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3.3.3 Nominal clauses

The elaboration provided on the properties of nominal clauses reflects their taxonomy as proposed in established grammatical descriptions. In these, the main categories are nominal that-clauses, dependent questions, nominal relative clauses, nominal infinitive clauses and nominal ing-clauses. The following features of nominal that-clauses are marked by elements in the tag, which are usually positioned in the grammel of the complementizer or the predicate verb. Complementary information may be given in tag-external comments (e.g. {appositive}).

Embedded nominal that-clauses have the comment {emb} attached to the core property /cj of the complementizer:

$for/cj{-c-tf-post}_FOR

{zero that<}

$/P11N_j

$think/vpt_THOCHT

$that/cj{emb}_YA^T

$/P11N_j

$should/vm_SOULD

{zero aux}

$be{n}/vpp{psp}>pr_BEIN

$out-of/pr<v_OUT-OF

$/P13OI-av_IT

$or{before}/pr_OR

$now/av-n_NOUE

When the predicate verb of a nominal that-clause is in the subjunctive, the comment {nom} is attached to its grammel.

$/P12N_WE

$hope/vps12<P+_HOIP $/vps12<P+_0

$that/cj_Y^T

$he/P13NM_HE

{zero do}

$come/vsjps13<P+{nom}_COM $/vsjps13<P+{nom}_0

$/neg<v_N^T

Elaboration is also provided for nominal that-clauses in appositive constructions and for adjective complementation, the main principle being to indicate a link using comments attached to the complementizer that. In the following example, in addition to the tag-external comment {appositive}, {app} is attached to that, in order to classify the nominal that-clause as realising the second unit in the appositive construction (here in extraposition in an existential sentence):

$/S_THER

$be{n}/vps13<S+_IS

$/A+C_A

$word/n<S_WORD

{appositive}

$that/cj{app}_THAT

$/P13NM_HE

$be{n}/vps13<P+>vi_IS

$to/im+C_TO

{\}

$go/vi<v>av_GOE

$away/av<vi_AWAY

When the first unit in an appositive construction contains a relative clause, the relative element has the comment {disc} 'discontinuous'. This comment indicates that a clausal modifier occurs as an intervening element in an appositive structure (the same practice is applied to complex noun phrases in which an intervening relative clause is positioned before a prepositional phrase functioning as a postnominal modifier):

$/T_THE

$hope/npl{rc}_HOP+S $/pln{rc}_+S

{zero rel}

$/0RO{sent}{disc}_0

$/P11N_j

{\}

$have{n}/vps11<P+_HAVE $/vps11<P+_0

{appositive}

$that/cj{app}_THAT

$business/n_BUSSINES

$go/vsjps13<n+{nom}>av_GO+ES $/vps13<n+{nom}>av_+ES

$real/av_REAL+Y $-ly/xs-av_+Y

$on/av<v_ON

$for/pr-cj_FOR

$/P21G_OUR

$master/nG{ho}_MASTER+S $/Gn{ho}_+S

{\}

$advantage/n{rc}-av_ADVANTAGE

In nominal that-clauses which function as complements of adjectives, the tag for the complementizer contains a link to the adjective, while the adjective has the grammel /aj>cj (since, due to technical requirements, links must consist of pairs which repeat the core elements, it has not been possible to relate items to clauses by using a different symbol, such as cl).

$which/RO{y1}_WHICH

$/P11N_j

$be{n}/vps11<P+_AM

$confident/aj>cj_CONFIDENT

$that/cj<aj_THAT

$/P11N_j

$ought/vm_OUGHT

{\}

$/neg<vm_NOT

$to/im+C_TO

$pay/vi_PAY

However, in the case of a zero complementizer, a tag-external comment {zero that<aj} is used:

$which/RO{y1}_WHICH

$/P11N_j

$be{n}/vps11<P+_AM

$confident/aj>cj_CONFIDENT

{zero that<aj}

$/P11N_j

$ought/vm_OUGHT

{\}

$/neg<vm_NOT

$to/im+C_TO

$pay/vi_PAY

In dependent questions the semantic disambiguator {q} 'question' is attached to the lexel of if. Users of the database are reminded that there is some degree of ambiguity in the categories of wh-dependent questions and nominal relative clauses, and therefore that they may wish to recheck the reading of these in the present tagging system. In the following example, the fronted complementation of the adjective ignorant has been interpreted as a dependent question:

{zero pre}

{fronted c>}

$what/pn-aj>aj_WHAT

{\}

$commission/n{rc}>pr&pr_COmMISSION

$or/cj_OR

$letter/npl>pr&pr_LetR+E?S $/pln>pr&pr _+E?S

$/P13NM_HE

$have{n}/vps13<P+_HATH

$to/pr+H{non-ad}<n&npl_TO

$/P13GM_HIS

$majesty/n{ho}_*M

{.}

$or/cj_OR

{zero pr<n&npl}

$any/pn>pr_ANYE

$of/pr<pn_OF

$/P22O_YOW

{\}

$/P11N_j

$be{n}/vps11<P+_AM

$altogether/av_ALTOGITHER

$ignorant/aj<pn-aj_IGNORANT

Here, the attributive pronoun what is interpreted as having the complementizer function, and is therefore used as the address for the retrieval of nominal clauses in adjective complementation.

Nominal relatives in nominal relative clauses have the core properties RN/RO/RX + -n, as well as a third core property, -av, for those functioning as adverbial modifiers (e.g. how in the following two examples):

$&/cj{ts}_AND

$/P02N_YEE

$write/vpt_WRET

{\}

$only/av_ONLY

$how/RX-n-av_HOW

$sorry/aj_SORY

$/P02N_YEE

$be{n}/vpt02<P+_WAR

 

{zero post}

$/P11N_j

$should/vm_SHOULDE

{\}

$have/vi_HAUE

$come/vpp{psp}_CUM+IT $/vpp{psp}_+IT

{.}

$&/cj_AND

$let{allow}{lat}/venpp{psp}_LAT+TEN $/venpp{psp}_+TEN

$/P02G_zOUR

$majesty/n{ho}_*MA^T^E

{zero im}

$know/vi{-im}_KNAW

{\}

$how/RX-n-av_HOW

$rigour/av_RIGOUR+OUS+LY $-ous/xs-aj_+OUS+ $-ly/xs-av_+LY

$/P11N_j

$be/vps11<P+_AM

$use/vpp{pass}_WS+IT $/vpp{pass}_+IT

Nominal to-infinitive clauses are particularly frequent as second units in appositive structures. In contrast with finite nominal clauses, in which the comment is attached to the complementizer, for these constructions the comment {app} is positioned in the grammel of the infinitive:

$/Dat_THAT

$honour/n{rc}_HONNEUR

{appositive}

$to/im+H_TO

$have/vi{app}_HAUE

$perform/vpp{psp}_PERFORM+ED $/vpp{psp}_+ED

{\}

$/P11G+C_MY

$duty/n_DEUTIE

$in/pr-cj_IN

$wait/vn{rc}-av>pr_WAIT+ING $/vn{rc}-av>pr_+ING

$on/pr<vn-av_ON

$/P02G_YOur

$lady/n{ho}_LA+SP $-ship/xs-n{ho}_+SP

 

$/T_THE

$happy/n{rc}_HAPPI+NESS $-ness/xs-n{rc}_+ NESS

{appositive}

$to/im+C_TO

$see/vi{app}_SIE

$/P02G_YOUR

{\}

$lord/n{ho}_LORD

 

$/T_THE

{\}

$desire/n{rc}_DESYRE

{zero rel}

$/0RO{sent}{disc}_0

$/P11N_j

$have{n}/vps11<P+_HAUE

{appositive}

$to/im+C_TO

$prove/vi{app}_PROUE

$worth/aj>pr_WORTH+IE $-y/xs-aj>pr_+IE

$of/pr<aj_OF

$/T_THE

$name/n>pr_NAME

$of/pr<n_OF

{\}

$/P02G_*YOUR

$lordship/nG{ho}_LO $/Gn{ho}_0

{/}

$affectionate/aj_AFFECTIONATE

$son/n_SONE

 

{zero pre}

$as-for/pr-cj{foc}_*AS-FOR

$/T_THE

$commission/n{rc}-av_*COMmISSION

$that/RO{sent}{disc}_THAT

'_*CULLODEN

$have/vps13<n+_HATH

$get/venpp{psp}_GOT+TEN $/venpp{psp}_+TEN

{appositive}

$to/im+C_TO

$take/vi{app}_TAKE

{\}

$/P21G_OUR

$oath/npl_OATH+ES $/pln_+ES

 

$/Dat_YAT

$honour/n{rc}_HONOR

{appositive}

$to/im+C_TO

$be/vi{app}_BE

{\}

$love/vpp{pass}>pr_LOU+ID $/vpp{pass}>pr_+ID

$of/pr{pass}<v_OFF

$/Dat_YAT

$house/n-av{pass}_HOWSs

However, in the CSC praxis, the semantic properties of the first unit may suggest a reading which permits the elaboration of the infinitive on the basis of two core property features, namely /vi-av. Thus, give an occasion to do (something) is interpreted to alternate with give an occasion for doing (something), and the grammels of occasion and the infinitive are linked together by /n>vi-av and /vi-av<n:

$to/im+C_TO

$give/vi _GIF

$occasion/n>vi-av_OCCASIOUN

$to/im+C_TO

$be{n}/vi-av<n_BE

$any/pn-av_ONY

$worse/av-cpv_WORSs

$use/vpp{pass}_VS+ED $/vpp{pass}_+ED

 

$neither/neg-cj_NATHER

{inversion>}

$have{n}/vpt_HAID

$/P11N_j

$any/pn-aj_ONIE

{\}

$occasion/n>vi-av_OCCATION

$until/pr_WNTILL

$now/av-n_NOW

$to/im+C_TO

$write/vi-av<n>pr_WRYT

$unto/pr<vi-av_WNTO

$/P02O_YOW

These structures can also be illustrated with the following examples:

$/P11N_j

$will/vm_WILL

$take/vi_TAK

$/T_THE

$bold/n{rc}>vi-av_BAULD+NES $-ness/xs-n{rc}>vi-av_+NES

$to/im+V_TO

{\}

$entreat/vi-av<n_jNTREAT

To-inifinitive clauses of this kind have also been recorded in adjective complementation, modal adjectives such as able being particularly frequent with infinitive-clause complements:

$/Dis_THIS

$bear/n_BEAR+ER $-er/xs-n_+ER

{,}

$be{n}/vpsp{abs}-av_BEY+ING $/vpsp{abs}-av_+ING

$more/av_MOR

$able/aj-cpv>vi-av_AIBLE

$to/im+V_TO

$inform/vi-av<aj-cpv>pr_INFORME

$/P02G_zOUR

$lordship/n{ho}_LO

$of/pr<vi-av_OF

$all/pn_ALL

 

'_*WILLIAME

$will/vm_WILL

$be{n}/vi_BE

$more/av_MOR

$able/aj-cpv>vi-av_AIBLE

$to/im+V_TO

$inform/vi-av<aj-cpv>pr_INFORME

$/P02G_zOUR

$lordship/n{ho}_LO

$full/av_FUL+LIE $-ly/xs-av_+LIE

$thereof/Dat>pr_THAIR+OF $of/pr<Dat<vi-av_+OF

The practice of indicating adverbhood was considered useful for data retrieval purposes.

Nominal clauses are frequently in extraposition (functioning as postponed subjects or objects). Their relation to the formal subject or object is indicated by <S and <O respectively in the grammel of the complementizer (in the case of finite clauses) or that of the infinitive or verbal noun (in the case of non-finite clauses):

$but/cj{ts}_BOT

$/S_ITT

$be{n}/vsjpt13<S+_WAR

$better/aj-cpv_BETTER

$for/pr>vi_FOR

$/P21G_OUR

$master/n{ho}_MAISTER

$to/im+H_TO

$have{n}/vi<pr<S_HAIVE

$/P13OF_HIR

{,}

$with/pr_WITH

{\}

$10/qc_TENN

$1000/qc_THOUSANDE

$good/aj_GOOD

$man/npl-av_MENN

{,}

$in/pr_IN

$/T_THE

;_*PALLATINATT $/n-av_*PALLATINATT

In the example above, the infinitive clause has a subject of its own, introduced by the preposition for. In order to identify these structures in the database, a link has been created using /pr>vi and /vi<pr.

Nominal ing-clauses chiefly occur in prepositional complements in structures discussed in detail in Section 3.3.2.4. In the following example there is a nominal ing-clause with a subject of its own functioning as a prepositional object.

$/P11N_j

$know/vpt>pr-cj_KNEU

$of/pr-cj<v_OF

$/Dis_THIS

$bear/nG_BER+ER $-er/xs-nG_+ER $/Gn_0

{,}

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$come/vn{rc}>pr_COM\+ING $/vn{rc}>pr_+ING

{,}

$to/pr+C<vn_TO

;_* SCOTLAND

There are also ing-clauses with subjects of their own in which this subject permits the clause to be read as a nominative/accusative or genitive. Ambiguity is particularly obvious in abbreviations such as L for 'lordship'. While the link between the ing-form and its subject is indicated by >vn and <n/<npl/<pn/<P_N/<P_O/<pn/<Gpn, etc., the ambiguous cases can be retrieved using tag-external comments such as {n&Gn>vn} or {PO&PN>vn).

$/P11N_j

$can/vm_CAN

$/neg<vm_NOT

$expone/vi_EXPONE

{\}

$/P02G_zOUR

{ins}

{n&Gn>vn}

$lordship/n{ho}>vn_L $/n{ho}>vn_0

{ins}

$/neg>vn_NOCHT

$send/vn{rc}<n_SEND+ING $/vn{rc}<n_+ING

$answer/n{rc}_ANSWER

Nominal ing-clauses are particularly frequent in nominalizations of various kinds of adverbial clauses:

$by/pr_BY

$reason/n-pr>pr-cj_REASON

$of/pr-cj<n-pr_OF

$/P02G_YOUR

$sudden/aj_SUDDEN

{\}

$go/vn{rc}-av>av_GO+ING $/vn{rc}-av>av_+ING

$away/av<vn-av_AWAY

 

$at/pr-cj_AT

$/P13GM_HIS

{\}

$be{n}/vn{rc}-av>pr_*BE+ING $/vn{rc}-av>pr_+ING

$last/av_LAST

$at/pr<vn-av_AT

;_jNWERNESS $/n-av_jNWERNESS