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3.3.7 The adverb phrase

The morpheme -ly in open-class adverbs is tagged as a suffix (/xs-av) according to the practice adopted in the Edinburgh Corpus of Older Scots, its absence being interpreted as a zero-realisation whenever variation between the 'suffixed' and the 'suffixless' form has been attested in the CSC corpus.

$infinite/av_INFINIT+LIE $-ly/xs-av_+LIE


$exceed/vpsp-aj-av_EXCEED+ING $/vpsp-aj-av_+ING $-ly/xs-vpsp-aj-av_0

Since the adverb right as a modifier of honorifics, such as honorable in the following example, does not alternate in the data with rightly, the zero-morpheme is not indicated in contexts of this kind.

$right/av_RICHT

$honour/aj-n{ho}_HONOR+ABLE $-able/xs-aj-n{ho}_+ABLE

An open-class adverb may be modified by another adverb. Such adverbs, such as more and most, can be retrieved by searching for the grammels /aj-cpv-av and /aj-sup-av respectively:

$most/av_MOST

$earnest/aj-sup-av_ERNEST+LIE $-ly/xs-aj-sup-av_+LIE

As illustrated by the example above, information about comparative and superlative forms is part of the sequence of core properties:

$/P11N_j

$shall/vm_SHALL

$detain/vi_DETINE

{\}

$/P13OM_HIME

$no/neg+C-av>aj-cpv-av_NO

$long/aj-cpv-av<neg-av_LONG+ER $-er/xs-aj-cpv-av<neg-av_+ER

Elaboration in closed-class adverbs focuses on the position of the adverb in the clause or sentence structure and links between correlative uses of these adverbs. Adverbs used as text-structuring devices (cf. the categories of time relators and logical connectors in Quirk et al. 1985: Chapter 19) are indicated with the comment {ts} attached to the core property /av. In addition, this core property may be preceded by a tag-external comment {fronted av>}:

$&/cj{ts}_AND

{fronted av>}

$now/av{ts}_NOU

$have/vpsp-av_HAU+ING $/vpsp-av_+ING

$pass/vpp{psp}_PAS+T $/vpp{psp}_+T

{\}

$so/av_SO

$great/aj_GREAT

$/A+C_ANE

$danger/n_DANGER

Adverbial logical connectors may also be linked with subordinators with arrows. The correlative items may be at quite a long distance from each other:

$&/cj{ts}_*AND

$albeit/cj{-c-pre}>av>av_ALBEIT

{zero that<}

$/T_THE

$king/nG_KING+IS $/Gn_+IS

$high/n{ho}_HIE+NES $-ness/xs-n{ho}_+NES

$&/cj_AND

$/P02G_zOUR

$grace/n{ho}_GRACE

$write/vpt>pr_WRAIT

$to/pr+H<v_TO

$/P13GM_HIS

$dear/aj-sup_Der+REST $-est/xs-aj-sup_+REST

$nephew/n_NEPHEW

{appositive}

$/P11G+C_MY

$master/n{ho}{app}_MAISTER

{\}

$as/av>cj_ALS

$affectuous/av_EFFECT+UOS+LY $-ous/xs-aj-av_+UOS+LY $-ly/xs-av_+LY

$&/cj_AND

$tender/av_TENDer+LY $-ly/xs-av_+LY

$as{comp}/cj{emb-post}<av_AS

{zero formal S}

$be{n}/vpt13<S-_WAS

$possible/aj_POSSIBLE

$to/im+C_TO

$be/vi<S_BE

$devise/vpp{pass}_DEVIS+IT $/vpp{pass}_+IT

$or/cj_OR

$put/vpp{pass}>pr_PUT

$in/pr<v_IN

$form/n-av_FORME

$nevertheless/av<cj>av_*NEUerTHELES

$/P13GM_HIS

$grace/n{ho}_GRACE

$persuade/vpp{pass}-av>pr_PerSUAD+IT $/vpp{pass}-av>pr_+IT

$&/cj_AND

$abuse/vpp{pass}-av>pr_ABUS+IT $/vpp{pass}-av>pr_+IT

$by/pr{pass}<vpp-av&vpp-av_BE

$perverse/vpp{pass}-aj_PerUerS+IT $/vpp{pass}-aj_+IT

$counsel/n{rc}-av{pass}>pr_COUNSALL

$of/pr<n-av_OF

$/P11G+V_MYn

$friend/npl_VN+FREND+is $un-/xp-npl_VN+ $/pln_+is

$&/cj_AND

{\}

$evil/av>vpp-aj-k_EWILL

$dispose/vpp-aj-k<av_DISPOS+IT $/vpp-aj-k<av_+IT

$person/npl_PerSON+IS $/pln_+IS

{zero rel}

$/0RN{+h2}_0

$be{n}/vpsp{rel}>pr_BE+ING $/vpsp{rel}>pr_+ING

$about/pr<vpsp_ABOUT

$/P13GM_HIS

$grace/n{ho}-av_GRACE

$&/cj_AND

$most/av_MAIST

$inward/aj-sup-av_jNWART $-ly/xs-aj-sup-av_0

{/}

$not/neg>vpsp-av>neg-cj>neg-cj_NO^T

$have{n}/vpsp{rel}_HAV+ING $/vpsp{rel}_+ING

$god/n_GOD

$nor/neg-cj<neg>neg-cj_NOR

$good/aj_GUD

$conscience/n>pr_CONSCIENCE

$&/cj_&

$special/aj_SPEciALL

$request/n{rc}>pr&pr_*REQUEIST

{\}

$of/pr<n_OF

$/T_THE

$king/nG_KING+IS $/Gn_+IS

$high/n{ho}_HIE+NES $-ness/xs-n{ho}_+NES

{ del }

$dear/aj_DerRE

{ del }

{appositive}

$/P13GM_HIS

$dear/aj-sup_Der+REST $-est/xs-aj-sup_+REST

$uncle/n{app}_VNCLE

{/}

$&/cj_AND

$of/pr{non-ad}<n_OF

$/P02G_zO^R

$grace/n{ho}_GRACE

{/}

$which/RNpl{+h2}_QUHILK+IS $/plRN{+h2}_+IS

$have/vps23<R+_HAS

$do/vpp{psp}_DONE

$more/nq_MAR~

$&/cj_AND

{zero aux}

$bestow/vpp{psp}>pr-cj_BESTOW+IT $/vpp{psp}>pr-cj_+IT

$great/aj-cpv>cj_GREIT+ER $-er/aj-cpv>cj_+ER

$expense/npl_EXPENS+IS $/pln_+IS

$&/cj_AND

$labour/npl{rc}_LABOUR+IS $/pln{rc}_+IS

$for/pr-cj<v_FOR

$/P13GM_HIS

$sure/n{rc}-av_SUEr+NES $-ness/xs-n{rc}-av_+NES

$&/cj_&

$prosperity/n{rc}-av_ProSPERITE

$than/cj<aj-cpv_YAN~

{\}

{zero RO-n}

$all/pn-aj_ALL

$/T_THE

$world/n_WARLD

$have/vps13<n+_HAS

$do/vpp{psp}_DONE

{/}

$nor/neg-cj<neg-cj<neg_NOR

{fronted av>}

$yet/av<av<cj_zIT

{inversion>}

$regard/vps23>P+_*REGARD

$/P23N_THAJ

Concession may structure a whole letter in the way illustrated by the example above; however, the concessive links are explicitly interrelated only within structures that can be considered complex sentences.

The following example illustrates the fronting of a prepositional phrase as an adverbial in a subordinate clause:

{zero pre}

$so/av>cj_SO

$soon/av-cj_SUNE

$as{time}/cj{pre}<av_AS

$/P02N_YEE

$can/vm_CAN

$dispatch/vi_DISPACH

{\}

$/P02G_YOUR

$a/pr>vi-npl_A+

$do/vi-npl<pr_+DO+IS $/vi-pln<pr_+IS

{.}

{zero post}

$haste/v-imp>pr_HEST

$/P02X_YOU

{zero xs-P}

$to/pr+C<v_TO

$/P11O-av_ME

{.}

$for/cj{-c-tf-post}_FOR

{zero that<}

{fronted av>}

$in/pr_IN

$/P02G_YOUR

$company/n-av_COMPANIE

{\}

{inversion>}

$be{n}/vps23>cnp&cnp+_IS

$/P11G+V_MY

$earth/aj_EARTH+LIE $-ly/xs-aj_+LIE

$comfort/n{rc}_CONFORT

$&/cj_AND

$great/aj-sup_GRET+EST $-est/xs-aj-sup_+EST

$joy/n_IOYE

As regards position in phrase structure, a limited set of adverbs occur after the unit they modify:

$/P11N_j

$be{n}/vps11<P+>pr_AM

$under/pr<v_VNDER

$/A+C_A

$bad/aj_BAD

$enough/av{post}_ANOUGH

$word/n-av_WORD

$here/av_HERE

 

$any/pn-aj_ANIE

$other/pn-aj_OTHER

$way/n-av_WAY

{\}

$whatsoever/av{post}_WHATSOMEWER

Relations between units in collocates have been indicated, irrespective of what degree of fixedness or idiomaticity they may represent:

$in/pr>n-av_IN

$vain/n-av<pr_VAIN

 

$of/pr>aj-n-av_OF

$new/aj-n-av<pr_NEW

 

$a/pr>n-av_A

$miss/n-av<pr_MISS

 

$a/pr>n-av_A_

$clock/n-av<pr_CLOCK

The following co-occurrence patterns have also been indicated using arrows:

$down/av>av_DOUN

$here/av<av_HEIR

 

$long/aj-n-av>pr_LONG

$since/pr{post}<aj-n-av_SENS

 

$immediate/av>pr_ImMEDIAT+LIE $-ly/xs-av>pr_+LIE

$after/pr<av_EFTER

$/Dis-n-av_THIS

 

{zero pr}

$/T_THE

$day/n-av>av_DAY

$before/av<n-av_BEFORE

 

$2/qc_TUOE

$day/npl-av>pr_DAY+ES $/pln-av>pr_+ES

{\}

$since/pr<npl-av_SINCES

 

$exceed/vpsp-aj-av_EXCID+EING $/vpsp-aj-av_+EING $-ly/xs-vpsp-aj-av_0

$short/aj-n-av>pr_SHORT

$since/pr{post}<aj-n-av_SINCE

As illustrated by some of the examples above, a zero-realisation of a preposition in a prepositional phrase functioning as an adverbial is indicated using the tag-external comment {zero pr}; this practice provides evidence of variation between the prepositional and non-prepositional types attested in the corpus:

$since/cj{-c-tf-emb-post}_SINS

{zero that<}

$/P13NI_IT

$be{n}/vps13<P+_IS

$/neg<v>cj_NOT

$money/n_MONIE

{\}

$but/cj<neg_BUT

{zero pr}

$most/aj_MOST

$part/n-av_PAERT

$custom/npl_COSTOM+ES $/pln_+ES

$&/cj_AND

$casualty/npl_CASUALLITI+ES $/pln_+ES

In some cases, no prepositional variant has been recorded:

$to/im+C_TO

$go/vi_GO

$/Dat_THAT

{\}

$length/n-av_LENGTH

$to/im+C_TO

$see{lat}/vi-av_SIE

$/P13OI_IT

$sell/vpp{pass}-av_SOLD

Relations between the definite article and an adverb in the comparative form are indicated:

$/P02N_YOU

$may/vm_MAY

$/T>aj-cpv-av_THE

$better/aj-cpv-av<T_BETTER

$know/vi_KNOW

$what/pn_WHAT

{zero S}

{zero aux}

$to/im+C_TO

$call/vi>pr_CALL

{\}

$for/pr<<vi_FOR

The indicator of an appositive relation, to wit 'namely', is also tagged as a collocate:

$to/im+C>vi-av_TO

$wit/vi-av<im_WIT

As discussed in Section 3.2 Principles of tagging, sequences of core properties functioning as co-ordinates or addresses in grammels are designed to open a wider variational space than would be possible by allocating items to allegedly discrete categories. In a discourse-based approach, the items in bold in the following examples reflect adverbhood, this property being indicated by the addition of -av to the code which functions as a primary categorizer:

$some/pn_SOME

$be/vps03<pn+_ARE

$lie{place}/vpsp{prog}_LY+ING $/vpsp{prog}_+ING

$sick/aj-av_SICK

 

$&/cj{ts}_*AND

$/P02N_YOW

$be{n}/vps02<P+>vi_ARE

$to/im+C_TO

$continue/vi<v>pr-cj_CONTINUE

$vigour/aj-av_VIGOR+OUS $-ous/xs-aj-av_+OUS

$&/cj_AND

{\}

$active/aj-av_ACTIVE

$in/pr-cj<vi_IN

$/Dis_THIS

$service/n{rc}-av_SERVICE

 

$god/n_GOD

{ins}

$send/vsjps13<n+_SEND $/vsjps13<n+_0

{ins}

$/P13GM_HIS

$son/n_SONE

$well/aj-av_WEILL

{zero pr}

$home/n-av_HOME

 

$/P23N_THEY

$will/vm_WILL

$come/vi>pr_COME

$safe/aj-av_SAFE

$to/pr+C<vi_TO

$/P02G_YOur

$lord/nG{ho}_LO+PP+^S $-ship/xs-nG{ho}_+PP+^S $/Gn{ho}_+^S

{\}

$hand/npl-av_HAND+S $/pln-av_+S

 

$which/RN{y1}_WCH

{\}

$be/vps13<R+_IS

$send/vpp{pass}_SENT

$open/aj-av_OPEN

Non-finite adverbial clauses with present and past participles as their predicate verb may be categorially fuzzy, some of them overlapping with participial adjectives in an adverbial function. In the following examples, the core properties listed in the grammel are either /vpsp-av, /vpp-av or /vpsp-aj-av and /vpp-aj-av, depending on whether there is potential for adjectivehood:

{zero pre}

$/P11N_j

$be{n}/vps11<P+_AM

$here/av_HEIR

$present/av_PRESENT+LY $-ly/xs-av_+LY

$in/pr_IN

;_LESLIE $/n-av_LESLIE

{\}

$come/vpp-av_CUM+ED~ $/vpp-av_+ED~

$purpose/av_PURPOS+LIE $-ly/xs-av_+LIE

$to/im+C_TO

$see/vi-av_SEE

$/P13OM_HIM

 

$/T_*THE

$lord/n{tl}>pr_LARD

$of/pr<n_OFF

;_*ADIE

$meet/vpt_MET

$/P13OM_HIM

$accompany/vpp{pass}-av>pr_ACCOmPAN+EIT $/vpp{pass}-av>pr_+EIT

$with/pr<vpp-av_W^T

$/P11G+C_*MY

{\}

$lord/n{tl}_LORD

;_*OGILVAY

Assessing adjectivehood could perhaps be seen as a subjective exercise. However, potential for adjectivehood can be argued for using data recorded in the CSC. Thus, here-enclosed or similar collocates tend to share the discourse functions of adjectives, especially if they are read as compounds, as suggested here (cf. also the example send a letter open above):

$/P02N_YEE

$shall/vm_SCHALL

$receave/vi_RECEAUE

$/P23O_THEM

$here/av>vpp-aj-k-av_HEIAR

$enclose/vpp{pass}-aj-k-av<av_INCLOS+ED $/vpp{pass}-aj-k-av<av_+ED

 

$/P11N_j

$have/vps11<P+_HAVE

$here/av>vpp-aj-av-k_HERE

$enclose/vpp{pass}-aj-av-k<av_INCLOS+ED $/vpp{pass}-aj-av-k<av_+ED

$send/vpp{psp}_SENT

$/P02O_YOU

$/P11G+V_MY

$answer/n{rc}>pr_ANSWER

$to/pr+H<n_TO

$/P13OM_HIM

The structure to come prepared to do something can be seen to alternate with to come well prepared to do something; the latter permits a reading of the past participle as having some degree of adjectivehood a property which allows the interpretation of the infinitive clause as an adjective complement:

$which/RN{sent}_WHICH

$make/vpt_MADE

$/P11O_ME

$/T>av_THE

$more/av<T_MORE

$forward/aj-cpv>vi_FORWARDE

$to/im+C_TO

$come/vi<aj-cpv_COME

{\}

$prepare/vpp-aj-av>vi_PREPAR+ED $/vpp-aj-av>vi_+ED

$to/im+C_TO

$do/vi<vpp-aj-av_DOE

$some/pn-aj>n-pn_SOME+

$thing/n-pn<pn-aj_+THING

The motivation for suggesting adjectivehood can also be based on word formation patterns, the prefix un- being attached to participial adjectives such as unpaid:

$&/cj{ts}_AND

$/S_IT

$will/vm_WILL

$be{n}/vi_BE

$poor/aj_POOR

{\}

$advantage/n>pr&pr_ADVANTAGE

$to/pr+C<_TO

$/P02O_YOU

$or/cj_OR

{zero pr<}

$/P11O_ME

$to/im+C_TO

$let{lat}/vi<S_LET

{\}

$annual/aj>npl-k_ANNUEL+

$rent/npl-k<aj_RENT+S $/pln-k<aj_+S

{zero im}

$lie{place}/vi{-im}>av_LYE

$over/av<vi_OVER

$pay/vpp{pass}-aj-av_VN+PAY+ED $-un/xp-vpp{pass}-aj-av_VN+ $/vpp{pass}-aj-av_+ED

The following example contains a past participle as object complement of a prepositional complex-transitive verb take (something) as (something):

{zero pre}

$/P11N_j

$do/vps11<P+>vi_DO $/vps11<P+>vi_0

$beseech/vi<v_BESEICHE

$/P02G_YOUR

$lordship/nG{ho}_LO $/Gn{ho}_0

$noble/aj_NOBLE

{\}

$favour/n{rc}_FAUORE

{damaged; TO?}

$/P13OM_HIM

{,}

$which/RO{sent}_WCHE

$/P11N_j

$will/vm_WILL

$take/vi>pr_TAK

$as/pr<vi_AS

$do/vpp{pass}-aj-av>pr_DOWNE

{\}

$to/pr+C<vpp-aj-av_TO

$/P11X<_MY-SELF $-self/xs-P_-SELF

In Latinate causative constructions, the participle is always tagged / vpp-av. This is due to the present tagger's interest in compressed variants on the continuum from maximal elaboration to maximal compression in the typology of clause linkage:

$/P21N_WE

$may/vm_MAY

$get{cause}{lat}/vi_GET

{\}

$all/pn-aj_ALL

$thing/npl_THING+S $/pln_+S

$/T>av-cpv_THE

$better/av-cpv<T_BETTER

$do/vpp{pass}-av_DONE

 

$to/im+C_TO

$go/vi_GO

$/Dat_THAT

{\}

$length/n-av_LENGTH

$to/im+C_TO

$see{lat}/vi-av_SIE

$/P13OI_IT

$sell/vpp{pass}-av_SOLD

Agents in passive clauses can be investigated by creating an inventory based on either the grammel /pr{pass} or n-av{pass}:

$/P11G+C_MY

$daughter/n_DEOCHTER

$be/vpt13<n+_VAS

$desire{cause}{lat}/vpp{pass}>pr&pr_DESYR+ID $/vpp{pass}>pr&pr_+ID

$both/cj>cj_BOTHE

$by/pr{pass}<v_BE

$/P02G_YOUR

{\}

$lord/n{ho}-av{pass}_LORD

$&/cj<cj_AND

{zero pr{pass}}

$/P02G_YOUR

$son/n-av{pass}_SONE

$to/im+H_TO

$have/vi-av_HAUE

$go/vpp{psp}_GON

$west/av_VAST

 

$/P13NM_HE

$have/vps13<P+_HES

$be/vpp{psp}_BEINE

$trouble/vpp{pass}>pr_TRUBL+ED $/vpp{pass}>pr_+ED

$with/pr{pass}<v_WITH

$/T_THE

{\}

$old/aj_OWLD

$pain/n-av{pass}>pr_PAYNE

$in/pr<n-av_IN

$/P13GM_HIS

$haunch/n_HAYNCHE

Since the tagging is tailored to allow the tracing of grammaticalization processes, it is also possible to retrieve adverbials incorporating nouns such as a great deal (of) and a lot (of) by searching for the property string n-av(>pr) in the grammels of the nouns:

$/A+C_A

$great/aj_GREAT

$deal/n-av_DEAL

$less/nq_LES

{\}

$would/vm_VALD

$have/vi_HAUE

$serve/vpp{psp}_SERU+IT $/vpp{psp}_+IT

$/P11O_ME

 

$which/RN{sent}_WHICH

{\}

$will/vm_WILL

$be{n}/vi_BE

$/A+C_A

$great/aj_GREAT

$deal/n-av_DEALL

$easy/aj-cpv>pr_ESI+ER $/aj-cpv>pr_+ER

$for/pr<aj-cpv_FOR

$/P02O_YOW

Grammaticalization processes can also be traced as regards discourse particles such as anyway:

$any/pn-aj>n-av_ANY

$way/n-av<pn-aj_WAY

In the list of minor types of adverbial uses, I have included core property strings which permit the user to distinguish between those grammels defined as default and others. The tag element Dis refers to an adjectival use by default, and Dis-av refers to a use of the following kind:

$/Dis-av>av_THIS

$far/av<Dis-av_FAR

As elsewhere, proper nouns are tagged to make their function explicit in cases in which information of this kind is relevant (genitive, adverbial, prepositional complement and apposition, to mention the most frequent ones):

$with/pr<vi_W^T

$master/n{tl}_M^R

'_jAMES $/n-av_jAMES

According to the same rationale, numerals are also tagged in certain contexts:

[the letter arrived]

{zero pr}

$/T_THE

$20/qo-n-av>pr_20

$of/pr<qo-n-av_OF

$april/n_APRYL

As discussed in Section 3.3.2.2, ambiguity in nominal head + infinitive clause combinations has been dispelled by using the semantic properties of the head as a basis for making a distinction between nominal and adverbial infinitive clauses.

$therefore/Dat-av{ts}>pr_THER+FOR $for/pr<Dat-av_+FOR

$/P11N_j

$will/vm_WILL

$beg/vi_BEGG

$leave/n{rc}>vi-av&vi-av_LEAU

$to/im+C_TO

$go/vi-av<n>pr_GOE

{\}

$to/pr+V<vi-av_TO

$/P13OI_IT

{,}

$&/cj_AND

$to/im+C_TO

$write/vi-av<n_WRYTE

$/P11X<_MY-SELF $-self/xs-P_-SELF

The infinitives are interpreted to alternate with a finite clause of purpose (ask for permission) so that one could go and write, and are therefore tagged with /vi-av.

For a discussion of adverbial clauses, see Section 3.3.8; for types such as therefore and herewith, Section 3.3.6; and for nominalization and adverbials, Section 3.3.4.