$but/av>neg-av_BUT

$little/neg-av<av_LITELL

$/T_THE

$letter/n_LETTER

 

$scarcely/neg-av_SCARC+LY $-ly/xs-neg-av_+LY

The nominal use of items such as little is tagged /neg-nq to permit their analysis as part of the same taxonomy as negative pronouns such as nothing:

$/P13NM_HE

$receave/vpt_RECEAW+ED $/vpt_+ED

$little/neg-nq_LITTELL

$or/cj_OR

$no/neg-pn-aj+C>n-pn_NO

$thing/n-pn<neg-pn-aj_THING

$/P13XM<_HIM-SELF $-self/xs-P_-SELF

In accordance with the praxis applied to indefinite pronouns, the attributive no is always tagged /neg-pn-aj, and the word-initial consonant, vowel or <h> of the following word is also indicated:

$no/neg-aj-pn+C>n-pn_NA

$thing/n-pn<neg-aj-pn_THING

 

$no/neg-pn-aj+C>n-pn_NA

$man/n-pn<neg-pn-aj_MAN

 

$no/neg-pn-aj+C>n-pn_NO

$body/n-pn<neg-pn-aj_*BODY

Since not else alternates with nocht else in the data, the latter permitting the nominal reading 'nothing else', the fuzziness of not in this context is reflected in the grammels of the two items:

$/neg-pn_NO^T

$else/aj{post}_ELLis

The following example illustrates the attributive no in yet other contexts:

$in/pr_jN

$/neg-pn-aj+C_NA

$way/n-av_WAY

Never is tagged with /neg-av:

$/P11N_j

$be{n}/vpt11<P+_WAS

$never/neg-av_NEUER

$content/aj_CONTENT

{\}

$til{until}/pr+C_TILL

$now/av-n_NOW

Instances of multiple negation can be retrieved by searching for tags containing the element /neg which are related to one another by arrows:

$as/cj>av_AS

$yet/av<cj_zIT

$/P11N_j

$have/vps11<P+_HAUE

$not/neg<v>neg-aj_NO^T

$get/venpp{psp}_GOT+TIN $/venpp{psp}_+TIN

$no/neg-pn-aj+V<neg_NA

$answer/n{rc}_ANSUERE

 

$for/cj{ts}_FFOR

{\}

$as{manner}/cj{d-pre}_AS

$/P11N_j

$trust/vps11<P+_TRAIST $/vps11<P+_0

$/P13NI_jT

$be{n}/vps13<P+_IS

$/neg<v>neg-cj_NO^T

$nor/neg-cj<neg>neg_NOR

$shall/vm_SALL

$/neg<vm<neg-cj>neg-aj_NO^T

$be{n}/vi_BE

$no/neg-pn-aj+C<neg<neg-cj>n-pn>neg-cj_NA

$thing/n-pn<neg-pn-aj>pr-cj_THYNG

$against/pr-cj<n-pn_AGAYN~

{\}

$/P02G_zOur

$grace/nG{ho}_Grace $/Gn{ho}_0

$honour/n{rc}_HONOur

$nor/neg-cj<neg-pn-aj_NOR

$profit/n{rc}_PROFEYT

 

$be{n}/vps13<P+_IS

$/neg<v>neg-cj_NO^T

$by/pr-cj_BE

$/P02G_zur

$solicitation/n{rc}-av_SOLISTAcioNE

{\}

$nor/neg-cj<neg_NOR

$/neg-pn-aj+V>pnG-n_NAN~

$other/pnG-n_OYer+is $/Gpn-n_+is

Combinations of the negative particle and explicitly negative conjunctions (e.g. nor) or the conjunction or preposition but 'except' are also given tags which explicitly mark the relations between the elements:

$not/neg>vpsp-av>neg-cj_NO^T

$have{n}/vpsp-av_HAV+ING $/vpsp-av_+ING

$god/n_GOD

$nor/neg-cj<neg_NOR

$good/aj_GUD

$conscience/n_CONSCIENCE

 

$/P11G+C_MY

$wife/n_WIFF

{(}

$who/RN{+h1}_QUHA

$have{n}/vps13<R+_HES

$/neg-pn-aj+V>pr_NA

$other/pn-aj_OTHER

$help/n{rc}_HELP

$but{e}/pr<neg-pn-aj_BOT

{\}

$/P02G_zOur

$grace/n{ho}_GRACE

 

$neither/neg-cj>neg-cj_NATHER

$/P13GM_HIS

$sacred/aj_*SACRET

$majesty/n{ho}_MAJESTE

{,}

$nor/neg-cj<neg-cj_NOR

$/T_THE

$great/aj-sup_GRY\T+IST $/aj-sup_+IST

$part/n>pr_PAIRT

{,}

$of/pr<n_OFF

$/T_THE

$lord/npl>pr_*LORD+S $/pln>pr_+S

$of/pr<npl_OFF

$/P13GM_HIS

$majesty/nG{ho}_MAJESTI+ES $/Gn{ho}_+ES

$privy/aj_PRIVE

$council/n{coll}_*COUNSELL

 

$/neg>av>cj_NOTT

$only/av<neg>av_ONLY

$to/im+C_TO

$raise/vi>pr-cj_REASE

$/P11G+H_MY

$heart/n_HEARTT

$out-of/pr-cj<vi_OUTT-OF

$/T_THE

{\}

$most/av_MOSTT

$melancholy/aj-sup_MELANCHOLIE

$sad/n{rc}-av_SAD+NES $-ness/xs-n{rc}-av_+NES

$but/cj<neg_BUTT

$also/av<av_ALLSO