Reference lines

The lack of a universally established reference line is a problem that plagues most corpora. A corpus is (usually) not a publication, and it can be very difficult to know what the official name of the corpus is, whose names ought to be included, what year (if any) should be mentioned, and what organizations or institutions are or were involved in the project.

Through CoRD, we hope to alleviate the problem by giving corpus compilers a place in which to let colleagues know what they, the compilers, think the reference lines ought to be. The reference lines are to be found in the description of each individual corpus. For quick reference and comparison, we also collect them here. The colourful reality of reference lines is clearly apparent.

Corpus Reference line

ALEC

Advanced Learner English Corpus

Advanced Learner English Corpus (ALEC). Compiled by Tove Larsson. Uppsala University.

APU

APU Writing and Reading Corpus 1979-1988

APU Writing and Reading Corpus 1979-1988 (APU). Compiled by Nuria Yáñez-Bouza (University of Vigo, Spain) and Victorina González-Díaz (University of Liverpool, UK).

ARCHER

A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers

Publications making use of ARCHER shall include a reference to the name of the corpus, the years of compilation, and the compiler team. A suitable bibliographic listing is as follows (with ‘x’ replaced as appropriate):

ARCHER-X = A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers version X. 1990–1993/2002/2007/2010/2013/2016. Originally compiled under the supervision of Douglas Biber and Edward Finegan at Northern Arizona University and University of Southern California; modified and expanded by subsequent members of a consortium of universities. Current member universities are Bamberg, Freiburg, Heidelberg, Helsinki, Lancaster, Leicester, Manchester, Michigan, Northern Arizona, Santiago de Compostela, Southern California, Trier, Uppsala, Zurich. Examples of usage taken from ARCHER were obtained under the terms of the ARCHER User Agreement.

We recommend that individual citations from ARCHER should include the text identifier (filename), e.g. “1722grah_s3b”. The ARCHER version used should be acknowledged with the citation or globally in the bibliography. For examples retrieved at the consortium departments this will be ARCHER 3.2 / 3.1 / 2 / 1, as appropriate; for examples retrieved from the online versions it will be ARCHER 3.2 (Lancaster) or ARCHER 3.2 (Zurich), as appropriate.

BASE

British Academic Spoken English Corpus

British Academic Spoken English Corpus (BASE). The corpus was developed at the Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi and Paul Thompson.

When referring to the BASE corpus in your presentations and publications it is easiest to cite an original publication which describes the project. We recommend: Thompson, P. and Nesi, H. (2001) The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) Corpus Project. Language Teaching Research 5 (3) 263-264

BAWE

British Academic Written English Corpus

British Academic Written English Corpus (BAWE).

Use of the corpus is acknowledged using the following form of words: The data in this study come from the British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus, which was developed at the Universities of Warwick, Reading and Oxford Brookes under the directorship of Hilary Nesi and Sheena Gardner (formerly of the Centre for Applied Linguistics [previously called CELTE], Warwick), Paul Thompson (Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading) and Paul Wickens (Westminster Institute of Education, Oxford Brookes), with funding from the ESRC (RES-000-23-0800).

When referring to the BAWE corpus in your presentations and publications it is easiest to cite an original publication which describes the project. We recommend: Gardner, S. & Nesi, H. (2013) A classification of genre families in university student writing Applied Linguistics 34 (1) 1-29 or Nesi, H. & Gardner, S (2012) Genres across the Disciplines: Student writing in higher education. Cambridge University Press.

B-BROWN

The B-Brown-1931 Corpus

The B-Brown-1931 Corpus (B-BROWN). Project leader Marianne Hundt.

BE06

British English 2006

The British English 2006 corpus (BE06). Compiled by Paul Baker.

BLOB-1931

The BLOB-1931 Corpus

The BLOB-1931 Corpus (BLOB-1931). Project leaders: 1: Geoffrey Leech (University of Lancaster), 2: Paul Rayson (Lancaster University).

BNC

British National Corpus

British National Corpus (BNC). A Standard Corpus of Present-Day Edited American English, for use with Digital Computers (Brown). 1964, 1971, 1979. Compiled by W. N. Francis and H. Kučera. Brown University. Providence, Rhode Island.

BROWN

The Brown corpus

A Standard Corpus of Present-Day Edited American English, for use with Digital Computers (Brown). 1964, 1971, 1979. Compiled by W. N. Francis and H. Kučera. Brown University. Providence, Rhode Island.

CASE

Corpus of Academic Spoken English

Corpus of Academic Spoken English (CASE).

Long citation:
CASE. Forthcoming. Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Stefan Diemer; Marie-Louise Brunner; Caroline Collet; and Selina Schmidt. Saarbrücken: Saarland University (coordination) / Sofia: St Kliment Ohridski University / Forlì: University of Bologna-Forlì / Santiago: University of Santiago de Compostela / Helsinki: Helsinki University & Hanken School of Economics / Birmingham: Birmingham City University / Växjö: Linnaeus University / Lyon: Université Lumière Lyon 2 / Louvain-la-Neuve: Université catholique de Louvain. [http://www.uni-saarland.de/index.php?id=48492] (date of last access).

Short citation:
CASE. Forthcoming. Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Saarbrücken: Saarland University. [http://www.uni-saarland.de/index.php?id=48492] (date of last access).

Single transcript citation:
05HE18FL52. CASE. Forthcoming. Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Saarbrücken: Saarland University. (please also cite CASE)

CC

Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing

Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (CC). Compiled by MUSTE Research Group. Project leader Isabel Moskowich.

Parapar López, Javier & Moskowich, Isabel. 2007. The Coruña Corpus Tool. Revista del Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural, 39: 289–290. http://journal.sepln.org/sepln/ojs/ojs/index.php/pln/article/view/2690

Moskowich, Isabel & Crespo García, Begoña. 2007. Presenting the Coruña Corpus: A Collection of Samples for the Historical Study of English Scientific Writing. In Pérez Guerra, Javier et al. (eds.) ‘Of Varying Language and Opposing Creed’: New Insights into Late Modern English. Bern: Peter Lang (341–357).

Moskowich-Spiegel Fandiño, Isabel & Parapar López, Javier. 2008. Writing Science, Compiling Science. The Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing. In Lorenzo Modia, María Jesús (ed.) Proceedings from the 31st AEDEAN Conference. A Coruña: Universidade da Coruña (531–544).

Crespo García, Begoña & Isabel Moskowich. 2010. CETA in the Context of the Coruña Corpus. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 25(2): 153–164. doi:10.1093/llc/fqp038

CED

A Corpus of English Dialogues 1560-1760

A Corpus of English Dialogues 1560-1760. 2006. Compiled under the supervision of Merja Kytö (Uppsala University) and Jonathan Culpeper (Lancaster University).

CEEC

Corpus of Early English Correspondence

Corpus of Early English Correspondence. 1998. Compiled by Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, Jukka Keränen, Minna Nevala, Arja Nurmi and Minna Palander-Collin at the Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.

CEECE

Corpus of Early English Correspondence Extension

Corpus of Early English Correspondence Extension. Compiled by Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, Samuli Kaislaniemi, Mikko Laitinen, Minna Nevala, Arja Nurmi, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily and Anni Sairio at the Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.

CEECS

Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler

Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler. 1998. Compiled by Jukka Keränen, Minna Nevala, Terttu Nevalainen, Arja Nurmi, Minna Palander-Collin and Helena Raumolin-Brunberg at the Department of English, University of Helsinki.

CEECSU

Corpus of Early English Correspondence Supplement

Corpus of Early English Correspondence Supplement. Compiled by Samuli Kaislaniemi, Mikko Laitinen, Minna Nevala, Terttu Nevalainen, Arja Nurmi, Minna Palander-Collin, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg and Anni Sairio at the Department of English, University of Helsinki.

CEEM

Corpus of Early English Medical Writing

See individual subcorpora

CELiST

A Corpus of English Life Sciences Texts

A Corpus of English Life Sciences Texts (CELiST) is a sub-corpus of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (CC). Forthcoming. Compiled by the MUSTE Research Group.

CEPhiT

A Corpus of English Philosophy Texts

Moskowich, Isabel. 2016. Philosophers and Scientists from the Modern Age: Compiling the Corpus of English Philosophy Texts (CEPhiT). In Moskowich, Isabel et al. (eds.) ‘The Conditioned and the Unconditioned’: Late Modern English Texts on Philosophy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (1–23).

Moskowich, Isabel; Camiña, Gonzalo; Lareo, Inés; Crespo, Begoña (eds.) 2016. ‘The Conditioned and the Unconditioned’: Late Modern English Texts on Philosophy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/z.198/main.

CETA

Corpus of English Texts on Astronomy

Moskowich, Isabel. 2012. CETA as a Tool for the Study of Modern Astronomy in English. In Moskowich, Isabel & Crespo García, Begoña (eds.) Astronomy ‘playne and simple’: The Writing of Science between 1700 and 1900. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (35–56).

Moskowich, Isabel; Crespo, Begoña (eds.) 2012. Astronomy ‘playne and simple’: The Writing of Science between 1700 and 1900. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. http://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/z.173/main.

CHELAR

Corpus of Historical English Law Reports 1535-1999

Corpus of Historical English Law Reports 1535-1999 (CHELAR). Compiled by Paula Rodríguez-Puente, Teresa Fanego (Project Director), María José López-Couso, Belén Méndez-Naya, Paloma Núñez-Pertejo. University of Santiago de Compostela: Research Unit for Variation, Linguistic Change and Grammaticalization, Department of English and German.

CHET

A Corpus of History English Texts

A Corpus of History English Texts (CHET) is a sub-corpus of the Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (CC). Forthcoming. Compiled by the MUSTE Research Group.

CIE

Corpus of Irish English 14th-20th c.

Corpus of Irish English 14th-20th c. (CIE). Compiled by Raymond Hickey and contained in: Hickey, Raymond 2003. Corpus Presenter. Software for language analysis.. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 292 pages with CD-ROM.

CLEP

Corpus of Late 18th c. Prose

Corpus of Late 18th c. Prose (CLEP). The Corpus of late 18c Prose is available without fee for educational and research purposes, but it is not in the public domain. Copyright to the text is retained by the John Rylands University Library of Manchester; copyright to the annotated files is retained by David Denison and Linda van Bergen (© 2002).

CLMETEV

Corpus of Late Modern English Texts

The Corpus of Late Modern English Texts (Extended Version). 2006. Compiled by Hendrik De Smet. Department of Linguistics, University of Leuven.

CLOB

A Brown family corpus of written British English.

Xu, Jiajin & Maocheng Liang. 2013. A tale of two C’s: Comparing English varieties with Crown and CLOB (The 2009 Brown family corpora). ICAME Journal 37: 175–183. http://icame.uib.no/ij37/Pages_175-184.pdf

CMEPV

Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse

Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse (CMEPV). Copyright institution : The Humanities Text Initiative, University of Michigan.

CMSW

Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing

Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing (CMSW). Project leaders John Corbett and Jeremy Smith. © Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing, Glasgow University.

CNNE

Corpus of Nineteenth-century Newspaper English

Corpus of Nineteenth-century Newspaper English (CNNE). Compiled by Erik Smitterberg (Uppsala University.

COCA

Corpus of Contemporary American English

Davies, Mark. (2008–) The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): 520 million words, 1990-present. Available online at http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/

CoER

Corpus of Early English Recipes

Corpus of Early English Recipes (CoER). Forthcoming. Compilers Francisco Alonso-Almeida, Ivalla Ortega-Barrera, Elena Quintana-Toledo.

COERP

Corpus of English Religious Prose

Corpus of English Religious Prose (COERP). Compilers Thomas Kohnen, Tanja Rütten, Ingvilt Marcoe, Kirsten Gather, Dorothee Groeger, Anne Döring, Stefanie Leu.

COHA

Corpus of English Religious Prose

Davies, Mark. (2010-) The Corpus of Historical American English: 400 million words, 1810-2009.

COLMOBAENG

Corpus of Late Modern British and American English Prose

Corpus of Late Modern British and American English Prose (COLMOBAENG). Compiler Teresa Fanego.

CoNE

Corpus of Narrative Etymologies

An appropriate citation is:

A Corpus of Narrative Etymologies compiled by Roger Lass, Margaret Laing, Rhona Alcorn and Keith Williamson [http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/ihd/CoNE/CoNE.html]. Edinburgh: Version 1.1, 2013-, ©The University of Edinburgh.

or:

Lass, Roger, Margaret Laing, Rhona Alcorn, Keith Williamson. 2013- A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150-1325, Version 1.1 [http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/ihd/CoNE/CoNE.html]. Edinburgh: © The University of Edinburgh.

CONTE-pC

Corpus of Early Ontario English, pre-Confederation Section

Corpus of Early Ontario English, pre-Confederation Section (CONTE-pC). Dollinger, Stefan (ed.) 2006. The Corpus of Early Ontario English, pre-Confederation Section (CONTE-pC). Version 0.9. University of Vienna.

COOEE

Corpus of Oz Early English

Corpus of Oz Early English (COEE). The corpus has been compiled by the author as part of a doctoral thesis on the origins of Australian English:

Fritz, Clemens. 2007. From Early English in Australia to Australian English 1788-1900. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

CoSiB

Corpus of Singaporean Blogs

Corpus of Singaporean Blogs (CoSiB) 2006-2010. Copyright by Universität Trier, English Department, Andrea Sand.

CROWN

CROWN Corpus

CROWN Corpus. A Brown family corpus of written American English.

Xu, Jiajin & Maocheng Liang. 2013. A tale of two C’s: Comparing English varieties with Crown and CLOB (The 2009 Brown family corpora). ICAME Journal 37: 175–183. http://icame.uib.no/ij37/Pages_175-184.pdf

CSC

Corpus of Scottish Correspondence

Meurman-Solin, Anneli. 2007. CSC The Corpus of Scottish Correspondence, 1500-1715.

DCPSE

Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English

Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English (DCPSE). Compiled by Professor Bas Aarts (Principal Investigator), Sean Wallis (Senior Research Fellow), Dr Dirk Bury, Lesley Kirk, Yordanka Kostadinova-Kavalova, Dr Ann Law and Gabriel Ozón.

DECTE

Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English

Corrigan, Karen P., Buchstaller, I., Mearns, A.J. and Moisl, H.L. (2012) The Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English. Newcastle University. http://research.ncl.ac.uk/decte/index.htm

DOEC

Dictionary of Old English Corpus

Dictionary of Old English Corpus (DOEC); original release (1981) compiled by Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos, Sharon Butler, and Antonette diPaolo Healey (Toronto: DOE Project 1981); 2009 release compiled by Antonette diPaolo Healey, Joan Holland, Ian McDougall, and David McDougall, with TEI-P5 conformant-version by Xin Xiang (Toronto: DOE Project 2009).

ELFA

English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings

ELFA 2008. The Corpus of English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings. Director: Anna Mauranen. http://www.helsinki.fi/elfa/elfacorpus

EMEMT

Early Modern English Medical Texts

Early Modern English Medical Texts (EMEMT). Taavitsainen Irma, Päivi Pahta, Martti Mäkinen, Turo Hiltunen, Ville Marttila, Maura Ratia, Carla Suhr and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.). CD-ROM. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

ENPC

The English-Norwegian Parallel Corpus

The English-Norwegian Parallel Corpus (1994-1997), Dept. of British and American Studies, University of Oslo. Compiled by Stig Johansson (project leader), Knut Hofland (project leader), Jarle Ebeling (research assistant), Signe Oksefjell (research assistant). http://www.hf.uio.no/ilos/english/services/omc/enpc/

FLOB

The Freiburg-Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus

The Freiburg-LOB Corpus (‘F-LOB’) (original version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

The Freiburg-LOB Corpus (‘F-LOB’) (POS-tagged version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, and Geoffrey Leech, University of Lancaster.

FRED

Freiburg Corpus of English Dialects

for full version: Freiburg Corpus of English Dialects, English Dialects Research Group, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

for FRED-S: Freiburg Corpus of English Dialects (Sampler), English Dialects Research Group, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

FROWN

The Freiburg-Brown Corpus

The Freiburg-Brown Corpus (‘Frown’) (original version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg

The Freiburg-Brown Corpus (‘Frown’) (POS-tagged version) compiled by Christian Mair, Albert Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, and Geoffrey Leech, University of Lancaster

GoogleBooks

Google Books Corpora

Davies, Mark. (2011-) Google Books (American English) Corpus (155 billion words, 1810-2009). Available online at http://googlebooks.byu.edu/.

Citation for Google Books and Culturomics:

Jean-Baptiste Michel*, Yuan Kui Shen, Aviva Presser Aiden, Adrian Veres, Matthew K. Gray, The Google Books Team, Joseph P. Pickett, Dale Hoiberg, Dan Clancy, Peter Norvig, Jon Orwant, Steven Pinker, Martin A. Nowak, and Erez Lieberman Aiden*.  Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books. Science 331 (2011) [Published online ahead of print 12/16/2010].

HARES-CAM

Helsinki Archive of Regional English Speech - Cambridgeshire sampler

HARES-CAM = Helsinki Archive of Regional English Speech - Cambridgeshire sampler. 2010. Compiled by Ahava, Simo, Joseph McVeigh and Anna-Liisa Vasko at the Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki.

To refer to the corpus data, indicate which interview you are citing in parentheses after the excerpt (interviewID-hares). For example:

(1) then used to take the horses home and <pause/> clean them and feed them (cam13-hares).

HC

Helsinki Corpus

The Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (1991). Department of English, University of Helsinki. Compiled by Matti Rissanen (Project leader), Merja Kytö (Project secretary); Leena Kahlas-Tarkka, Matti Kilpiö (Old English); Saara Nevanlinna, Irma Taavitsainen (Middle English); Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg (Early Modern English).

HCOS

Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots

The Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots (1995). Department of English, University of Helsinki. Compiled by Anneli Meurman-Solin.

HD

Helsinki Corpus of British English Dialects

The Helsinki Corpus of British English Dialects (2006). Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki. All the material consists of interviews made by the fieldworkers mentioned below who have full copyright for the material. For permission to use the files, contact Anna-Liisa Vasko (anna-liisa.vasko@helsinki.fi) or Kirsti Peitsara (kirsti.peitsara@helsinki.fi).

ICE

International Corpus of English

International Corpus of English (ICE). The ICE-project is internationally coordinated by by Dr Gerald Nelson at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Reference lines and copyrights according to each corpus. Information found in manual.

ICE-GB

International Corpus of English - Great Britain

International Corpus of English - the British Component (ICE-GB). Coordinated by the Survey of English Usage.

ICE-GBR

International Corpus of English - Gibraltar

Seoane, Elena, Lucía Loureiro-Porto & Cristina Suárez-Gómez. (to appear) "The ICE project looks at Iberia: The International Corpus of Gibraltar English".

ICE-NIG

International Corpus of English - Nigeria

Wunder, Eva-Maria, Holger Voormann, and Ulrike Gut. "The ICE Nigeria corpus project: Creating an open, rich and accurate corpus." ICAME Journal 34 (2010): 78-88.

ICE-SCO

International Corpus of English - Scotland

Schützler, Ole, Ulrike Gut and Robert Fuchs (to appear). New perspectives on Scottish Standard English: Introducing the Scottish component of the International Corpus of English. In Beal, Joan and Sylvie Hancil (eds.). Northern British English (working title). Berlin: de Gruyter.

ICoMEP

Innsbruck Corpus of Middle English Prose

Innsbruck Corpus of Middle English Prose (ICoMEP). A part of the Innsbruck Computer Archive of Machine-Readable English Texts (ICAMET). Project leader Manfred Markus, Universität Innsbruck.

JSCC

The John Swales Conference Corpus

John Swales Conference Corpus (2009). Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan.

LAEME

A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English

An appropriate citation is:

A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150-1325, compiled by Margaret Laing [http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/ihd/laeme2/laeme2.html]. Edinburgh: Version 3.2, 2013, © The University of Edinburgh.

or:

Laing, M. 2013- A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150-1325, Version 3.2 [http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/ihd/laeme2/laeme2.html]. Edinburgh: © The University of Edinburgh.

Citation for the 2008 edition - A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, 1150-1325 [http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/ihd/laeme1/laeme1.html] compiled by Margaret Laing and Roger Lass (Edinburgh: © 2007- The University of Edinburgh).

eLALME

A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English

M. Benskin, M. Laing, V. Karaiskos and K. Williamson. An Electronic Version of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English [http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/ihd/elalme/elalme.html] (Edinburgh: © 2013- The Authors and The University of Edinburgh).

LAMSAS

A Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States

A Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States. Project leaders originally Hans Kurath, later Raven I. MacDavid Jr., William A. Kretzscmar Jr.

Users should indicate in any subsequent publication using LAP data/materials that they have obtained the data/materials from the LAP Web site, and indicate that reproduction, copying, distribution, display, etc., as the case may be, of any LAP data/ materials is governed by the "cost of reproduction" condition.

LC

The Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Tracts

The Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Tracts. 1999. Compiled by Josef Schmied, Claudia Claridge, and Rainer Siemund. (In: ICAME Collection of English Language Corpora (CD-ROM), Second Edition, eds. Knut Hofland, Anne Lindebjerg, Jørn Thunestvedt, The HIT Centre, University of Bergen, Norway.)

LCoICAMET

The Letter Corpus of ICAMET

The Letter Corpus of ICAMET (LCoICAMET). A part of the Innsbruck Computer Archive of Machine-Readable English Texts (ICAMET). Project leader Markus Manfred, Universität Innsbruck.

LEME

Lexicons of Early Middle English

Lexicons of Early Modern English. Ed. Ian Lancashire. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Library and University of Toronto Press, 2014. Date consulted: [date month year]. URL: leme.library.utoronto.ca

LLC

London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English

London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English. Project leader Jan Svartvik, Lund University.

LMEMT

Late Modern English Medical Texts

Late Modern English Medical Texts (LMEMT). Taavitsainen Irma, Päivi Pahta, Turo Hiltunen, Ville Marttila, Raisa Oinonen, Maura Ratia, Carla Suhr and Jukka Tyrkkö (eds.).

LModE

Corpus of Late Modern English Prose

Corpus of Late Modern English Prose. Compiled by David Denison (project leader), Linda van Berger, Graeme Trousdale.

LOB

The Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus

The LOB Corpus, original version (1970-1978), compiled by Geoffrey Leech, Lancaster University, Stig Johansson, University of Oslo (project leaders), and Knut Hofland, University of Bergen (head of computing).

The LOB Corpus, POS-tagged version (1981-1986), compiled by Geoffrey Leech, Lancaster University, Stig Johansson, University of Oslo (project leaders), Roger Garside, Lancaster University, and Knut Hofland, University of Bergen (heads of computing).

Malaga

Malaga Corpus of Late Middle English Scientific Prose

Malaga Corpus of Late Middle English Scientific Prose. Developed at the University of Málaga in collaboration with researchers from the universities of Murcia, Oviedo, Jaén and Glasgow. Project leaders Javier Calle-Martín, Antonio Miranda-Garcia (until 2012).

MEG-C

Middle English Grammar project

MEG-C Base, version 2009.1", The Middle English Grammar Corpus, Merja Stenroos, Martti Mäkinen, Simon Horobin, Jeremy Smith (compilers), December 2009, University of Stavanger, accessed [date], http://www.uis.no/research/culture/the_middle_english_grammar _project/meg-c_base/.

MEMT

Middle English Medical Texts

2005. Middle English Medical Texts. Taavitsainen Irma, Päivi Pahta and Martti Mäkinen (eds.). CD-ROM. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

MICASE

Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English

Simpson, R. C., S. L. Briggs, J. Ovens, and J. M. Swales. (2002) The Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan.

MICUSP

Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers

Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers. (2009). Ann Arbor, MI: The Regents of the University of Michigan.

MOECS

Corpus of Multilingual Opinion Essays by College Students

Okugiri, M., Ijuin, I., Komori, K. 2015. The Corpus of Multilingual Opinion Essays by College Students. RETRIEVED from http://www.u-sacred-heart.ac.jp/okugiri/links/moecs/moecs.html

NECTE

Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English

The Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English.

OBC

Old Bailey Corpus

Huber, Magnus; Nissel, Magnus; Maiwald, Patrick; Widlitzki, Bianca. 2012. The Old Bailey Corpus. Spoken English in the 18th and 19th centuries. www1.uni-giessen.de/oldbaileycorpus, [date of access].

Users who wish to cite material from the Old Bailey Corpus Online Website in publications should provide the URL (www1.uni-giessen.de/oldbaileycorpus) and the date on which the website was consulted. To cite concordance material obtained by searching a corpus in the Old Bailey Corpus suite (online or offline), include the version of the corpus used as well as the trial ID provided in the online concordances or in the <speech> or <trial> tags. For more information, see the Citation guide

PCEEC

Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence

Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence, parsed version. 2006. Annotated by Ann Taylor, Arja Nurmi, Anthony Warner, Susan Pintzuk, and Terttu Nevalainen. Compiled by the CEEC Project Team. York: University ofYork and Helsinki: University of Helsinki. Distributed through the OxfordText Archive.

Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence, tagged version. 2006. Annotated by Arja Nurmi, Ann Taylor, Anthony Warner, Susan Pintzuk, and Terttu Nevalainen. Compiled by the CEEC Project Team. York: University of York and Helsinki: University of Helsinki. Distributed through the Oxford Text Archive.

Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence, text version. 2006. Compiled by Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, Jukka Keränen, Minna Nevala, Arja Nurmi and Minna Palander-Collin, with additional annotation by Ann Taylor. Helsinki: University of Helsinki and York: University of York. Distributed through the Oxford Text Archive.

PPCEME

The Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English

Kroch, Anthony, Beatrice Santorini, and Lauren Delfs. 2004. Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/hist-corpora/PPCEME-RELEASE-3/index.html

PPCMBE

The Penn Parsed Corpus of Modern British English

Kroch, Anthony, Beatrice Santorini and Ariel Diertani. 2010. Penn Parsed Corpus of Modern British English. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/hist-corpora/PPCMBE-RELEASE-1/index.html

PPCME2

The Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English, second edition

Kroch, Anthony, and Ann Taylor. 2000. Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English, second edition. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/hist-corpora/PPCME2-RELEASE-4/index.html

QHC

Quaker Historical Corpus

Quaker Historical Corpus (QHC). 2015. Compiled by Judith Roads at the University of Birmingham. http://www.woodbrooke.org.uk/pages/quaker-historical-corpus.html

RCN1

Rostock Newspaper Corpus

Compiled by Friedrich Ungerer, Kristina Schneider, Birte Bös at Rosctock University.

SC

Salamanca Corpus. Digital Archive of English Dialect Texts

Copyright © 2011-DING, The Salamanca Corpus, Universidad de Salamanca

SCEPA

Small Corpus of English Political Apologies

Small Corpus of English Political Apologies (SCEPA). 2017. Compiled by Halyna Liubinska. Lviv Polytechnic National University.

SCONE

Seville Corpus of Northern English

Seville Corpus of Northern English (SCONE). Project leader Dra. Julia Fernández Cuesta, Departamento de Lengua Inglesa, Universidad de Sevilla.

SCOTS

Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech

Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech (2007). Department of English Language, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

SCPS

Small Corpus of Political Speeches

Small Corpus of Political Speeches (SCPS). Compiled under the supervision of Jukka Tyrkkö (University of Helsinki).

TIME

Time Corpus

Davies, Mark. (2007–) TIME Magazine Corpus (100 million words, 1920s-2000s). Available online at http://corpus.byu.edu/time.

VOICE

Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English

The recommended citation for VOICE 1.0 Online is:

VOICE. 2009. The Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (version 1.0 online). Director: Barbara Seidlhofer; Researchers: Angelika Breiteneder, Theresa Klimpfinger, Stefan Majewski, Marie-Luise Pitzl. http://voice.univie.ac.at (date of last access).

The short citation for VOICE 1.0 Online is:

VOICE. 2009. The Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (version 1.0 online). http://voice.univie.ac.at (date of last access).

WestLabUSENET

Reduced redundancy USENET corpus

Shaoul, C. & Westbury C. (2013) A reduced redundancy USENET corpus (2005-2011) Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta (downloaded from http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~westburylab/downloads/usenetcorpus.download.html)

WomenScientists

A Corpus of Women Scientists

The Corpus of Women Scientists is a subcorpus of The Coruña Corpus of English Scientific Writing (CC). Forthcoming.

YCCQA

Yahoo-based Contrastive Corpus of Questions and Answers

Contrastive Corpus of Questions and Answers. 2009. Compiled by Hendrik De Smet. Department of Linguistics, University of Leuven.

YCOE

York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose

Taylor, A., A. Warner, S. Pintzuk, and F. Beths. (2003). The York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose. Electronic texts and manuals available from the Oxford Text Archive.

ZEN

Zurich English Newspaper corpus

ZEN, Zurich English Newspaper Corpus Version 1.0. English Department of the University of Zurich. http://es-zen.unizh.ch.