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3.3.2 The noun phrase

The description of tags attached to nominals is divided into three sections:

Appositive structures are discussed in either Section 3.3.2 or 3.3.3, depending on the structural realisation of the two units the structure consists of.

As mentioned in Section 3.2, the CSC tagging system analyses membership of linguistic categories on the basis of discourse function. The concept of nouniness can be illustrated with the following five examples, each of which contains a nominalized adjective:

$right/av_*RY^T

$honour/aj-n{ho}-voc_HON+^LL $-able/xs-aj-n{ho}-voc_+^LL

 

{zero pr}

$/T_YE

$22/qo-n-av>pr_22

$of/pr<qo-n-av_OFF

$/Dis_THIS

$instant/aj-n_INSTANT

 

$/P02G_YOUR

$ladyship/nG{ho}_LA $/Gn{ho}_0

{/}

$late/aj-sup-n_LET+TEST $/aj-sup-n_+TEST

{\}

$be{h}/vpt13<cnp+_WAS

$go/vpp{ptp}>pr_GONE

$to/pr+C<v_TO

$court/n-av_*COURT

 

$/Dis_*THIS

$present/aj-n_PreseNT

$be/vps13<aj-n+_IS

$desire{cause}{lat}/vpsp{prog}_DESYR+ING $/vpsp{prog}_+ING

$/P02O_zOW

$to/im+C_TO

$take/vi-av_TAK

$/T_YE

$pain/npl>vi-av_PEAN+ES $/pln>vi-av_+ES

$to/im+C_TO

$meet/vi-av<npl_MEIT

$/P11O_ME

 

$/T_THE

$innocent/aj-n{coll}_INNOCENT

3.3.2.1 The lexel

Alternative practices as regards the choice of lexel for nouns are primarily available in the case of derivatives. The main practice is to distinguish between English coinages and borrowings; in the former case, the lexel consists of the base, while in the latter it comprises the derivative.

$will/vpsp-aj-n_WILL+ING+ENESSE $/vpsp-aj-n_+ING+ $-ness/xs-vpsp-aj-n_+ENESSE

$commendation/n{rc}_COmMENDACIOUN

While the lexical morphology of the former is made explicit in the lexel (the tagging of the suffix -ness), that of the latter remains unanalysed. The question of which lexical items should be considered productive English coinages has been answered by consulting the Oxford English Dictionary and the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue. Thus, the lexical morphology of nouns directly borrowed from Romance, for instance, has not been described, even though a verb of the same etymological origin may have been recorded later.

The following examples illustrate the practice of repeating all the properties of the noun in the grammels of the various morphemes:

[because of your}

$kind/n{rc}-av_VN+KYND+NES $un-/xp-aj-n{rc}-av_VN+ $-ness/xs-n{rc}-av_+NES

$&/cj_AND

$forgetful/aj-n{rc}-av_FORGET+FULL+NES $-ful/xs-aj-n{rc}-av_+FULL+ $-ness/xs-aj-n{rc}-av_+NES

In the case of unkindness, the lexel is the base, which permits affixation of this kind, whereas in a formation such as forgetfulness, rather than the verb forget, the lexel is the adjectival derivative forgetful, which allows nominalization by means of the suffix -ness. This practice will facilitate research on lexical morphology.

In the case of institutionalized plural forms, the practice is to use the PDE plural in the lexel but provide the morphological analysis in the grammel:

$amends/npl_AMEND+is $/pln_+is

$news/npl_NEW+IS $/pln_+IS

Units in compound nouns are always tagged separately, irrespective of their degree of lexicalization (see also Section 3.3.11):

$gentle/aj>n-k_GENTLE+

$woman/n-k<aj_+WOMAN

 

$home/av>vn-k_HOME

$come/vn{rc}-k<av_COM+ING $/vn{rc}-k<av_+ING

Comments attached to nouns in the lexel are quite rare. However, there are a number of semantic disambiguators, such as {c} 'calendar' in March and May as names of months. Comments attached to verbs, as described in Section 3.3.1.1., also occur with nominal uses of these verbs (e.g., $let{prevent}/vn{rc}_LET+ING).

3.3.2.2 The grammel

Inflectional and derivational morphemes are separated from the base elements by applying the rules described in section 3.3.1 on the verb phrase. Thus, the morphemes in the grammels contain base-final elements which reflect a high degree of variation:

$discharge/npl_DISCHAIRG+ES $/pln_+ES

$expense/npl_EXSPENS+SIS $/pln_+SIS

$folly/npl_FOLE+IS $/pln_+IS

$hope/npl_HOP+S $/pln_+S

$hope/npl_HOP+ES $/pln_+ES

$novel/npl_NOVEL+LIS $/pln_+LIS

$pain/npl_PEAN+ES $/pln_+ES

$pain/npl_PAIN+S $/pln_+S

$particular/npl_ParTICULER+is $/pln_+is

$party/npl_ParTE+IS $/pln_+IS

$spaniard/npl_SPANGzAT+Tis $/pln_+Tis

 

$will/vpsp-aj-n_WILL+ING+ENESSE $/vpsp-aj-n_+ING+ $-ness/xs-vpsp-aj-n_+ENESSE

Since contextual evidence seems to suggest that the word-final ß should be interpreted as a plural morpheme, in order to permit further research on the feature, these instances have been tagged as follows:

$cause/npl_CAUSS+s $/pln_+s

$expense/npl_EXPENSS+s $/pln_+s

Similarly, words with word-final f lourishes have been tagged as possible plural forms:

$pound/nqpl_^LL+^~$/plnq_+^~

Determinative elements such as the definite article are related to nominal uses of items which primarily represent some other category (cf. Section 3.3.3 on pronouns and 3.3.5 on adverbs):

$/P13NM_HE

$will/vm_WILL

$get/vi_GET

$/T>nq_YE

{\}

$less/nq<T_LESSE

THE COMPLEX NOUN PHRASE

The tagging of noun phrases provides information about number, type of premodification in the case of the genitive, and type of postmodification. The elaboration of the grammel permits the retrieval of data which distinguishes between simple and complex noun phrases (for nominal clauses and nominalization, see sections 3.3.3-4). Premodifiers, including the s-genitive and attributives, will have to be retrieved by searching for core properties (e.g. nG or aj), whereas postmodifiers can be identified by the system of arrows between the head and the postmodification. Certain types of premodifying genitive structures require explanation. Plural nouns or pronouns in the genitive have been tagged as follows:

$/P02N_YE

$may/vm_MAY

$get/vi_GET

$other/pnGpl_OTHER+S $/plpnG_+S

{\}

$company/n_COMPANY

 

$after/pr-cj_AFTER

$2/qc_2

{\}

$year/nGpl_YEAR+S $/Gpln_+S

$silence/n{rc}-av_SILENCE

The genitive type consisting of an uninflected noun and an immediately following possessive pronoun is tagged by inserting an initial G- into the grammel of the possessive pronoun to signal the presence of another immediately preceding genitive:

$/T_THE

$skipper/nG_SKEPER $/Gn_0

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$wife/n_WYFF

 

$master/n{tl}_*M^R

'_*GEORG $/nG_*GEORG $/Gn_0

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$brother/n>pr_BROTHER

{\}

$in/pr<n>n_IN

$law/n<pr_LAW

 

$concern/vpsp-pr_conCERN+ING $/vpsp-pr_+ING

$/P11G+C_MY

{\}

$son/nG_*SONE $/Gn_0

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$business/n-av_BISSINES

 

$at/pr_AT

$/P13GM_HIS

$majesty/nG{ho}_M^E $/Gn{ho}_0

{/}

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$hand/npl-av_HAND+is $/pln-av_+is

 

$/T_THE

$marquis/n{tl}>pr_MARQUIS

$of/pr<n_OF

_HUNTLIE $/nG_HUNTLIE $/Gn_0

$/G-P13GM_HIS

$death/n{rc}_DEATH

Postgenitives have the comment {post}:

$/Dis_THIS

$enclose/vpp{pass}-aj_INCLOS+ED $/vpp{pass}-aj_+ED

$letter/n>pr_LETTER

{\}

$of/pr<n_OF

$mistress/n{tl}_MISTRIS

'_MURRAY+S $/nG{post}_MURRAY+S $/Gn{post}_+S

 

$let{cause}{lat}/v-imp_LETT

$/Dir_THIR

$by/av>vpp-aj-k_BY+

$pass/vpp-aj-k<av_+PAST

$folly/npl>pr_FOLE+IS $/pln>pr_+IS

$of/pr<npl_OF

$/P21G{post}_OUR+S $/GP21{post}_+S

{zero im}

$be/vi{-im}-av_BEE

$all/aj<_ALL

{\}

$bury/vpp{pass}_BURI+ED $/vpp{pass}_+ED

Nominal uses of genitives are indicated by the tag -n following the first property in the grammel:

$/P02G_YOUR+ES $/GP02_+ES

{/}

$majesty/nG{ho}-n_M $/Gn{ho}-n_0

{/}

$to{until}/pr+C-cj_TO

$death/n{rc}-av_DAITH

 

$/P02G-n>pr_YRS

$of/pr<PG-n_OF

$/T_THE

!_I7 $/qo-n>pr_I7

$of/pr<qo-n_OF

{\}

$april/n_APRIL

$last/aj{post}_LAST

Elaboration is also intended to create tools for the retrieval of the of-genitive, as well as hereof, thereof and whereof.

$after/pr-cj _EFTER

{\}

$/T_THE

$receipt/n{rc}-av>pr_RESSET

$hereof/Dis>pr_HEIR+OF $of/pr<Dis<n-av_+OF

 

$/T_THE

$price/n>pr_PRYCE

$thereof/Dat>pr_THAIR+OF $of/pr<Dat<n_+OF

$be{n}/vps13<cnp+_IS

$10/qc_TEN

$pound/nqpl_PUND $/plnq_0

 

$2/qc_TUO

$boll/nqpl>pr_BAL+Eis $/plnq>pr_+Eis

$thereof/Dat>pr_THAIR+OF $of/pr<Dat<nqpl_+OF

{zero v>vi}

$to/im+C_TO

$be/vi<v_BE

$pay/vpp{pass}_PAY+ET $/vpp{pass}_+ET

$at/pr_AT

$michaelmas/n-av_*MICHELL\MES

 

$that{purpose}/cj{post}_THAT

$/P11N_j

$may/vm_MAY

$know/vi_KNOWE

$/T_THE

$certainty/n{rc}>pr_CERTANTIE

$thereof/Dat>pr_THER+OFF $of/pr<Dat<n_+OFF

 

$/T_THE

$particular/aj-npl>pr_ParTICULER+is $/aj-pln>pr_+is

$whereof/RO{sent}>pr_Quhar+OFF $of/pr<R<npl_+OFF

The absence of a preposition where it might be expected receives a tag-external comment in structures of the following kind:

$/Dat_THAT

{/}

$3/qc_3

{/}

$boll/nqpl>pr_BOLL+S $/plnq>pr_+S

{\}

{zero pr<nqpl}

$meal/n _MEALE

 

$10/qc_TEN

$pound/nqpl>_PUND $/plnq>_0

{zero pr<nqpl}

$/T_THE

$boll/nq_BALL

In complex noun phrases which include a number of postmodifying elements, links are provided from each of them to the head. It should be noted that postmodifying adverbial constituents (without -av) can be distinguished from those functioning as clause or sentence constituents (with -av).

$/T_THE

$occasion/n>pr-cj_OCCASION

$of/pr-cj<n_OF

$/P11G+C_MY

$write/vn{rc}>pr>pr_VRYT+TIN $/vn{rc}>pr>pr_+TIN

$unto/pr+C<vn_VNTO

{\}

$/P02O_*ZOU

$at/pr<vn_ATT

$/Dis_THIS

$time/n_TYM

Thus, att this tym is related to the nominalization as a PrepP modifier, but tym has the grammel n. In contrast, the same prepositional phrase as a clause- or sentence-level element is not related to any other elements except in the function of a predication adjunct (e.g. The party was at that time ; $at/pr<v); moreover, in these cases the grammel of time is /n-av.

The following examples illustrate prepositional links between the head and the postnominal modifiers:

$observation/npl{rc}>pr>pr_OBSERUA\TION+S $/pln{rc}>pr>pr_+S

$on/pr<npl_ON

$/P13OI_jT

$of/pr<npl_OF

$what/RN-n_WHAT

$be{n}/vps13<R-n+_jS

$want/vpsp-aj_WANT+ING $/vpsp-aj_+ING

 

$/P11G+C_MY

$paper/npl>pr>pr_PAPER+S $/pln>pr>pr_+S

$in/pr<npl_IN

$/Dat_THAT

$affair/n_AFFAIR

{,}

$with/pr<npl_WITH

$/A+V_AN

$information/n{rc}>pr_INFORMA\TION

$about/pr<n_ABOUT

$/P13OI_IT

Infinitive-clause postmodifiers can be distinguished from nominal infinitive clauses in appositive structures; the former are related to the nominal head by <vi or <vi-av, and the latter by the tag-external comment {appositive} and the comment {app} in the grammel of the infinitive (for more information on the latter, see Section 3.3.3 Nominal clauses).

$will/vpsp-aj>vi_WILL+ING $/vpsp-aj>vi_+ING

$to/im+C_TO

$give/vi<vpsp-aj_GIF

$occasion/n>vi-av_OCCASIOUN

$to/im+C_TO

$be{n}/vi-av<n_BE

$any/pn-av_ONY

$worse/av-cpv_WORSs

$use/vpp{pass}_VS+ED $/vpp{pass}_+ED

 

$/P11N_j

$will/vm_WILL

$take/vi_TAK

$/T_THE

$bold/n{rc}>vi-av_BAULD+NES $-ness/xs-n{rc}>vi-av_+NES

$to/im+V_TO

{\}

$entreat/vi-av<n_jNTREAT

 

$/T_YE

$sheriff/n_SHRIFF

$have{n}/vps13<n+_HATH

$power/n>vi-av_POWAR

$to/im+C_TO

$lift/vi-av<n_LIFT

$/T_YE

{\}

$crown/n>npl-k_CROUN

$rent/npl-k<n_RENT+S $/pln-k<n_+S

 

$/P02N_YOU

$will/vm_WILL

$be{n}/vi_BE

$at/pr-cj_AT

$/T_THE

$pain/npl{rc}-av>vi-av_PAIN+S $/pln{rc}-av>vi-av_+S

$to/im+C_TO

$read/vi-av<npl-av_READ

$/P23O_THEM

{\}

 

$/P11N_j

$take/vpt_TEUK

$purpose/n{rc}>vi-av_PURPOSS

$to/im+C_TO

$send/vi-av<n>pr_SEND

$/P13OI_ITT

$by/pr<vi-av_BY

{\}

$/P13OM-av_HIM

 

$/P11G+C_MY

$will/vpsp-aj-n{rc}>vi_WILL+ING+ENESSE $/vpsp-aj-n{rc}>vi_+ING+ENESSE

$-ness/xs-vpsp-aj-n{rc}>vi_+ENESSE

$to/im+C_TO

$perform/vi<vpsp-aj-n_PERFORME

$/P11G+C_MY

$part/n_PART

The use of vi-av instead of vi reflects the semantic profile of nouns that typically precede infinitive clauses; there is variation between, for example, having an occasion to do (something) and having an occasion for doing/for the purpose of doing (something).

Discontinuous complex noun phrases can be identified by the comment {non-ad}, which is attached to the grammel of the first element of the postmodifying sequence (e.g. a preposition or an infinitive).

$only/av{ts}_ONLY

$/Dis-n>pr_YIS

{\}

$/P23N_THAY

$desire/vps23<P+_DESir $/vps23<P+_0

$to/im+H_TO

$have{n}/vi_HAWE

$of/pr{non-ad}<Dis-n_OFF

$/T_THE

$1/qo_FIRST

$pay/n{rc}_PAY+ME^T $-ment/xs-n{rc}_+ME^T

Prepositional complements realised by nominal structures in the complementation of copular (uses of) verbs are marked by arrows between the verb and the preposition:

$neither/neg-av-cj{ts}_NEITHER

{\}

{inversion>}

$be{n}/vps11>P+>pr_AM

$/P11N_j

$of/pr<v_OF

$/T_THE

$opinion/n_OPINION

{appositive}

{zero that{app}}

$/P13NM_HE

$will/vm_WILL

{\}

$do/vi>pr_DOE

$any/pn-aj_ANY

$good/aj-n_GOOD

$to/pr+C<vi_TO

$/Dat_Y^T

$family/n_FAMILY

APPOSITIVE STRUCTURES

This section examines the tagging of appositive structures in which both the first and the second unit are realised by a noun phrase (see Section 3.3.3 for examples of appositive structures in which at least one unit is realised by a nominal clause). Elaboration focuses on non-restrictive appositive structures, since restrictive ones are typically combinations of a title and a person's name, and can therefore be retrieved using the comment {tl} 'title', for example (for the classification of appositives applied here, see Quirk & al. 1985: §§ 17.65-93):

$lord/n{tl}_LORD

_METHVEN

 

$/P11G_MY

$lord/n{tl}_LORD

$earl/n{tl}>pr_ERL

$of/pr<n_OF

_GLENCAIRN

If followed by a name, earl is tagged as a title; in other contexts, the comment is omitted:

$/T_THE

$earl/n_ERLE

$arrive/vpt_ARRIV+ED $/vpt_+ED

In addition to their use as titles, a number of nouns have been recorded in honorific functions:

$/P11N_j

$give/vpt>pr_GAVE

$/P13OI_IT

$to/pr<v_TO

$/P11G+C_MY

$lord/n{ho}_LORD

Non-restrictive appositive structures may have an indicator of the appositive relationship at the beginning of the second unit, corresponding to appositive conjuncts with the meaning 'namely'. These have been tagged as follows:

$/Dat-n{app}_Y^T

{.}

$be{n}/vps13<Dat-n+_IS

 

$to/im+C_TO

$wit/vi{app}_WIT

Non-restrictive appositive structures can be retrieved using either the tag-external comment {appositive} or the comment {app} in the grammel of the head of the second-unit NP structure:

$for/pr_FFOR

{\}

$/T_*THE

$right/av_*RIGHT

$honour/aj_*HONOR+ABLE $-able/xs-aj_+ABLE

{\}

$&/cj_*AND

$most/av_*MOST

$noble/aj-sup_NOBLE

$lady/n{ho}_LADIE

{\}

{appositive}

$/T_*THE

$countess/n{tl}{app}>pr_*COUNTESSE

$of/pr<n_OF

_FFINLATER

 

$/P11G+C_*MY

$well/av>vpp-aj-k_WEL+

$beloved/vpp-aj-k<av_+BELOU+ED $/vpp-aj-k<av_+ED

$uncle/n_WNCLE

{\}

{appositive}

$sir/n{tl}_*S^R

{\}

'_*ROBERT-*GORDOUNE $/n{app}>pr_*ROBERT - *GORDOUNE {\}

$of/pr<n_OF

$/Dat_THAT

$ilk/pn_jLK

{appositive}

$knight/n{app}_*KNY^T

{appositive}

{\}

$baronet/n{app}_*BARONET

{appositive}

$1/qc-n{app}>pr_*ONE

$of/pr<qc-n_OF

$/P13GM_HIS

$majesty/nG{ho}_MAIESTE+IS $/Gn{ho}_+IS

{\}

$privy/aj_PRIWIE

$council/n{coll}>pr_*CUNSALL

$of/pr<n_OF

;_SCOTTLAND

 

{zero pr}

$/Dis_YIS

$sunday/n-av_SONDAY

{\}

{appositive}

$/T_YE

$18/qo-n{app}-av>pr_18

{zero pr<qo-n-av}

$march {c} /n_*MARCHE

It should be mentioned that information about subject-verb concord is given by the comment {app}, which is attached to the grammel of the predicate verb:

'_jHONE-*GRAYE

{appositive}

'_*CREICH+S $/Gn_+S

$brother/n{app}_*BROTHER

$be/vps13<n+{app}_IS

$seek/vpsp{prog}_SICK+ING $/vpsp{prog}_+ING