Varieng Home

3.3.6 Pronouns

3.3.6.1 Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns

Information in the grammels of personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns is structured with reference to number, person, case and gender. The core property P is followed by 1, 2 or 0, for singular, plural or other; N, O, G or X, for nominative, oblique, genitive and reflexive; and M, F or I, for masculine, feminine or neuter. The number 0 appears in the grammels of personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns which are used with generic reference. In addition, the second person singular is tagged /P12_ in letters addressing a socially inferior person (parents writing to their children, for instance), while the polite second person singular is /P02_.

$if/cj{-c-pre}_jF

{zero that<}

{\}

$/P02N_YOU

$be{n}/vsjpt02<P+{cond}_WERE

$here/av_HERE

$/P02X<_YOUR-SELF $-self/xs-P_-SELF

A nominal use of a possessive is tagged by adding the element -n to the grammel.

$/P11N_j

$rest/vps11<P+_REST $/vps11<P+_0

$/P02G-n_*YOUR+S $/P02G-n_+S

$more/av-cpv>cj_MOIR

$than/cj<av-cpv_THAN

{zero S}

{zero v}

$/P11G+V_MY-N+

$own/aj-n_+AUIN

The pattern of coreference between he and himself in the following example is made explicit by the arrow attached to the reflexive pronoun:

$/P13NM_HE

$receave/vpt_RECEAW+ED $/vpt_+ED

$no/neg-pn-aj>n-pn_NO+

$thing/n-pn<neg-pn-aj_+THING

$/P13XM<_HIM-SELF $-self/xs-P_-SELF

 

$for/pr{foc}_FOR *

$/P11X>-av_MY-SELF $-self/xs-P_-SELF

$/P11N_j

$can/vm_CAN

{\}

$say/vi_SAY

$little/neg-nq_LITTLE

 

*'as regards myself'

The absence of the first pair is indicated by a tag-external comment:

$/P11N_J

$long/vpt_LONG+ED $/vpt_+ED

$extreme/av_EXTREAM+LIE $-ly/xs-av_+LIE

$to/im+C_TO

$give/vi_GIUE

{zero P02O}

$/P02X_YOur-SELFE $-self/xs-P_-SELFE

$&/cj_AND

$/P11G+C_MY

$lord/n{ho}_LORD

$/Dat_THAT

{\}

$mean/aj_MEAN

$testimony/n{rc}_TESTIMONIE

 

$/P11N_j

$know/vps11<P+_KNOWE $/vps11<P+_0

{zero that}

$also/av_ALSO

{zero P02N}

$/P02X_YOUR-SELFF $-self/xs-P_-SELFF

$must/vm_MUST

{\}

$have{n}/vi_HAUE

$money/npl_MONEY+ES $/pln_+ES

The absence of the element -self is also commented on:

$/P11N_j

$oblige{cause}{lat}/vps11<P+_OBLIDGE $/vps11<P+_0

$/P11X_ME

{zero xs-P}

$to/im+C_TO

$stand/vi-av>pr-cj_STAND

$to/pr-cj<vi-av_TO

$&/cj_AND

$abide/vi-av>pr-cj_ABIDE

$by/pr-cj<vi-av_BE

$/P23G_THEIR

$sentence/n{rc}>pr_SEN\TENCE

$therein/Dat>pr_THERE+IN $in/pr<Dat<n_+IN

The aim of tagging the pronoun me in this way is not to provide a grammatical description of the system of reflexive pronouns; instead, the tag and the comment function as addresses, permitting a search for all variants of reflexive pronouns which do not have the element self.

In accordance with this decision to create representative inventories, the element self is always tagged as related to reflexive pronouns. Therefore, even when self is used to refer to nominal heads, it appears in data representing reflexive structures:

$/P13GF_HIR

$ladyship/n{ho}_LA

{zero P13XF}

$-self/xs-P_SELF

As mentioned in the discussion of noun phrases, the genitive form of a personal name, is often not made explicit by adding an inflectional ending, but rather the name may occur in an unmarked form followed by a possessive pronoun. The tagging practice is to use the string /G-P_G_ as the grammel of the possessive pronoun:

'_WALTER^HAY $/Gn_0

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$declaration/n{rc}_DECLARATION"

 

$in/pr_IN

$/P11G+C_MY

$lord/n{tl}_LORD

'_*GORDOUN $/Gn_0

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$company/n-av_*COMPANIE

A number of cooccurrence patterns have been marked with arrows as well:

$/P23N>pr_THEM

$in/pr<P_IN

;_*BEAR

 

$/P22N>qc-n_YOU

$2/qc-n<P_TWO

3.3.6.2 Demonstrative pronouns

The lexel is left empty for demonstrative pronouns, due to the fact that each one of them has its own abbreviation in the grammel:

this /Dis
that /Dat
these /Des
thir /Dir
those /Dai

Demonstrative pronouns with determinative function are distinguished from their nominal counterparts using -n; for example, either /Dis or /Dis-n may be used for this, and /Dat or Dat-n for that.

$with/pr_W^T

$/Dis-n-av>pr_THIS

$of/pr<Dis-n-av_OFF

$/P02G-n_YOUR+S $/GP02-n_+S

 

$as-for/pr{foc}_*AS-FOR

{\}

$that/Dat-n-av>pr_THAT

$about/pr<Dat-n-av_*ABOUT

$/T_THE

$church/n_CHURCH

The nominal /Dat-n can refer to the whole of the preceding sentence:

$but/cj{ts}_BOT

$to/im+C_TO

$take/vi_TAKE

$/P13OI_IT

$there/av_THERE

$when/cj{-c-emb-post}_WHEN

{zero that<}

$/S_IT

{zero do}

$lie{place}/vps13<S+>pr-cj_LI+ES $/vps13<S+>pr-cj_+ES

$/neg<v_NOT

$in/pr-cj<v_IN

$/P11G+C_MY

$reach/n{rc}-av_R?EACH

{\}

$to/im+V_TO

$exchange/vi<S_EXCHANGE

$/P13OI_IT

{,}

$/Dat-n{sent}_THAT

$/P11N_j

$can/vm_CAN+

$/neg<vm_+NOT

$do/vi_DOE

In addition to indicating these core properties of demonstratives, it may be necessary to refine the tag to permit focused searches. For example, the singular form may occur with a plural noun:

$/Dis-pl_THIS

$country/n>npl-k_*CUNTREY

$man/npl-k<n_MEN

To distinguish the following use from others, it is tagged as an adverb modifier, adding a pair of arrows to link the two units in this far to one another:

$/P21N_WE

$be{h}/vps21<P+_AR

$come/vpp{psp}_COME

$/Dis>av_THIS

$far/av<Dis_FAR

A particularly frequent variant in the typology of demonstratives is the type hereof/thereof. This variational pattern is made transparent by using the same core property indicators in the grammel, namely this and that.

$/T_THE

$bear/n>pr_BEAR+ER $-er/xs-n>pr_+ER

{\}

$hereof/Dis>pr_HEAR+OF $of/pr<Dis<n_+OF

While hereof alternates with of this, therein belongs to the same paradigm as in that.

$/P13NF_SCHOO

$think/vpt_THOCHT

$/P11O_ME

$over/av>aj-k_OWER

$partial/aj-k<av_PARTI\ALL

$/A+C_ANE

$judge/n_jUDGE

$in/pr_IN

$/Dat_Y^T

$matter/n-av_MATer

$&/cj_&

{zero S}

$would/vm_WALD

$/neg<vm_NO^T

$therefore/Dat-av>pr_Yar+FOIR $for/pr<Dat-av

$admit/vi>pr_ADMIT

{\}

$/P11O_ME

$as/pr<vi_AS

$judge/n>pr_jUDGE

$therein/Dat>pr_Yar+IN $in/pr<Dat<n_+IN

 

$by/pr-cj_BY

$/T_THE

$beast/aj_BEAST+LIE $-ly/xs-aj_+LIE

$revenge/vn{rc}-av>pr_REWENG+EING $/vn{rc}-av>pr_+EING

$thereof/Dat>pr_THAIR+OF $of/pr<Dat<vn-av_+OF

 

[give]

$/P02G_zOur

$sentence/n{rc}_SENTENCE

$therein/Dat-av>pr_Yar+IN $in/pr<Dat-av_+IN*

*'in that matter'

3.3.6.3 Indefinite pronouns

Some indefinite pronouns have plural forms, while most of them refer to an unspecified number (cf. their tagging as (part of) the antecedent in relative structures):

$other/pnpl-aj_OTHIR+S $/plpn-aj_+S

$friend/npl_FRIND+S $/pln_+S

 

$some/pn>pr_SUM

$of/pr<pn_OF

$/P13GF_HIR

$friend/npl_FREND+S $/pln_+S

The evolution of indefinite pronouns can be traced by taking advantage of the practice of tagging each element separately and indicating their interrelatedness with arrows. The attributive elements usually have the core properties /pn-aj, while the head elements are categorized as nouns in a pronominal function, i.e. /n-pn:

$any/pn-aj>n-pn_ANY

$thing/n-pn<pn-aj_THING

 

$every/pn-aj>n-pn_EUERY

$thing/n-pn<pn-aj_THING

In the case of no as the attributive element, information is also provided about whether the immediately following word begins with a consonant, a vowel or an h; in addition, all negative elements carry the first element /neg in the tagging practice:

$no/neg-pn-aj+C>n-pn_NA+

$thing/n-pn<neg-pn-aj_+THING

The candidates for membership in the same variational paradigm can be identified by elaboration of the following kind:

$no/neg-pn-aj+C>n-pn_NO+

$man/n-pn<neg-pn-aj_+MAN"

 

$every/pn-aj>n-pn_EUERIE

$man/n-pn<pn-aj_Man

 

$any/pn-aj>n-pn_ANY+

$body/n-pn<pn-aj_+BODY

 

$any/pn-aj>n-pn_ONY

$person/n-pn<pn-aj_PerSONE

 

$any/pn-aj>pn_ANY

$other/pn<pn-aj

 

$every/pn-aj>qc-pn_EUERIE

$1/qc-pn<pn-aj>pr>pn_ON

$of/pr<qc-pn_OF

$/P21O_VS

$may/vm_MEY

$prejudice/vi_PREIUDICE

$/T>pn_THE

$other/pn<T<qc-pn_WTHER

As illustrated, the primary word-class is always stated (e.g. /qc-pn 'one'), and similar or identical core property strings permit the user to use a relatively simple tag list for data retrieval. When this is relevant, correlative pairs of pronouns such as one and the other are indicated with arrows.

The relationship between the determinative element, i.e. the definite or the indefinite article, and the pronoun is made explicit:

$/T>qc-pn_THE

$1/qc-pn<T>pn_ANE

$may/vm_MEY

$prejudice/vi_PREIUDICE

$/T>pn_THE

$other/pn<T<qc-pn_WTHER

 

$/A+V>pn-aj_ANE

$other/pn-aj<A_OTHER

$little/aj_LITTELL

$horse/n_HORSSE

 

$2/qc_TWO

{\}

$letter/npl>pr_LETTER+S $/pln>pr_+S

$unto/pr<npl_ON-TO

{zero P02O}

$/P02X_YOUR-SELFF $-self/xs-P_-SELFF

$&/cj_AND

$/A>pn_ANE

$other/pn<A>pr_OTHER

{\}

$to/pr+C<pn_TO

$/P02G_YOUR

$son/n_SONE

A number of other items functioning as signals of anaphoric reference are also tagged as pronouns. The presence of a determinative is also indicated.

$/T>pn_THE

{\}

$like/pn<T_LEYK

 

$/T>pn_THE

$same/pn<T_SAM

 

$of/pr_OF

$/Dat>pn_THAT

$ilk/pn<Dat_ILK

 

{zero av>cj}

$that{purpose}/cj{post}_THAT

$ilk/pn-aj>qc-pn_ILK+

$1/qc-pn<pn-aj>pr>pnG_+ANE

$of/pr<qc-pn_OF

$/P21O_WS

$may/vm_MEY

{\}

$serve/vi_SERWE

$other/pnG<qc-pn_VTHER+IS $/Gpn<qc-pn_+IS*

$turn/npl_TURN+IS $/pln_+IS

 

*a number-neutral tagging because of ambiguity

The fact that there is a variational pattern with demonstratives in particular, but also with relative connectives, can be illustrated by the following examples of the same and the like in an epistolary formula:

$/P21N_VE

$be{n}/vps21<P+>pr-cj_AR

$all/aj<_AL

$in/pr-cj<v_IN

$good/aj_GOOD

{\}

$health/n{rc}-av_HELTH

$desire/vpsp{co}_DESYR+ING $/vpsp{co}_+ING

$to/im+H_TO

$hear/vi>pr_HIER

$/T>pn_THE

{\}

$like/pn<T_LEYK

$of/pr<vi_OF

$all/pn-aj_AL

$/P21G_VR

$friend/npl_FRIND+S $/pln_+S

 

$/P21N_VE

$be{n}/vps21<P+>pr-cj_AR

$all/aj<_AL

$in/pr-cj<v_IN

$good/aj_GOOD

$health/n{rc}-av_HELTH

{,}

$desire/vpsp{co}_DESYR+ING $/vpsp{co}_+ING

$to/im+H_TO

{\}

$hear/vi>pr_HIR

$/T>pn_THE

$same/pn<T_SAM

$of/pr<vi_OF

$/P02G_YOUR

$lordship/n{ho}_L

It should be noted that, in the CSC data, something may be used with an adverbial function, in the sense of somewhat:

$/P23N_THEY

$say/vps23<P+_SAY $/vps23<P+_0

{zero that}

$/T_THE

$victual/n{coll}_VICTUALL

$be{n}/vps13<n{coll}+_IS

$some/pn-aj>n-av_SOME+

$thing/n-av<pn-aj_+THING

$spoil/vpp{pass}-aj_SPOIL+ED $/vpp{pass}-aj_+ED

Another example of an adverbial use of an indefinite pronoun is provided by any:

$to/im+C_TO

$give/vi_GIF

$occasion/n>vi-av_OCCASIOUN

$to/im+C_TO

$be{n}/vi-av<n_BE

$any/pn-av_ONY

$worse/av-cpv_WORSs

$use/vpp{pass}_VS+ED $/vpp{pass}_+ED

A link is indicated between a personal pronoun and the intensifying all in the following context, the position of the latter varying from adjacency to considerable distance:

$/P13OI_IT

$all/aj<_ALL

 

$/P21N_WE

$be{n}/vps21<P+_AR

$all/aj<_ALL

3.3.6.4 Interrogative pronouns

The so-called wh-interrogative pronouns have the core property /pn in the grammel, the lexel specifying which pronoun is in question. In the category of dependent wh-clauses (predictably, there are only very few direct questions in the CSC data), there is some ambiguity between interrogative pronouns and nominal relative pronouns, but a careful reading of the context usually permits the identification of the function of a dependent question. Of the following two examples, the first is a dependent interrogative and the second a nominal relative clause:

$/P02N_YE

{zero do}

$know/vps02<P+_KNOU

$/neg<v_NOT

$how/pn_HOW

$/P13NM_HE

$will/vm_WIL

$settle/vi_SETLE

$/T_THE

$matter/n_MATTER

 

{zero pre}

$/P02N_YE

$do/vps02<P+{neg}>vi_DOE $/vps02<P+{neg}>vi_0

$/neg<v_NOT

$think/vi<v_THINK

$how/RX-n_HOW

$people/n{coll}_PEOPELL

$scare/vps13<n+{coll}_SKER+S $/vps13<n+{coll}_+S

$to/im+C_TO

$be/vi_BE

$see/vpp{pass}_SEIN

$to/im+V_TO

$advance/vi>pr_ADVANC

$any/pn-aj>n-pn_ANY

{\}

$thing/n-pn<pn-aj_THING

$for/pr<vi_FOR

$/P02O_YOW

(For more information on wh-elements as nominal relatives, see Section 3.3.6.5.)

It should be noted that the complementizer in indirect yes-no questions, i.e. those using if or whether, has {q} 'question' in its lexel:

{fronted app>}

$if{q}/cj{app}_IF

$/P13NM_HE

$shall/vm_SHALL

$change/vi_CHAINDGE

$/P13GM_HIS

$title/n_TITLE

{\}

$again/av_AGAINE

{;}

$/P21N_WE

$have{n}/vps21<P+_HAIVE

$/neg-pn-aj+C_NO

$certainty/n{rc}_CERTAINTIE

{appositive}

3.3.6.5 Relative pronouns

Because of the compiler/tagger's own research interests, relative structures have been chosen as one of the areas for experimentation in applying a high degree of elaboration to tagging. This section describes the system by first discussing the concept of a default, then proceeding to a detailed examination of how the tagging reflects the typology of relative structures recorded in the CSC at various levels of analysis, and finally explaining the commentary on zero realisation and discourse function.

With the majority of features, the tag provides detailed information about the use of a linguistic feature in a particular context, all members of a variational paradigm being described at the same level of refinement. However, for reasons of research economy, some properties of relative structures have been defined as default. This means that explicit information is not provided for features defined as default properties. In designing their system of data retrieval, the user of the CSC is advised to keep in mind that, even though the default properties have been left implicit in the tagging system, they are full members in variational paradigms. It is obvious that by purely l inguistic criteria it does not make sense to contrast antecedents which include a restricted set of marked properties such as <pn-aj or aj-sup, pinpointed in the literature as conditioning factors, with those not containing these properties. Nevertheless, this practice has been adopted, as subjecting unmarked types to a lower degree of elaboration reduces the number of options on the computer screen and so speeds up the interactive tagging process considerably.

The main rules in tagging the relatives in the CSC are based on the idea that properties which are mutually exclusive are explicitly defined as such (e.g. the comments {sent}, {y_}, and {_h_}, for sentential relatives, inanimate, and animate antecedents respectively). Information about features such as animacy and number is attached to these properties; the items in the two sets of features, y, +h, -h, and 0, 1 and 2, are in complementary distribution (inanimate, animate human, animate non-human and generic/fuzzy, singular and plural respectively). Thus, in these cases the tags specified cover the whole variational field, and no property has been defined as default. The following list describes the system in more detail.

The core properties RN nominative, RO oblique, RC complement, RX adverbial and Raj attributive cover the whole variational field; there are no default properties.

Number of the antecedent (singular, plural, other); no default ('other' is tagged {y0}, {+h0} or {-h0}). The elements {y1}, {y2}, {y0}, {+h1}, {+h2}, {+h0}, {-h1}, {-h2}, {-h0} and {sent} are mutually exclusive.

Definiteness of the antecedent (generic, other); 'generic' is one of the usage types in the category which can be retrieved by searching for the zero as an element in {y0}, {+h0} and {-h0}. In addition to generic reference, the zero may indicate that the antecedent is a collective noun (e.g. council), an indefinite pronoun (e.g. all) or some other nominal element the number of which is ambiguous (the rest). The comments {y1}, {y2}, {y0}, {+h1}, {+h2}, {+h0}, {-h1}, {-h2}, {-h0} and {sent} are mutually exclusive, so no property is defined as default.

Animacy of the antecedent (animate human, animate non-human, inanimate); the tag elements {y_} and {_h_} automatically exclude the option {sent} and vice versa. No property has been defined as default.

Position of the antecedent (adjacent, non-adjacent); the adjacent position of the antecedent has been considered a default property. Non-adjacency indicates that there is a syntactic constituent acting as the antecedent in the preceding context, but this constituent does not immediately precede the relative. The element {non-ad} in the grammel is valid only with the elements {y_} and {_h_}, and cannot co-occur with {sent}, since the property {sent} is used in structures in which the relative refers to a whole clause or a shorter or longer chunk of text which can be identified as an anchor according to semantic criteria. It should be noted that in the present system nominalizations as antecedents are also indicated using {sent} in the grammel of relatives, due to the compiler/tagger's interest in the continuum from maximally elaborated to maximally compressed (Lehmann 1988). The tags {non-ad} and {sent} are therefore mutually exclusive, except in cases where a disjunctive adverbial clause occurs between the semantic anchor and the relative element.

Realisation of the antecedent (nominal, pronominal); the realisation of the antecedent by a simple or complex noun phrase has been defined as a default property, and such realizations have therefore been left without an explicit tag element, whereas realisation by a pronoun is indicated with a tag (personal <P_, demonstrative <D_, indefinite <pn).

In the case of a nominal realisation, attributive demonstratives or indefinite pronouns and adjectives in the superlative or semantic equivalents such as first or last as premodifiers are explicitly tagged (<Daj, <pn-aj, <aj-sup, <aj). In addition, correlative pairs consisting of premodifying such as the antecedent followed by a relative are also explicitly tagged (such aj>R, relative R<aj). Other realisations of premodification are considered default properties and are therefore not subjected to elaboration.

Shared antecedent; sequences of relative clauses (more than one relative structure attached to the same antecedent or anchor) are provided with pairs of tags (>R and <R, >R and <Raj), the latter of which always has a co-occurring tag {non-ad}, due to the non-adjacency of the antecedent. A single relative clause attached to an antecedent or an anchor is considered default.

Fixedness (formulaic, non-formulaic); the non-formulaic use of a relative construction is considered a default property and left untagged. The formulaic use is tagged with {f}.

Text-structuring functions (text-structuring, non-text-structuring); non-text-structuring relatives are not explicitly tagged, as they represent the default. The text-structuring uses are tagged with {ts}.

Nominal relatives (including the antecedent); the tag contains the elements R_ -n. The property -n and all tags which do not include this property are mutually exclusive, the latter thus representing default.

A determinative as part of the relative: <T; the property <T and all tags which do not include this property are mutually exclusive, the latter thus representing default.

A determinative as part of the relative: <pn-aj; the sequence <pn-aj and all tags which do not include this set of elements are mutually exclusive, the latter thus representing default.

Prepositional structures; the tags <pr, >pr, >pr>, <pr> and all tags which do not include any of these are mutually exclusive, the prepositional and non-prepositional structures together covering the whole variational field. Since no explicit information is provided about the absence of a preposition, the non-prepositional type also represents default. At the level of subcategories of prepositional relative structures, stranded >pr> and non-stranded <pr or >pr and pre-positioned (e.g. in which) and post-positioned (e.g. wherein) prepositions are in complementary distribution.

The tag for the prepositional type may include additional information about the preposition being attached to an NP (>n, <n), a verb (>v, <v, >vi, <vi), an adjective (>aj, <aj), or a participial adjective (>vpsp-aj, <vpsp-aj, >vpp-aj, <vpp-aj). Tags with no such additional information are default. Each additional property is mutually exclusive with the other additional properties in the list (e.g. >n, <n is mutually exclusive with >v, <v).

Adverbial function: -av; the property -av and all tags which do not include this property are mutually exclusive, the latter thus representing default.

Conjunctival function: -cj; the property -cj and all tags which do not include this property are mutually exclusive, the latter thus representing default.

The rest of the tags can provide extra information about particular properties, which are usually quite infrequent. Because of their infrequency, such properties need not be contrasted with the rest of the data, even though in principle all tags which leave a particular property of this kind untagged can be considered default. Tags providing extra information have been listed below:

R>P P<R a co-referential relative and personal pronoun
{av>app} ('which is/was', 'that is/was' = namely) a grammaticalized use

Search by type of relative clause will have to be designed in one of three ways, depending on whether the clause is finite, non-finite or verbless. Finite relative clauses can be retrieved using a list of finite verb tags and modal auxiliary plus infinitive tags following the element R. Non-finite relative clauses have the comment {rel} immediately following the element /vi 'infinitive', /vpsp 'present participle' or /vpp 'past participle' (the strings vpsp{rel}, vpp{rel} and vi{rel}). An inventory of verbless relative clauses can be created by searching for the comment {zero v{rel}}. The clause types can be illustrated with the following examples (the relative clauses are in bold):

FINITE:

$/Dis-n_THIS

$be{n}/vps13<Dis-n+_IS

$all/pn>R_ALL

{\}

{zero rel}

$/0RO{y0}<pn_0

$/P11N_j

$can/vm_CAN

$remember/vi_REMEmBER

$for/pr_FOR

$/T_THE

$present/aj-n-av_PreseNTT

 

NON-FINITE:

$/P02G_*YOur+is $/GP02_+is

$worship/nG{ho}_WO $/Gn{ho}_0

{/}

$most/av_MOST

$affectionate/aj-sup>R_AFFECTIONAT

{\}

$brother/n_BROTHER

{zero rel}

$/0RN{+h1}<aj-sup_0

$to/im+C_TO

$serve/vi{rel}_SERW

$/P02O_YOW

{\}

$to{until}/pr+C-cj_TO

$death/n{rc}-av_DEATH

 

$/P11N_j

$have{n}/vpt>pr_HAD

$/A+C_ANE

$letter/n_LETTER

$yesterday/n-av_YEISTERDAY

{zero rel}

$/0RN{y1}{disc}_0

$be{n}/vpsp{rel}_BE+ING $/vpsp{rel}_+ING

$/T_THE

$8/qo-n_8 $-th/xs-qo-n_0

$from/pr<v_FROM

'_ALEX^R^*LINTOUNE $/n-av_ALEX^R^*LINTOUNE

 

$/A+C_A

$gentle/aj>n-k_GENTIL+

$man/n-k<aj_+MAN

{zero rel}

$/0RN{+h1}_0

$endow/vpp{pass}{rel}>pr_INDEW+ED $/vpp{pass}{rel}>pr_+ED

$with/pr<vpp_W^T^H

$all/pn-aj_ALL

$qualification/npl_QUALIFICAtioUN+S $/pln_+S

 

VERBLESS:

$else/av{ts}_ELS

$/Des-n>R_THESE

{zero rel}

$/0RN{+h2}<Des-n_0

{zero v{rel}}

$now/av_NO?WE

$upon/pr_VPON

{\}

$/T_THE

$committee/n-av>pr_*COMmITTIE

$of/pr<n-av_OFF

$estate/npl_*ESTEA?T+S $/pln_+S

$do/vps23<Dcnp+{neg}>vi_DOE

$/neg<v_NOT

$walk/vi<v_WALKE

{\}

$by/pr_BY

$/T_THE

$old/aj_OLD

$rule/npl-av_*REWL+ES $/pln-av_+ES

 

$all/pn-aj>R_ALL

$other/pnpl>R_VTHER+IS $/plpn>R_+IS

{zero rel}

$/0RN{+h2}<pn-aj<pn-aj_0

{zero v{rel}}

$next/aj{rel}-pr_NIXT

$/P11G+C_MY

$sovereign/n-av_SOUERANE

 

$/P11N_j

$would/vm_WALD

$humble/av_HWMYL+LYE $-ly/xs-av_+LYE

$pray/vi>pr_PRAY

$/P02G_zOur

$grace/n{ho}_Grace

$for/pr<vi_FFOR

$/A+C_ANE~

{\}

$write/vn>pr_WriT+YNG $/vn>pr_+YNG

$&/cj_&

$charge/n>pr_CHARGE

$to/pr+C<n&n_TO

$/T_YE

$say/vpp-aj_SAID

$provost/n{civ}_PROUEST

{zero rel}

$/0RN{y1}_0

{zero v{rel}}

$conform/aj{rel}>pr-cj_conFORM"

$to/pr-cj<aj_TO

$/Dis_YIS

$effect/n{rc}_*EFFECT

A finite relative clause is considered a default property in the tagging system. The proportion of finite clauses and that of the other realisations can be calculated by subtracting the total of vpsp{rel}, vpp{rel}, vi{rel} and {zero v{rel}} from that of R_ and 0R_. An alternative search procedure is to find all the finite relative clauses by searching for the properties <R+ and <R- attached to the tag string of the finite verb, but this inventory would have to be complemented by a list of modal auxiliary + infinitive sequences in contexts following /R. A third option is to write a search rule which permits the exclusion of occurrences in contexts where the tags R_ or 0R_ are followed by any of the following tags: vpsp{rel}, vpp{rel}, vi{rel} or {zero v{rel}}.

Zero realizations are both indicated with {zero rel} and tagged by the introduction of an initial zero into the tag string (e.g. 0RO{y1}>pr> in 'the visit I longed for', these properties indicating the occurrence of a zero realisation of an object pronoun with an inanimate singular antecedent in a structure in which the preposition of the prepositional verb long for is stranded).

Thus, any structures tagged with R_ and 0R_ (the zero type) are in complementary distribution. Linguistically, it is less interesting to examine this polarization than to compare the subtype of each 0R with the equivalent R.

Elements in grammels such as RO, a relative element as object, allow the grouping of occurrences from a more traditional angle, creating contrasts between RO, RN (a relative as subject), Raj (an attributive relative) and RX (a relative adverbial), for example. However, the property is indicated to facilitate searches rather than to impose a particular category. Thus, the property string /RO-av<pr, with possible grammel-internal comments, permits a search for all oblique forms of relatives as prepositional complements functioning as adverbials. Searching by the tag RO will permit the exclusion of items in subject position (RN), adnominals (Raj) and adverbials (RX). A distinction is made between RO-av and RX, the latter referring to relative adverbs such as where and when, with locative and temporal reference respectively.

The semantic property of restrictive versus non-restrictive is not indicated in the tagging system. This is primarily because the main guideline in the tagging is to give detailed information about structural and contextual properties, so that a carefully defined search based on these properties is possible without suggesting a semantic or syntactic interpretation. Semantic information with reference to the dichotomy of restrictive versus non-restrictive is considered interpretative. The comment {sent} indicates a sentential reference, while t he comment {ts} is used to permit searching for relative connectives that have the function of structuring a letter at the textual level. In narrative passages in particular, text-structuring relative connectives of the following kind have been attested:

my neere relations to him and engagements for him, Haue \ given me the boldnesse to become an earnest suter in his behalfe \ That your lo~p would be pleased to be assisting to him, in pro\cureing payment of the aforesaid money assigned to him out of \ these places {space} Wherein your lo~ps favour shall ( amongst your \ many other courtesies ) lay a speciall obligation vpon \\ Your lo~ps most affectionat \\ and humble seruant \\ Loudoun (1st Earl of Loudoun, 1648)

butt \ Beallanegoune ansureing the Chancelor, told him, he \ should live legallie, but not ffrindlye, wher wpon \ the Chancelor out of a greatt passione, imme{del}d{del}diatlye \ commanded Beallanegoune doune staires (Mackenzie, 1688)

The former relative has been tagged $where/RO {sent}{ts}{f}-av>pr and $in/pr<RO-av, indicating that the relative connective has as its anchor a longer passage describing where the addressee's assistance is called for and can be seen as alternating with a connective phrase such as In all this. The comment {f} indicates that the item occurs in a closing formula. In the latter passage, whereupon is tagged $where/RO {sent} {ts}-av>pr and $upon/pr<RO-av, the connective sharing the variational space with structures indicating time relations or, if analysed at the level of discourse strategy, with cohesive devices which sequence or chain temporal or meta-discoursal information.

3.3.6.6 Relations between reference signals

A high degree of explicitness or by Present-Day English standards redundancy in the use of reference signals is indicated by arrows:

{zero cj}

$/P11N>P_j

$be/vpsp-av{abs}_BE+ING $/vpsp-av{abs}_+ING

$return/vpsp{prog}>pr_RETURN+InG $/vpsp{prog}>pr_+InG

$from/pr<v_FROM

;_* EDinburgh ^T $/n-av_* EDinburgh ^T

{zero post}

$/P11N<P_j

$happen/vpt_HAPPIN+IT $/vpt_+IT

$to/im+C_TO

$meet/vi_MEITT

 

{fronted O>}

$/T_THE

$lord/n{tl}>pr>P_LAIRDE

{ins}

$of/pr<n_OF

;_*BOYINE

{ins}

$/P11N_J

$find/vps11<P+_FINDE $/vps11<P+_0

$/P13OM<n_HIM

$very/av_UERIE

$desire/aj>vi_DESIR+OUSE $-ous/xs-aj>vi_+OUSE

$to/im+C_TO

$show/vi<aj_SHOW

$/P13XM<_HIM+SELFE $-self/xs-P_+SELFE

{\}

$deep/av_DEEP+LIE $-ly/xs-av_+LIE

$concern/vpp{pass}-aj_CONCERN+ED $/vpp{pass}-aj_+ED

 

$only/av{ts}_ONLY

{fronted O>}

$/Dis_THIS

$matter/n>pr>P_MATTER

$of/pr<n_OF

{\}

$master/n{tl}_M^R

'_*THOMAS^*GORDON

$/S_jT

$seem/vps13<S+_SEEMS

{zero that}

$/neg-pn-aj+C_NO

$means/npl_MEAN+S $/pln_+S

$or/cj_OR

{\}

$moyen/n_MOYEN

$can/vm_CAN

$effect/vi_EFFECT

$/P13OI<n_IT

 

{fronted O>}

$what/RN-n>P_VHAT

$shall/vm_SAL

$fall/vi>av_FAL

$out/av<vi_OUT

$after/pr-cj_EFTER

$/T_THE

$depart/n{rc}-av>pr_DEPERT

{\}

$of/pr<n-av_OF

$/Dis_THIS

$bear/n_BER+ER $-er/xs-n_+ER

{,}

$/P11N_j

$shall/vm_SAL

$let{lat}/vi_LAT

$/P02G_YOUR

{\}

$lordship/n{ho}_LO

{zero im}

$hear/vi{-im}>pr_HEIR

$of/pr<vi_OF

$/P13OI<R-n_IT

 

{fronted O>}

$if{q}/cj>Dat-n_IF

$/P11N_j

$be{n}/vps11<P+_BE $/vps11<P+_0

$worth/aj>pr_VIRTH+I $-y/xs-aj>pr_+I

$of/pr<aj_OF

{\}

$/P13OM_HIM

{,}

{zero pre}

$/Dat-n{sent}_THAT

$/P11N_j

$can/vm_CAN+

$/neg<vm_+NOT

$promise/vi_PROMES

 

$for/cj{ts}_FOR

$/P21N_WE

$write/vpt>pr_WREAT

$letter/npl_LETTER+S $/pln_+S

$at/pr_AT

$yule/n-av_zEULL

{\}

$to/pr<v_TO

$/P02G_zOUR

{/}

$lordship/n{ho}_LO

{/}

$/T>R_THE

$which/Raj{y1}<T>P>P_QUHILK

$packet/n_PAKET

$see/vpsp-cj{-c-emb-pre}

{zero that<}

$/P02G_zOUR

$lordship/n{ho}_LO

$have/vps13<n+_HES

$/neg<v_NOT

$receive/vpp{psp}_RECEV+IT $/vpp{psp}_+IT

{\}

$/P13OI<R_IT

{,}

{zero post-emb}

$/P11N_j

$think/vps11<P+_THEINK $/vps11<P+_0

{zero that}

$/P13NI<R_IT

$be/vsjps13<P+{nom}_BE $/vsjps13<P+{nom}_0

$carry/vpp{pass}_MIS+KARI+ED $mis-/xp-vpp{pass}_MIS+ $/vpp{pass}_+ED